# Maps are an excellent means of presenting statistical information. Not only are they visually attractive, they also:

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Maps are an excellent means of presenting statistical information. Not only are they visually attractive, they also:"

## Transcription

1 Statistical Maps: Best Practice Why draw a map? Maps are an excellent means of presenting statistical information. Not only are they visually attractive, they also: make it easier for users to relate data to location; and help users to identify geographic trends in the data, in a way which would be difficult using a chart or a table. When a map is less suitable Maps are for demonstration (i.e. display) purposes rather than as a source of reference material. They are excellent for showing geographic patterns but are poor for providing precise values with which users can do their own calculations. Such reference material is much better presented in a table (although you could do both a map and a table if required). Types of statistical map There are three main types of statistical map: Choropleth (colour shaded) maps. This is the most common type, and is especially appropriate for showing standardised data such as rates, densities or percentages. A different colour is used for each of a number of bands, allowing users to identify which areas have high, low or middling values. Proportional symbol maps. These use symbols that are proportional in size to the values they represent, such that the biggest symbol will fall in the area with the highest value. Symbols can include circles, bars, or objects indicating what is being measured. This type of map is better for count data. Dot maps. Individual events or groups of events are marked with a dot, allowing users to geographic patterns such as clusters. The most famous use of this technique was by Dr John Snow, who mapped cholera deaths in an outbreak in London in 1854 and was able to show that they were concentrated around a particular water pump.* * Note that dot maps are not generally suitable for Neighbourhood Statistics data see note later. 1

2 This document considers some general good practice in mapping, and some particulars relating to each of the main types of map. Design principles for all maps Clear title (supported by relevant footnotes if appropriate). Indicate the geographic areas used. Indicate the time period(s) both of the data and of the currency of the geographic boundaries (eg 1990 data presented to 2005 boundaries). Include a key to explain what is meant by the colours on the map, the different sizes of symbol etc. Ensure the ranges on the key do not overlap (So don t use 0-5 and 5-10, for example. Otherwise, how would you show an area with value 5? Better ranges would be 0-4 and 5-9). Indicate data source. Textual summary. The key message(s) of your map should also be summarised in words. Your map should be as large as is necessary to show everything clearly. If you are showing data for smaller areas (such as local authorities) you will probably need a larger map than if you were showing region-level data. You may not wish to label each of the areas shown on the map as this might make the page too cluttered and obscure the statistics. However, as an alternative, you may wish to consider publishing a separate reference map containing just area names and boundaries. Choropleth (colour shaded) maps Choose an appropriate number of classes for your data, and also how to divide them. There are a number of possibilities here. For example: o Equal ranges eg classes take values 0-9, etc. o Percentiles. For example, you could use quintiles whereby the bottom 20% of values fall into one class, the next 20% into another etc. o Polarised ranges, whereby categories cluster towards one (or both) ends of the range of values. For example, if you were highlighting deprivation you might decide that the most prosperous 80% of areas are one shade, but the most deprived areas are highlighted by having different shades for the worst 20%, 10% and 5% of areas. o Natural breaks in the data. If data values tend to cluster into distinct groups, you may wish to adjust the ranges such that all those areas falling into a particular group are shaded in the same colour. Most Geographic Information Systems (GIS) offer a range of ways of doing this. Make sure that the one you choose is appropriate to the data you are showing. Note that having too many classes is bad practice as it makes the map too complicated and colours harder to pick out. Five or six classes is usually ample. Appropriate choice of colours. There are a number of aspects to this too: o It is best to have a gradation of colour along a range, rather than having completely unrelated colours for each category. Note however that it is not 2

3 easy for readers to distinguish more than four shades of one colour. o In general, use light colours for low values and darker ones for high values. Also be aware that in some cases certain colours may have natural associations - for example, red and debt. o White is generally used to indicate areas where data are missing or unavailable. It is therefore inadvisable to use white to represent any part of your range of actual values. Proportional symbol maps This sort of map is good for showing big and small, and giving an idea of where events are concentrated, but is less effective for comparison across a range. This is because it is very difficult for the human eye to interpret the relative size of two-dimensional objects (although a good key will help here). It is important that the symbols you use are genuinely proportional to the value being mapped. A value twice as high needs a symbol with double the surface area, not a doubling of each dimension. Consider that if you double both the height and width of anything, the area becomes four times larger, which would give a very misleading visual impression. Dot maps Geographic Information Systems (GIS) offer aggregated dot maps, which take the aggregate statistic for a given area and randomly scatter an appropriate number of dots across it. It would be possible to do this with Neighbourhood Statistics data, but you should not do so. Such maps are misleading and are not true dot maps. A true dot map will only mark data at the exact location of occurrence. Neighbourhood Statistics datasets do not generally provide locations of individual data events, but instead aggregate them into standard areas (such as Super Output Areas and local authorities). This means that you will not be able to produce dot maps of Neighbourhood Statistics data. You may, however, produce dot maps based on the datasets containing grid references for the location of services such as doctors, dentists and schools. Map dangers Although maps are a valuable means of data presentation, there are some pitfalls in the way they may be interpreted: They may exaggerate the difference between areas. Suppose the dividing line between two classes on a choropleth map is 20%. Then suppose, for the variable in question, that area A has a rate of 19.95% and B has one of 20.05%. This is very little difference in reality, but their different colouring on the map might be interpreted otherwise. This is a reason why it is often useful to make the data available in a table too. As different geographic areas vary greatly in both size and population, presenting maps of count data (either choropleth or graduated symbol) can be misleading. The human mind will often associate dark colours or large symbols with a high likelihood of the variable in question, but they may have more to do with the simple 3

4 fact that the area has a large overall population. For this reason it is often more appropriate to map using standardised data such as rates or percentages. The Tyne & Wear example on page 7 is a good example. The fact that some geographic units are much larger than others means their colours can dominate a choropleth map. For example, rural local authorities are often large, whereas urban authorities tend to have a much smaller area. This means that if one end of a range of values is common in rural areas, and the other in urban, the colour of the typically rural characteristic might misleadingly dominate the map. Although this is inevitable you can reduce the effect by choosing nondominant colours, and your textual summary might usefully highlight the urbanrural distinction. Be aware of how the areas you use can substantially alter the visual impact of a map. For example, a neighbourhood with a particularly high crime rate might really stand out on a map if the boundaries approximate to those of the neighbourhood. However, if the boundaries used happened to combine the neighbourhood with an adjacent area of particularly low crime, the presence of the hotspot could be lost. Don t assume that the default values suggested by your GIS (for choropleth map ranges, for example) are necessarily the best. Always examine the data and its context to see if it could be presented in a better way, and adjust the settings on your GIS accordingly. Mapping Examples Choropleth map Source: Regional Trends 2004, Office for National Statistics 4

5 Population mapping using proportional symbols Source: Extract from an Office for National Statistics map Presenting count data: Choropleth vs proportional symbol The map extracts overleaf show the amount of spending by overseas residents in The graduated symbol map is preferable as it overcomes the distortion caused by large blocks of colour (eg Northern Ireland, and the Highland area of Scotland). Note too that the first map has a geographically incorrect title (Northern Ireland and the Isle of Man are not part of Great Britain). In addition the note below the key is poorly worded - how should the user interpret the shading on Shetland and Eilean Siar (Western Isles)? 5

6 Choropleth Proportional symbol 6

7 Choropleth maps: comparison of count data vs rate data: Tyne & Wear, Population by Ward, 2001 Source: Office for National Statistics The left hand map uses count data i.e. the number of people in each ward. However, the wards with larger populations are often larger in extent so no settlement pattern is obvious. Much better is the right hand map showing population density from this the settlement pattern is obvious, with towns such as Newcastle, Gateshead, South Shields and Sunderland clearly visible. Selective use of naming on a choropleth map Source: Jason Dykes, 2005 (gicentre, City University, London), with kind permission. 7

8 You wouldn t normally provide labels for areas on a choropleth map they generally add clutter and make the map harder to read. In this case, however, appropriate use of selected labels (and values) provides useful extra information drawing the reader s attention to those wards with a particular crime problem. 8

### Understanding crime hotspot maps

NSW Bureau of Crime Statistics and Research Bureau Brief Issue paper no. 60 April 2011 Understanding crime hotspot maps Melissa Burgess The distribution of crime across a region is not random. A number

More information

### How to Excel with CUFS. Part 3. Course Manual. Finance Training

How to Excel with CUFS Part 3 Course Manual Finance Training Contents 1 Financial Information 1.1 Data vs. Information 2 1.2 Attributes of Quality Information 2 2 Pivot Tables 2.1 What are they? 4 2.2

More information

### Presenting numerical data

Student Learning Development Presenting numerical data This guide offers practical advice on how to incorporate numerical information into essays, reports, dissertations, posters and presentations. The

More information

### Introduction. One of the most convincing and appealing ways in which statistical results may be presented is through diagrams and graphs.

Introduction One of the most convincing and appealing ways in which statistical results may be presented is through diagrams and graphs. Just one diagram is enough to represent a given data more effectively

More information

### Presentation of data

2 Presentation of data Using various types of graph and chart to illustrate data visually In this chapter we are going to investigate some basic elements of data presentation. We shall look at ways in

More information

### Chapter 10: Graphs, Good and Bad

Chapter 10: Graphs, Good and Bad Thought Question Source: Fox News What is confusing or misleading about the pie chart? It doesn t add up to 100%. Thought Question Lanacane What is confusing or misleading

More information

### Investigation of the Electoral Register as a possible replacement source of household statistics

Investigation of the Electoral Register as a possible replacement source of household statistics Contents 1. Summary of main findings... 1 2. Purpose... 1 3. Background... 2 4. Results... 2 5. Future steps...

More information

### Using SPSS 20, Handout 3: Producing graphs:

Research Skills 1: Using SPSS 20: Handout 3, Producing graphs: Page 1: Using SPSS 20, Handout 3: Producing graphs: In this handout I'm going to show you how to use SPSS to produce various types of graph.

More information

### Business Statistics & Presentation of Data BASIC MATHEMATHICS MATH0101

Business Statistics & Presentation of Data BASIC MATHEMATHICS MATH0101 1 STATISTICS??? Numerical facts eg. the number of people living in a certain town, or the number of cars using a traffic route each

More information

### Good graphs clearly show the important features of the data. They should always have: a title labelled axes a key.

Good and bad graphs. Good graphs clearly show the important features of the data. They should always have: a title labelled axes a key. In general they should tell a story and be memorable but also have

More information

### Data Visualization Best Practices Guide. Copyright 2016 Yellowfin International Pty Ltd

Data Visualization Best Practices Guide 1 Data Visualization Best Practices Why visualize data? Page 3 #1 Choose the right chart type Tell the story in your data Page 4-11 #2 #3 #4 Format style Make your

More information

### Demographics of Atlanta, Georgia:

Demographics of Atlanta, Georgia: A Visual Analysis of the 2000 and 2010 Census Data 36-315 Final Project Rachel Cohen, Kathryn McKeough, Minnar Xie & David Zimmerman Ethnicities of Atlanta Figure 1: From

More information

### Symbolizing your data

Symbolizing your data 6 IN THIS CHAPTER A map gallery Drawing all features with one symbol Drawing features to show categories like names or types Managing categories Ways to map quantitative data Standard

More information

### GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS Lecture 05: Data Classification

GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS Lecture 05: Data Classification Types of Quantitative Thematic Maps (from last lecture) Demonstration: 48states > Layer Properties dialog box > Symbology tab - used to control

More information

### Visualization Quick Guide

Visualization Quick Guide A best practice guide to help you find the right visualization for your data WHAT IS DOMO? Domo is a new form of business intelligence (BI) unlike anything before an executive

More information

### What is GIS? Geographic Information Systems. Introduction to ArcGIS. GIS Maps Contain Layers. What Can You Do With GIS? Layers Can Contain Features

What is GIS? Geographic Information Systems Introduction to ArcGIS A database system in which the organizing principle is explicitly SPATIAL For CPSC 178 Visualization: Data, Pixels, and Ideas. What Can

More information

### GIS Tutorial 1. Lecture 2 Map design

GIS Tutorial 1 Lecture 2 Map design Outline Choropleth maps Colors Vector GIS display GIS queries Map layers and scale thresholds Hyperlinks and map tips 2 Lecture 2 CHOROPLETH MAPS Choropleth maps Color-coded

More information

### CSU, Fresno - Institutional Research, Assessment and Planning - Dmitri Rogulkin

My presentation is about data visualization. How to use visual graphs and charts in order to explore data, discover meaning and report findings. The goal is to show that visual displays can be very effective

More information

### Graphical methods for presenting data

Chapter 2 Graphical methods for presenting data 2.1 Introduction We have looked at ways of collecting data and then collating them into tables. Frequency tables are useful methods of presenting data; they

More information

### Introduction to Geographical Data Visualization

perceptual edge Introduction to Geographical Data Visualization Stephen Few, Perceptual Edge Visual Business Intelligence Newsletter March/April 2009 The important stories that numbers have to tell often

More information

### Creating Charts in Microsoft Excel A supplement to Chapter 5 of Quantitative Approaches in Business Studies

Creating Charts in Microsoft Excel A supplement to Chapter 5 of Quantitative Approaches in Business Studies Components of a Chart 1 Chart types 2 Data tables 4 The Chart Wizard 5 Column Charts 7 Line charts

More information

### Social Return on Investment

Social Return on Investment Valuing what you do Guidance on understanding and completing the Social Return on Investment toolkit for your organisation 60838 SROI v2.indd 1 07/03/2013 16:50 60838 SROI v2.indd

More information

### Digital Image Processing. Prof. P. K. Biswas. Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering

Digital Image Processing Prof. P. K. Biswas Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Lecture - 28 Colour Image Processing - III Hello,

More information

### Poverty among ethnic groups

Poverty among ethnic groups how and why does it differ? Peter Kenway and Guy Palmer, New Policy Institute www.jrf.org.uk Contents Introduction and summary 3 1 Poverty rates by ethnic group 9 1 In low income

More information

### Presentation of Data

ECON 2A: Advanced Macroeconomic Theory I ve put together some pointers when assembling the data analysis portion of your presentation and final paper. These are not all inclusive, but are things to keep

More information

### Presenting statistical information Graphs

Presenting statistical information Graphs Introduction This document provides guidelines on how to create meaningful, easy to read and well-formatted graphs for use in statistical reporting. It contains

More information

### Data Visualization Handbook

SAP Lumira Data Visualization Handbook www.saplumira.com 1 Table of Content 3 Introduction 20 Ranking 4 Know Your Purpose 23 Part-to-Whole 5 Know Your Data 25 Distribution 9 Crafting Your Message 29 Correlation

More information

### Adult Obesity and Socioeconomic Status

NOO data factsheet Adult Obesity and Socioeconomic Status September 2012 Key points The relationship between obesity prevalence and socioeconomic status can be examined in different ways. This briefing

More information

### 31 Misleading Graphs and Statistics

31 Misleading Graphs and Statistics It is a well known fact that statistics can be misleading. They are often used to prove a point, and can easily be twisted in favour of that point! The purpose of this

More information

### Biostatistics: A QUICK GUIDE TO THE USE AND CHOICE OF GRAPHS AND CHARTS

Biostatistics: A QUICK GUIDE TO THE USE AND CHOICE OF GRAPHS AND CHARTS 1. Introduction, and choosing a graph or chart Graphs and charts provide a powerful way of summarising data and presenting them in

More information

### Modifying Colors and Symbols in ArcMap

Modifying Colors and Symbols in ArcMap Contents Introduction... 1 Displaying Categorical Data... 3 Creating New Categories... 5 Displaying Numeric Data... 6 Graduated Colors... 6 Graduated Symbols... 9

More information

### UK application rates by country, region, constituency, sex, age and background. (2015 cycle, January deadline)

UK application rates by country, region, constituency, sex, age and background () UCAS Analysis and Research 30 January 2015 Key findings JANUARY DEADLINE APPLICATION RATES PROVIDE THE FIRST RELIABLE INDICATION

More information

### Distribution Displays, Conventional and Potential

Distribution Displays, Conventional and Potential Stephen Few, Perceptual Edge Visual Business Intelligence Newsletter July/August/September 1 We can graphically display how a set of quantitative values

More information

### How To: Colour geographic feature locations and different types of attributes using ArcMap 9.3

How To: Colour geographic feature locations and different types of attributes using ArcMap 9.3 This paper aims at giving a brief introduction to the diverse colour scheme and to the great amount of colouring

More information

### Chapter 2 - Graphical Summaries of Data

Chapter 2 - Graphical Summaries of Data Data recorded in the sequence in which they are collected and before they are processed or ranked are called raw data. Raw data is often difficult to make sense

More information

### Excel Types of charts and their uses.

Microsoft Excel supports many types of charts to help you display data in ways that are meaningful to your audience. When you create a chart or change the type of an existing chart in Microsoft Excel or

More information

### Updates to Graphing with Excel

Updates to Graphing with Excel NCC has recently upgraded to a new version of the Microsoft Office suite of programs. As such, many of the directions in the Biology Student Handbook for how to graph with

More information

### Data Visualization Best Practice. Sophie Sparkes Data Analyst

Data Visualization Best Practice Sophie Sparkes Data Analyst http://graphics.wsj.com/infectious-diseases-and-vaccines/ http://blogs.sas.com/content/jmp/2015/03/05/graph-makeover-measles-heat-map/ http://graphics.wsj.com/infectious-diseases-and-vaccines/

More information

### INFORM A TION TECHNOLOGY SERVICES MICROSOFT EXCEL Level 3 PivotTables & Charts LEARNING GUIDE

INFORM A TION TECHNOLOGY SERVICES MICROSOFT EXCEL 2010 Level 3 PivotTables & Charts LEARNING GUIDE Course Overview Welcome Information Technology Services is happy to provide you with this training opportunity.

More information

### DATA VISUALISATION. A practical guide to producing effective visualisations for research communication

DATA VISUALISATION A practical guide to producing effective visualisations for research communication Rebecca Wolfe, 2014 Research Uptake Manager, RESYST Consortium London School of Hygiene & Tropical

More information

### GIS Procedural Guide Create a 3D Scene in ArcScene 9.2+ Created by Steve Zuppa, Map Library Assistant - Serge A. Sauer Map Library, 2008

GIS Procedural Guide Create a 3D Scene in ArcScene 9.2+ Created by Steve Zuppa, Map Library Assistant - Serge A. Sauer Map Library, 2008 Introduction Three-dimensional visualization is rapidly becoming

More information

### Appendix C: Graphs. Vern Lindberg

Vern Lindberg 1 Making Graphs A picture is worth a thousand words. Graphical presentation of data is a vital tool in the sciences and engineering. Good graphs convey a great deal of information and can

More information

### An Online Census Atlas for everyone

Area (2006) 38.3, 336 341 Blackwell Publishing Ltd Commentary An Online Census Atlas for everyone Helen Durham*, Danny Dorling** and Phil Rees *School of Geography, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT Email:

More information

### Data Visualization. Prepared by Francisco Olivera, Ph.D., Srikanth Koka Department of Civil Engineering Texas A&M University February 2004

Data Visualization Prepared by Francisco Olivera, Ph.D., Srikanth Koka Department of Civil Engineering Texas A&M University February 2004 Contents Brief Overview of ArcMap Goals of the Exercise Computer

More information

### The Azimuthal Orthographic Projection in Action. Geography 12: Maps and Mapping. Lecture Outline. Topographic Maps.

The Azimuthal Orthographic Projection in Action Geography 12: Maps and Mapping Lecture 12: Cartography I Lecture Outline Kinds of maps So far: Mostly topographic Planimetric & Thematic Basic Elements of

More information

### CHAPTER TWELVE TABLES, CHARTS, AND GRAPHS

TABLES, CHARTS, AND GRAPHS / 75 CHAPTER TWELVE TABLES, CHARTS, AND GRAPHS Tables, charts, and graphs are frequently used in statistics to visually communicate data. Such illustrations are also a frequent

More information

### Evaluation Support Guide 3.3 Report Writing

Evaluation Support Guide 3.3 Report Writing Evaluation can help you to work out what difference you are making through your services or activities. Evaluation Support Guide 1.1 helps you to clarify your

More information

### Students present their graphs to the class, providing an interpretation and critique of the data.

Task Description Students gather temperature and rainfall data over a period of two weeks. These data are summarised and presented in differing graphical representations, both hand-drawn and computer generated.

More information

### Gestation Period as a function of Lifespan

This document will show a number of tricks that can be done in Minitab to make attractive graphs. We work first with the file X:\SOR\24\M\ANIMALS.MTP. This first picture was obtained through Graph Plot.

More information

### GUIDELINES FOR MASTER S THESIS

GUIDELINES FOR MASTER S THESIS 1. THE PROPOSAL FOR THESIS The proposal for a thesis is essentially an outline of the research similar to an architectural blueprint for building a house. The clearer the

More information

### Visual Interpretation of Images

Using Saga Tutorial ID: IGET_RS_003 This tutorial has been developed by BVIEER as part of the IGET web portal intended to provide easy access to geospatial education. This tutorial is released under the

More information

### Analysis of UCAS applications for 2012/13 admissions

Analysis of UCAS applications for 2012/13 admissions August 2012 Contents 1. Introduction... 3 2. Overall trends (all UK domiciled applicants)... 5 3. Trends in applicants by geographical measures of advantage...

More information

### Information for Parents/Carers Targets in History and Geography

History Targets - A Year 1 Historian I can use words and phrases like: old, new and a long time ago. I can recognise that some objects belonged to the past. I can explain how I have changed since I was

More information

### A possible formula to determine the percentage of candidates who should receive the new GCSE grade 9 in each subject. Tom Benton

A possible formula to determine the percentage of candidates who should receive the new GCSE grade 9 in each subject Tom Benton ARD, Research Division Cambridge Assessment Research Report 15 th April 2016

More information

### Sage 200 Business Intelligence Cubes and Reports

Sage 200 Business Intelligence Cubes and Reports Sage (UK) Limited Copyright Statement Sage (UK) Limited, 2014. All rights reserved If this documentation includes advice or information relating to any

More information

### Child Obesity and Socioeconomic Status

NOO data factsheet Child Obesity and Socioeconomic Status September 2012 Key points There are significant inequalities in obesity prevalence for children, both girls and boys, and across different age

More information

### A National Statistics Publication for Scotland

Learning Disability Statistics Scotland, 2014 Published: 12 th August 2015 A National Statistics Publication for Scotland Key Findings Data users should note that this Statistics Release does not include

More information

### 2. GRAPHICAL PRESENTATION OF DATA

2. GRAPHICAL PRESENTATION OF DATA 2.1 Why do we need to present data graphically? If we take as an example a table of data 1 : x y 1. 7.46 8. 6.77 13. 12.74 9. 7.11 11. 7.81 14. 8.84 6. 6.8 4. 5.39 12.

More information

### Northumberland Knowledge

Northumberland Knowledge Know Guide How to Analyse Data - November 2012 - This page has been left blank 2 About this guide The Know Guides are a suite of documents that provide useful information about

More information

### The North Carolina Health Data Explorer

1 The North Carolina Health Data Explorer The Health Data Explorer provides access to health data for North Carolina counties in an interactive, user-friendly atlas of maps, tables, and charts. It allows

More information

### Choosing Colors for Data Visualization Maureen Stone January 17, 2006

Choosing Colors for Data Visualization Maureen Stone January 17, 2006 The problem of choosing colors for data visualization is expressed by this quote from information visualization guru Edward Tufte:

More information

### What the program will need and how the program should perform:

The purpose is to design and develop a program to calculate currency exchange for the customers at a local travel agent. The clients are travel agents for the software program and people going on holiday

More information

### Outline. Map Production: Cartography. Topographic Maps. Types of Maps. Map Production and Symbolization

Charles Minard s description of Napoleon s disastrous advance on Moscow Map Production and Symbolization Six variables visually communicated x, y, time, # of men, temperature, and direction Map Production:

More information

### ICAEW IT FACULTY TWENTY PRINCIPLES FOR GOOD SPREADSHEET PRACTICE

ICAEW IT FACULTY TWENTY PRINCIPLES FOR GOOD SPREADSHEET PRACTICE INTRODUCTION Many spreadsheets evolve over time without well-structured design or integrity checks, and are poorly documented. Making a

More information

### DRAFT. Encoding Images. Teaching Summary

6 Unit 1: A Bit of Everything Lesson 6 Encoding Images Lesson time: 180 Minutes (4 days) LESSON OVERVIEW: In this lesson, students will explore images and participate in creating an image file format.

More information

### Expert Color Choices for Presenting Data

Expert Color Choices for Presenting Data Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting The problem of choosing colors for data visualization is expressed by this quote from information visualization guru Edward

More information

### Introduction To Microsoft Office Access 2007.

Introduction To Microsoft Office Access 2007. Contents 1. INTRODUCTION... 3 2. STARTING ACCESS 2007... 3 3. THE USER INTERFACE... 6 3.1 THE OFFICE BUTTON... 6 3.2 THE QUICK ACCESS TOOLBAR... 6 3.3 THE

More information

### Going Way Beyond Positive Thinking

Going Way Beyond Positive Thinking By Andy Shaw If you have previously spent virtually any time at all in the personal growth area then it is almost certain that you cannot have avoided at least some work

More information

### Map reading made easy

Map reading made easy 1. What is a map? A map is simply a drawing or picture (in 2-D) of a landscape or area of a country (in 3-D). It could be anything from a sketch map for a visitor to find your school

More information

### primary data (collect the data yourself) secondary data (use data collected by others)

Slide 3.1 Chapter 9: Data collection and sampling methods Data collection primary data (collect the data yourself) secondary data (use data collected by others) Examine secondary sources first paper sources

More information

### Newspaper Ad Sales: Earn More With Modular

Newspaper Ad Sales: Earn More With Modular By Ed Strapagiel 25 October 2011 The Strategy of Modular Modular advertising for newspapers is about selling ad space as portions of a page, using standard, fixed

More information

### Using an Access Database

A Few Terms Using an Access Database These words are used often in Access so you will want to become familiar with them before using the program and this tutorial. A database is a collection of related

More information

### Chapter 2 Presentation of Data

Chapter 2 Presentation of Data In this chapter we show how to present the results of a questionnaire survey, using graphs and tables. Graphs (charts, plots, etc.) are suited to get a feel of patterns,

More information

### IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY Department of Community and Regional Planning

IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY Department of Community and Regional Planning CRP274 PLANNING ANALYSIS AND TECHNIQUES II INTRODUCTION TO EXCEL FOR WINDOWS 1 Basic Components of Spreadsheet 1.1 Worksheet An Excel

More information

### Role of Statistical Maps based on Smallarea

Role of Statistical Maps based on Smallarea Data Takashi Abe, Prof., JICA Expert Role of Statistical Maps based on Small-area Data 1. Role of Maps in a Statistical Survey 2. Kind of Statistical Maps in

More information

### GCE. Geography. Mark Scheme for January Advanced GCE Unit F764: Geographical Skills. Oxford Cambridge and RSA Examinations

GCE Geography Advanced GCE Unit F764: Geographical Skills Mark Scheme for January 2012 Oxford Cambridge and RSA Examinations F764 Mark Scheme OCR (Oxford Cambridge and RSA) is a leading UK awarding body,

More information

### Column Charts. Line Charts

1 of 1 There are a vast number of different types of charts that you can create in Excel. This document with the help of Microsoft Help will outline the different categories of charts and the different

More information

### University of Arkansas Libraries ArcGIS Desktop Tutorial. Section 2: Manipulating Display Parameters in ArcMap. Symbolizing Features and Rasters:

: Manipulating Display Parameters in ArcMap Symbolizing Features and Rasters: Data sets that are added to ArcMap a default symbology. The user can change the default symbology for their features (point,

More information

### Areas of numeracy covered by the professional skills test

Areas of numeracy covered by the professional skills test December 2014 Contents Averages 4 Mean, median and mode 4 Mean 4 Median 4 Mode 5 Avoiding common errors 8 Bar charts 9 Worked examples 11 Box and

More information

### For review, comment and to spark conversations.version as at 05 March 2014

2.6 Local economy 2.6.1 Markets and sectors This section looks at some of Newcastle s economic strengths together with some of the risks facing the local economy. Note: Gross Value Added (GVA) is the standard

More information

### Quick and Easy Web Maps with Google Fusion Tables. SCO Technical Paper

Quick and Easy Web Maps with Google Fusion Tables SCO Technical Paper Version History Version Date Notes Author/Contact 1.0 July, 2011 Initial document created. Howard Veregin 1.1 Dec., 2011 Updated to

More information

### The following is an overview of lessons included in the tutorial.

Chapter 2 Tutorial Tutorial Introduction This tutorial is designed to introduce you to some of Surfer's basic features. After you have completed the tutorial, you should be able to begin creating your

More information

### Unit 21 Student s t Distribution in Hypotheses Testing

Unit 21 Student s t Distribution in Hypotheses Testing Objectives: To understand the difference between the standard normal distribution and the Student's t distributions To understand the difference between

More information

### 2. Poster Presentations

Learning Development Service Introduction to PowerPoint: 2. Poster Presentations Using Microsoft PowerPoint 2013 Dr Helen Dixon Information Services Teaching and Learning James Diffin Contents What this

More information

### Make Your Numbers Count Killer Charts in Three Easy Steps

Make Your Numbers Count Killer Charts in Three Easy Steps 9909 Mira Mesa Blvd. San Diego, CA 92131 Phone: 858-225-3374 Toll Free: 800-817-4271 Fax: 858-225-3390 www.smartdraw.com Making Numbers Come to

More information

### Investigation of Optimal Reimbursement Policy for Wifi Service by Public Libraries

Investigation of Optimal Reimbursement Policy for Wifi Service by Public Libraries Vinod Bakthavachalam August 28, 2014 Data Overview The purpose of this analysis is to investigate what the optimal reimbursement

More information

### Tutorial 3: Graphics and Exploratory Data Analysis in R Jason Pienaar and Tom Miller

Tutorial 3: Graphics and Exploratory Data Analysis in R Jason Pienaar and Tom Miller Getting to know the data An important first step before performing any kind of statistical analysis is to familiarize

More information

### Introducing the. Tools for. Continuous Improvement

Introducing the Tools for Continuous Improvement The Concept In today s highly competitive business environment it has become a truism that only the fittest survive. Organisations invest in many different

More information

### FORESIGHT - Issue 84: October 2010

FORESIGHT - Issue 84: October 2010 Visits to gardens In 2009 VisitBritain sponsored a question on the International Passenger Survey 1 that asked about a range of activities that visitors may have undertaken

More information

### McKinsey Problem Solving Test Top Tips

McKinsey Problem Solving Test Top Tips 1 McKinsey Problem Solving Test You re probably reading this because you ve been invited to take the McKinsey Problem Solving Test. Don t stress out as part of the

More information

### Table of Contents. Graphing with Excel 1

Table of Contents Graphing with Excel 1 1. Graphing Data 1.1. Starting the Chart Wizard 1.2. Selecting the Data 1.3. Selecting the Chart Options 1.3.1. Titles Tab 1.3.2. Axes Tab 1.3.3. Gridlines Tab 1.3.4.

More information

### Focus on Essay Writing

Focus on Essay Writing Essay writing is a process and a product. You need to focus on the process in order to achieve a high quality product. What is an essay? The word essay originally meant to test or

More information

### Creating a New Project and Map Layout

Creating a New Project and Map Layout ArcGIS Pro allows you to assemble all the resources required to complete a project in one place. A project contains maps, layouts, tasks, and connections to servers,

More information

### The UK s Evolving Human Landscape 3 days

GCSE Geography Edexcel B The UK s Evolving Human Landscape 3 days In-depth coverage of the human fieldwork task required for Topic 6: Geographical Investigations, enabling students to get the grades they

More information

### Part 1 Foundations of object orientation

OFWJ_C01.QXD 2/3/06 2:14 pm Page 1 Part 1 Foundations of object orientation OFWJ_C01.QXD 2/3/06 2:14 pm Page 2 1 OFWJ_C01.QXD 2/3/06 2:14 pm Page 3 CHAPTER 1 Objects and classes Main concepts discussed

More information

### GRAPHING DATA FOR DECISION-MAKING

GRAPHING DATA FOR DECISION-MAKING Tibor Tóth, Ph.D. Center for Applied Demography and Survey Research (CADSR) University of Delaware Fall, 2006 TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction... 3 Use High Information

More information

### Microsoft Access 2010 Overview of Basics

Opening Screen Access 2010 launches with a window allowing you to: create a new database from a template; create a new template from scratch; or open an existing database. Open existing Templates Create

More information

### 3: Graphing Data. Objectives

3: Graphing Data Objectives Create histograms, box plots, stem-and-leaf plots, pie charts, bar graphs, scatterplots, and line graphs Edit graphs using the Chart Editor Use chart templates SPSS has the

More information

### What would it be like to live in Birmingham?

What would it be like to live in Birmingham? National Curriculum Driver: Geography Rationale statement: by the end of the unit we want children to be able to locate Birmingham on a map and identify human

More information

### Crime Mapping Methods. Assigning Spatial Locations to Events (Address Matching or Geocoding)

Chapter 15 Crime Mapping Crime Mapping Methods Police departments are never at a loss for data. To use crime mapping is to take data from myriad sources and make the data appear on the computer screen

More information