Agricultural to the 21st Century:

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1 Agricultural to the 21st Century: Tips, Tools & Technologies By Ms. Keeley Holder May 20 th, 2010

2 Who Am I? Farmer Produce Growers Ltd Scientist Integrated Pest Management Specialist President Barbados Society for Technologists in Agriculture (BSTA( BSTA) Vice President Fruit & Vegetable Growers Association Board Member Barbados Agricultural Society (BAS( BAS) Technical Volunteer Caribbean Farmers Network (CAFAN( CAFAN) Committee Member Barbados Agri-Preneurs Project A girl all the way from Barbados

3 Technology Trade-Offs The Best Way? In Agriculture? NO WAY! Technology Use Requires knowledge Maintenance Implementation Decisions Environment Culture Costs Innovation vs. Adaptation It!

4 Agri Breakdown The Science Agro-Meteorology & Crop Planning Land Preparation Seeds & Planting Material Fertilizer & Irrigation Flowering & Pollination Insect Pests, Pathogens & Weeds Harvest & Post-Harvest The Business Cost of Production Crop Planning & Farm Management Marketing

5 Agro-Meteorology & Crop Rotation Caribbean Agro-meteorological Initiative (CAMI)) Project Application of weather & climate information Precipitation outlook Crop Planning Soil conservation Crop rotation Dry season vs. Wet season decisions Storage & shelf-life life

6 Agro-Meteorology & Crop Rotation Question: Which of the choices below represents a good crop rotation? (a) Pumpkin zucchini beans - cucumber (b) Tomato pepper sweet potato pea (c ) bean cabbage pumpkin carrot (d) bean broccoli cabbage cucumber

7 Land Preparation

8 Land Preparation Types of Tillage Full Tillage Mouldboard plough Conservation Tillage Harrow, chisel plough Leaves 30% soil covered by crop residues Stubble/plant residues not completely incorporated Zero Tillage

9 Seeds & Planting Material Seeds Open Pollinated vs. Hybrids Heat-tolerant tolerant Drought-tolerant tolerant Resistant to diseases TMV, Downy Mildew, Blight High yielding Dwarf-size plants Large fruit, miniature fruit Long shelf-life life Brix (Sweetness) Flavour Genetically-modified

10 Seeds & Planting Material

11 Fertilizer & Irrigation Photosynthesis Elements required by plants for growth

12 Fertilizer Primary Macro-nutrients Nitrogen (N) Phosphorus (P) Potassium (K) Secondary Macro-nutrients Calcium (Ca) Magnesium (Mg) Sulfur (S) Micronutrients Boron (B), Manganese (Mn( Mn), Iron (Fe), Zinc (Zn), Copper (Cu), Molybdenum (Mo) Selenium (Se), Sodium (Na), Chlorine (Cl( Cl)

13 Fertilizer & Irrigation Balanced Plant Nutrition Soil Testing Leaf-Tissue Analysis Phyto-monitoring

14 Irrigation Drip Irrigation High efficiency, Minimized soil erosion, Reduce risk of disease

15 Irrigation Irrigation Scheduling Crop Water Needs Effective Precipitation Evapo-transpiration Crop Coefficient Greater Efficiency Fertigation & Chemigation Injectors Automation Filters Solenoid valves Controllers

16 Water Storage Irrigation

17 Flowering & Pollination Bees are the BEST pollinators in the world 8 bee visits for optimal pollination

18 Insect Pests, Pathogens & Weeds IPM Holistic approach to pest management Combination of practices Not a one-stop shop How? Scouting Know life cycle of pest/pathogen Know environment How quickly will problem spread? Healthy Plants Are Like Healthy Children Less susceptible to disease & pests than unhealthy ones

19 Insect Pests, Pathogens & Weeds Pesticides Pesticides don t t kill people, people kill people Judicious use of pesticides Bio-controls Organic Materials Review Institute (OMRI)) Certified Application Does it require sunlight for efficacy? Avoiding spray drift Wind direction, wind speed, equipment use

20 Insect Pests, Pathogens & Weeds Weed Management Herbicides Mulch Organic Plastic Fabric

21 Harvest & Post-Harvest Harvesting When is the right time to harvest? Appropriate age of fruit/vegetable Time of day? Flavour Shelf-life Handling produce to avoid damage Reducing post-harvest spoilage Correct packaging Optimal storage temperatures Climacteric vs. Non-climacteric Ethylene-sensitive produce

22 Business & Technology Cost of Production Analysis & projections made easy Farm Management Record Keeping Spreadsheets, databases, accounting software (Excel, Access, Quickbooks) Farm Scheduling MS Project, GNATT charts Information & Communication Technologies (ICTs)) and Marketing Mobile Telephony , Social Networks (Facebook, Twitter ) Market analysis Assessing trends

23 THE END Thank You

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