Human Security Dimensions of Migration. Mehrnaz Mostafavi Chief, Human Security Unit United Nations

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1 Human Security Dimensions of Migration Mehrnaz Mostafavi Chief, Human Security Unit United Nations Ne York, 27 April 2016

2 Forced migration in an insecure orld Today s orld is an insecure place for many Political instability, often involving bitter sectarian violence, result in heavy losses and human suffering Pressures of climate change, health pandemics and economic donturns place considerable stress on fragile social, political and economic systems of those least capable of responding Widening inequalities and disparities of income and ealth across and ithin countries leave large segments of populations behind and marginalized These insecurities, if not addressed comprehensively can gro exponentially, resulting in more intractable crisis that often spill-over into broader national, regional and international insecurities. For people faced ith multiple insecurities, migration is one coping mechanism, and often the last resort. Migration hoever is not a ne phenomenon. For centuries, civilizations have benefited from the positive contributions of migration. What is ne is the sheer magnitude and plight of so many people displaced in recent years, and the need to advance an approach that is more orderly, humane and non-punitive. One such contribution is the human security approach.

3 At its most basic level human security recognizes three freedoms to be fundamental to people s lives and aspirations Freedom from fear Threats to the safety of people (i.e., all forms of violence) Freedom from ant Threats to basic needs (i.e., economic, social and environmental aspects of life) Freedom to live in dignity Threats to human rights and by extension access to services and opportunities

4 More comprehensively human security calls for protection and empoerment strategies that are based on four principles People-centered (focuses on the individual and highlights the universality and primacy of these 3 freedoms to individuals) Comprehensive (looks at the totality of people s sense of security economic, food, health, environmental, personal, community, political, etc. and develops multi-sectorial solutions that bring the expertise of different actors to address the human insecurities in question) Context-specific (no one-size fits all but based on the specific context) Prevention-focused (not just fixing things but making lasting change by looking at root causes and considering short, medium and long-term solutions that build capacities, support early arning systems, and are inclusive)

5 The current state of internationally displaced people Large movements of people, using irregular channels, are often compelled to undertake perilous journeys at the hand of smugglers and criminal netorks. In this journey, they endure dangerous conditions and human rights abuses along the ay (including imprisonment, sexual and gender-based violence, family separation, psychosocial stress and trauma, health implications, physical harm and injury, and exploitation) Upon arrival at borders, they encounter further risks. Meanhile, local capacities to identify, register and document ne arrivals and to provide them ith necessary assistance in the first country of arrival is often limited and severely stretched. As a result, there s groing trend toards closed borders and criminalization of migrants and refugees. Hoever, even in cases here refugees and migrants are permitted to stay, the long-term prospects of protracted displacement and its impact on those displaced and their host communities is often left unaddressed, ith serious implications for all.

6 The contribution of the human security approach People-centered and humane Vieing migration through the human security lens highlights the social, political and economic challenges faced by people on the move as ell as their host communities This provides an approach to capture the positive impacts of migration and limit reactionary responses Protecting and empoering migrants and their host communities Combines institutional policies ith community-based activities in order to address the gaps in the management of migration This helps strengthen mechanisms that protect and empoer migrants and their host communities, thereby improving social harmony and providing the space for both groups to live free from fear, ant and indignity Multi-stakeholder partnerships that ensure safe, orderly and regular pathays for migration Promotes fair burden sharing, prevents an us-them paradigm, and limits the race to the bottom Addresses the root causes for hy people are forced to leave in the first place Addresses the root causes of forced displacement and ensures that responses are people-centered, comprehensive and prevention-oriented so as to defuse challenges from reaching a crisis level

7 What does this mean in practice?

8 Lessons Learned from the UN Trust Fund for Human Security Established in 1999, the UNTFHS has funded programmes on a broad range of issues pertaining to migration. Examples include support to refugees and host communities in Gabon, Liberia and most recently Cameroon and Lebanon; assistance to transit migrants in Mexico; reintegration of IDPs in postconflict Chad, Colombia and the Balkans; assistance to temporary migrants in Panama and Costa Rica; addressing the situation of stateless people in the Dominican Republic; protecting victims of human trafficking in Indonesia; and enhancing opportunities for refugees, IDPs and host communities in Armenia and Uganda. In all these initiatives, the added value of the Trust Fund and the human security approach has been its emphasis on promoting multi-stakeholder partnerships that combine institutional policies ith community-based empoerment activities in order to address gaps in the management of migration, thereby improving resilience, reducing tensions, strengthening social harmony, and promoting a life of dignity for all. They highlight ho through cooperation, Governments, international organizations and civil society can advance processes to ensure safe, orderly and regular pathays for migration.

9 Northern Lebanon: Supporting refugees and host communities By addressing the needs of both refugees and host communities, the programme aims to combine institutional policies ith community-based activities that together help manage the migration flo so that it is a in-in for all. With the active engagement of the UN system, the municipal Government, refugees and their host communities, the programme involves the full participation of the local population and the refugees in the planning and management of the folloing activities: access to education, health care and psychosocial support for those most vulnerable; improvements in public safety, infrastructure and housing conditions; and the promotion of employment opportunities, skills training and a culture of peace.

10 Mexico: Protecting vulnerable migrants in transit In Mexico, the Global Migration Group (comprising of IOM, UNHCR, UNDP, UNODC and UNFPA) combined their expertise ith national and local authorities, as ell as civil society, to create legal channels for those in transit. Specifically, the programme provided training on the identification, assistance and referral of vulnerable migrants; improved access to social and health services; and offered vital information on security concerns, legal entitlements and available shelters for those in transit. At the same time, through dialogue on the rights of migrants and cultural events, the programme supported greater engagement of host communities, thereby breaking barriers and reducing fears and prejudice of migrants by the local population.

11 The Balkans: Strengthening social harmony and promoting inclusive and sustainable development While countries across the region have made significant progress during the past to decades, displaced individuals continue to live in difficult circumstances. Accordingly, programmes across the region have strived to strengthen the social, political, economic and legal systems that together help foster greater co-existence and social harmony. They do this by enhancing the capacity of local authorities, civil society organizations and communities to improve access to social services; strengthen community safety; promote inter-ethnic relations; and prevent discrimination and violence.

12 In the end: Elements to remember Core values Human Security puts people s survival, livelihood and dignity at the core of analysis and response. As such, the application of human security promotes comprehensive and integrated responses that result in more humane outcomes ith bigger impact and stronger results toards greater peace and prosperity for all. Vieing migration through the human security lens Highlights the social, cultural and economic challenges faced by people on the move as ell as their host communities. This provides an approach to capture the positive impacts of migration and limit reactionary responses. Helps strengthen mechanisms that protect and empoer migrants and their host communities, thereby improving social harmony and providing the space for both groups to live free from fear, ant and indignity. Advances multi-stakeholder partnerships that ensure safe, orderly and regular pathays for migration. Addresses the root causes behind forced displacement. Consider the contribution of the human security approach to the High-Level Meeting on 19 September.

13 Thank you.un.org/humansecurity/

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