Upset Prevention & Recovery Training

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1 Upset Prevention & Recovery Training APATS Conference Bangkok, Thailand 20 September 2011 Dr. Sunjoo K. Advani Chairman of ICATEE 1 Royal Aeronautical Society Flight Simulation Group

2 Take-Away Loss of Control In Flight has become the number-one cause of aviation fatalities There is no straightforward technical solution LOC-I can be mitigated through properly delivered Upset Prevention and Recovery Training (UPRT) As there is no single training solution or tool for UPRT, integrated academics, simulator and in-flight training are required Training-driven improvements to flight simulators required 2

3 Outline The need The approach Training Requirements Analysis Challenges Solutions Implementation Conclusions 3

4 The need Loss-of-Control fatalities have risen despite improvements in aircraft design, and existing training 4

5 Loss-of-Control Statistics CFIT was the leading cause of fatalities 5

6 Loss-of-Control Statistics E-GPWS 6

7 Fatalities statistics

8 8

9 Airplane upset causes 30,0 22,5 Lambregts, et al, Airplane Upsets - Old Problem, New Issues. In Proc. of AIAA Modeling & Simulation Technologies Conf., Honolulu, Aug 2008, AIAA CP. Number of incidents, ,0 7,5 0 Stall FCS SD Icing AD Other FCS = Flight Control System SD = Spatial Disorientation AD = Atmospheric Disturbance 9

10 why? 10

11 What is happening? Pilots are well trained Aircraft have protection systems: stick shakers audible warnings stick pushers envelope protection angle-of-attack indications (in many cases) Upsets still occurring 11

12 Spring 2009 Flight Simulation Conference Flight Simulation: Towards the Edge of the Envelope Wednesday 3 - Thursday 4 June 2009 No.4 Hamilton Place, London W1J 7BQ Image Copyright Sunjoo Advani, IDT Image courtesy of TNO, The Netherlands Image courtesy from Saab Aerosystems, Sweden Photographer: Geoff Lee Copyright Gripen International CALL FOR PAPERS 12

13 What is happening? 13

14 Turkish Air Schiphol, Amsterdam 25 February

15 introducing... Upset Prevention and Recovery Training 15

16 ICATEE International Committee for Aviation Training in Extended Envelopes Initiated by RAeS Flight Simulation Group in June 2009 AIM: Upset Prevention and Recovery Training MISSION: To deliver a comprehensive long-term strategy to reduce the rate of Loss of Control In-Flight accidents and incidents through enhanced UPRT Provide recommendations to ICAO 16

17 ICATEE Participants Category Participants Organization Airframe Manufacturer Regulator/Government Training Provider Simulation Provider Industry Bodies Airline Research RAeS-FSG, ICAO Boeing, Airbus, Bombardier FAA, NTSB, IATA (ITQI), Transport Canada, EASA, Russian CAA CAE, FlightSafety, Boeing Flight Training, APS, CALSPAN, Embry-Riddle CAE, FlightSafety, Thales, Opinicus, ETC, Bihrle ALPA, IFALPA, ATA, BBGA KLM, Alaska, Flybe, FedEx, Air Canada AIAA MSTC, NASA, UTIAS, NLR, TNO, IDT, DLR, U Liverpool, SOS, Volpe 40 organizations, over 80 individuals 17

18 the dream team 18

19 Training Requirements Objectives Skills for awareness, prevention, and recovery from actual upsets Gaps Demographics (non-military background) Training errors (minimum-altitude loss, inappropriate use of FFS) Managing automation Current Means Academics Basic flight training Simulator upset training 18

20 Findings Simulators have replaced aircraft for most training; efficient, effective and safe In UPRT, there is no single tool for optimum training - each has limitations and advantages UPRT Requires Integrated Training Elements 20

21 Element 1 - Academics Airplane Upset Recovery Training Aid Provides thorough academic training Industry consensus of this document (1998) Current Limitations Swept-wing jets 100+ passengers Perhaps too large to absorb Non-regulated Airline-operations only Non airline-specific Periodically updated 21

22 Limitations of Academics Exposure to the flight environment and control Realism of the flight-deck environment Startle, which can cause incorrect response delayed response NO response 22

23 23

24 Element 2 - Airplane Exposure to Psychological component Physiological component Accurate recovery environment Require qualified aircraft and instructors 24

25 Element 3 - Simulator Most commonly-used training tool Current Limitations Aerodynamics in fully-developed stall g-cueing limits Motion cueing and testing criteria Qualification requirements do not specify UPRT elements 25

26 AVOID NEGATIVE TRAINING 26 10

27 Stall modelling CL Stall Stick pusher (if available) Stall warning Normal Flight Approach to Stall Fully-Developed Stall α 27

28 Learning objective - post-stall regime Recovery technique: unloading Managing angle-of-attack Recognizing signs: buffet reduced lateral control reduced stability 28

29 Simulator Upset Recognition and Recovery Evaluation Provides instructors and pilots with feedback tools: validation envelope flight control input aircraft limitations 29

30 ICATEE Training Recommendations (proposed) 3 - Recurrent 2 - Specific 1 - Generic Scenario-Based + Refresher Training applied skills & knowledge Academics + Sims (MOFT + LOFT) specific skills & knowledge Academics + On-Aircraft generic skills & knowledge Type-Rating CPL 30

31 Conclusions Upset prevention alone is not enough Proficiency for recovery also needed Integration of academics + simulator + in-flight training Representative post-stall models Real-time IOS feedback for UPRT Scenarios that invoke surprise factor (we have 20) Buffet fidelity & motion cueing Upset entry conditions Managing automation in new-generation aircraft 31

32 Manual Handling Skills Degradation Systems Knowledge AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document. Manual Handling Motion Cueing - A Pilot s Best Friend career path 32

33 ... the future 33

34 The future What will not change? AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document. 34

35 35

36 36

TRAINING GROUP EXECUTIVE SUMMARY PLANNED DELIVERABLES, TIMELINE AND OPEN ISSUES ICATEE, LONDON, JUNE 7-8 2010

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