1 My Aching Back! Lower Back Pain Part I: Structure and Problems Almost everyone experiences low back pain at some time. 80% of adults will experience lower back pain at some point in their lives. 1,2,3,5 About one in six Americans had back pain every single day during the past month, according to a national survey. 2 The average length of time people suffer with back pain is 14 days per month, and often these people don't seek the advice of trained professionals to treat or improve their condition. 2 Ironically, the severity of the pain is often unrelated to the severity of the damage. A muscle spasm can be excruciating, while a herniated disc or completely degenerated disc can be painless. 3 The causes of pain can be very complex because there are so many structures in the lower back. 3 To add to the challenge, when you are suffering back pain, it's hard to decide what type of treatment to seek. Doctors rarely agree on how to treat back pain since they often don't understand what causes it, or if it's not something they are specialized to correct, they offer no suggestions or referrals to other types of practitioners who may help. 4 Who you see determines what type of treatment you get. From rheumatologist to neurosurgeon, from chiropractor to massage therapist, each has a different view of what causes lower back pain and will treat you accordingly. 5 If a surgeon doesn't find a problem he can fix, he will probably not refer you to a physical therapist or an ergonomist million Americans with low back pain spent $27 billion last year on a wide variety of cures including back surgery, drugs, back classes, and assorted gizmos. 5 In this three part series, we will discuss the common causes of lower back pain, how to avoid it, and what to do if you experience it. Should you see a physician? Most lower back pain can be treated without advice from a doctor. However, there are a few symptoms that are potential indications of a serious medical condition. You should seek medical attention immediately if you experience: 3,7 Sudden bowel and/or bladder incontinence Progressive weakness or pain in the legs, feet or toes Severe, continuous abdominal and back pain Fever and chills History of cancer with recent weight loss Severe trauma or accident As with upper back pain, lower back pain in children should be treated seriously. Young children rarely experience back pain, so if there has been no injury, back pain could signal a serious condition such as a spinal tumor, growth, or an infection of the spine. 8 Older children tend to be more aggressive in activities and sports, and carry heavy back packs, which increases the possibility of compression fractures and
2 occasional disc injuries. Tumors and infection of the spine may occur in teens, but back pain in teens is most often caused by sports injuries or overuse syndromes. 8 Scoliosis - curvature of the spine - is not uncommon among teenagers, but it rarely causes back pain. 8 You don't have to suffer and it could be shrinking your brain! Less than 1% of back pain sufferers need surgery. 7 Most back pain is caused by sprains and strains. 10 Even chronic back pain is often due to a lack of conditioning, excess weight, or other things that can be treated by yourself. It's well known that chronic back pain decreases the quality of life and increases anxiety and depression. Another consequence was recently reported by Northwestern University researchers. The study found that chronic back pain actually shrinks the brain by as much as 11%, about the same as aging 10 to 20 years. 10 Specifically, it shrinks the part of the brain responsible for memory and information processing. 10 Those with chronic back pain and sciatica had the largest decrease in gray matter. 10 The more years someone has chronic back pain, the more brain loss they suffered. 10 The reason for this is still not known, but the association was clear. Anatomy of the Lower Back The lower back, called the lumbar region, is a complex structure of vertebrae, discs, spinal cord, nerves, ligaments and muscles. The lumbar region of the back supports the weight of the upper body. The lumbar region consists of: 1,5,11 1) Five vertebrae, called the lumbar vertebrae (labeled L1-L5). 2) Six discs, made of spongy pads of cartilage, that cushion and stabilize the lumbar vertebrae. 80% of the disc is water. The disc with the attached part of the vertebra above and below is considered an intervertebral joint, allowing movement of the back. 3) Facet joints that connect the two lower projections of one vertebra to the two upper projections of the vertebrae below it. 4) Ligaments that hold the vertebrae in place and attach the muscles to the spinal column. Together with the muscles, they provide strength, support, power and stability to the lower back. Illustration courtesy of Reference 12. Illustration courtesy of Reference 13.
3 5) Muscles and tendons that support the spine, much like the guide ropes that support a tent. The muscles of the back connect each vertebral segment to the next and are responsible for controlling the movement of the lower back for such activities as straightening the back, bending forward at the waist, and bending backward. The abdominal muscles, located at the front and side of the abdomen, are very important in supporting and protecting the abdominal internal organs and also play an important role in protecting movement of the vertebral column in backward, forward and side bending. Illustration courtesy of Reference 14 6) Spinal cord and nerves that travel through a central hole in each vertebra. The nerves that come off the spinal cord are called nerve roots. They pass through small openings on either side of the connecting vertebrae and combine to form spinal nerves. There are five pairs of lumbar spinal nerves. The bundle of nerve roots that exit the bottom of the spine is called the cauda equine because it looks like a horse s tail. A detailed nerve chart of the whole back is shown in Attachment 1. Illustration courtesy of Reference 14. Lower Back Problems Men and women are affected equally by lower back pain. 1 Problems occur most often between ages 30 and Because the structure of the back is very complex, pain may come from any of these structures or it may actually be caused by pain radiating from other areas such as the mid or upper back, the hamstrings, a hernia in the groin, or problems in the ovaries or testicles. 12,18 Sensations vary when you hurt your back, from burning or tingling, dull aching, sharp pain, or weakness in your legs or feet. 12 Low back pain may be acute -- lasting less than a month or chronic -- lasting more than three months. 1,12 Acute back pain occurring more than once is common, but continuous long-term pain is not. 1,12 In most cases, improper standing, sitting, or lifting causes pain, even though it seems that one simple movement such as reaching for something or bending at the waist was the cause. 12 As people age, there is a decrease in bone strength and muscle elasticity and tone. The discs begin to dry out and lose flexibility, decreasing their ability to cushion the vertebrae. 1 This is not always a bad thing, since discs that are less full of fluid are less likely to rupture. However, in some cases, the loss of cushioning is a problem. 4 Most low back pain follows injury or trauma to the back, but pain may also be
4 caused by degenerative conditions such as arthritis or disc congenital abnormalities in the spine. 1 Obesity, smoking, weight gain, stress, poor physical condition, inappropriate posture, and poor sleeping position may also contribute to lower back pain. 1 In fact, the combination of ergonomics and fitness are cited as two of the most important preventive measures that can be taken to reduce or eliminate most back problems and pain Strains The most common causes of lower back pain are muscle strains 9,17,18 Despite their size and strength, muscles of the lumbar spine can rip or tear, which is called a muscle strain. This is generally caused by a sudden movement, a fall, or lifting a heavy object. 9,12,17 The muscle and blood vessels within the muscle tissue rips. This may cause bleeding into the injured area. It can take up to 2-3 hours before sufficient bleeding or irritation sets in to produce significant pain. For this reason, many people can tolerate finishing a task at hand, only suffering intense pain later. 9 Tearing of the muscle tissue is often followed by pain, swelling, and muscle spasms. 9 Acute low back pain from lumbar strains and sprains can be accompanied by sciatica, an irritation of the sciatic nerve that causes pain into the buttock and leg. 9,17 2. Sprains Sprains refer to an overstretching of one or more of the ligaments of the back. The ligaments can be stretched beyond their natural integrity and in some cases can completely tear. 9 It is common for muscle and ligament strains to occur together Disc Injury and Sciatica A herniated disc, sometimes incorrectly referred to as a slipped disc, is a disc that bulges out from its position between two vertebrae. There are four types of disc herniation and a variety of bulging discs, but they all have the potential to cause compression against a nerve, producing sciatica. 9 As described above in the section on Strains, pain is caused by compression of the nerves as they exit the spinal column resulting in pain radiating into the buttock or down the leg, sometimes accompanied by a sensation of numbness or tingling in the leg. 9 Illustration courtesy of Reference 19. Illustration courtesy of Reference 13 Illustration courtesy of Reference 19
5 4. Spinal Stenosis Spinal stenosis is a narrowing of the spinal canal. It can be congenital (a birth deformity), although generally it affects people over 50 and results from degenerative changes or osteoarthritis when bony formations, called osteophytes, form around the joints of the spine. 1,9 These formations, in conjunction with the thickening of the ligaments inside the spinal canal, reduce the space available for the spinal cord and nerves. The resulting nerve compression may cause back pain and pain in the thigh or leg that is often made worse by long periods of standing or walking, especially downhill. 9 It can also cause weakness in the legs Osteoarthritis Osteoarthritis occurs when the cartilage between the vertebrae is damaged. 9 It is a natural result of stresses applied to the spine throughout life. 9 It may affect a single joint or several joints in the spine. 9 Bony outgrowths, called spurs, develop along the junction of vertebrae and discs. 9 Narrowing of the space between vertebrae and erosion of the bone beneath the joint may also occur. 9 Read more about osteoarthritis in our article at Other Back Problems The following are not related to wear and tear of the lower back structures from overuse, but are important to consider in the discussion of lower back problems. 1. Osteoporosis There is a decrease in bone density and strength with osteoporosis. 1,9 This occurs when the body fails to produce new bone or absorbs too much existing bone. 9 Women are four times more likely than men to develop osteoporosis, especially after menopause. 1 Signs of osteoporosis are subtle and can be easily missed, so many people do not know they have osteoporosis until a bone actually breaks. 9 Often fractured vertebrae causes back pain or deformity Spondylolisthesis This is a condition where one vertebra slips forward on the one beneath it. It may occur as a result of trauma or osteoarthritis, or it may be congenital. There may be no symptoms or there may be pain and stiffness. 9 If the slip has caused pressure on the nerve root, pain may be felt in the buttocks or thigh. 9 With a major slip, an increase in the bend of the lower back may be noticed Pregnancy For most women, back pain is unavoidable during pregnancy. 9 In early pregnancy, hormonal changes result in increased joint laxity. 9 The spine, abdominal and back muscles become more relaxed. 9 Poor posture and poor muscle tone prior to pregnancy can affect how the back adjusts. As the abdomen protrudes, both gravity and hormonal changes continue to relax the muscles of the low back and abdomen, increasing lumbar curve, and placing stress on the lower back muscles and lumbar spine. 9 Sciatica can also develop from the increased size of the baby itself, placing pressure directly on the nerves of the lumbar area. 9 Sciatica almost always disappears following delivery of the baby Skeletal irregularities Skeletal irregularities produce strain on the vertebrae and supporting muscles, tendons, ligaments, and tissues. 1 These irregularities include scoliosis (a curvature of the spine to the side), lordosis (an abnormally accentuated arch in the lower back), back extension (a bending backward of the spine) and flexion (a bending forward of the spine) Fibromyalgia
6 Fibromyalgia is believed to be a result of inflammation of the body's connective tissue and it may cause chronic back pain. 1,9 For more information on Fibromyalgia, please read our article on Osteoarthritis and Fibromyalgia at 6. Spondylitis, osteomyelitis, and sacroiliitis Spondylitis refers to chronic back pain and stiffness caused by a severe infection to, or inflammation of, the spinal joints. 1 Osteomyelitis is an infection in the bones of the spine. 1 Sacroiliitis is inflammation in the sacroiliac joints. 1 The next article will address Lower Back Pain Prevention, and the final article in the series will cover Lower Back Pain Treatment options. This article and all of our articles are intended for your information and education. We are not experts in the diagnosis and treatment of specific medical or mental problems. When dealing with a severe problem, please consult your healthcare or mental health professional and research the alternatives available for your particular diagnosis prior to embarking on a treatment plan. You are ultimately responsible for your health and treatment! REFERENCES: 1. Low Back Pain Fact Sheet. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD Back pain plagues 1 in 6 Americans United Press International. Medline Plus, U.S. National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health Lower back pain symptoms and treatment options. Ullrich, P.F., Jr., M.D Spine-health.com The Ultimate Back Book. by Judylaine Fine Judylaine Fine. Stoddart Publishing Co., ISBN: The Spine. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons The 10 Most Dangerous Myths About Low Back Pain. Bourne, R., M.D Upper Back Pain Back pain in kids and teens spinehealth.com What Causes Back Pain? 2004 YourMedicalSource.com Chronic Back Pain May Shrink the Brain. Stacy, K.M. WebMD Medical News, November 22, Understanding How the Back Works YourMedicalSource.com Medical Encyclopedia: Back pain - low. Medline Plus, U.S. National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health Chiropractic and Neck Pain : Conservative Care of the Cervical Disorders. Strasser, A., D.C. 8/20/ Neck Pain: Minor Incidents to Serious Accidents. Strasse, A., D.C. 8/20/2// Muscles of the Back, Intermediate Layers. Penn State Mont Alto Vertebral Subluxation and Nerve Chart. 1975,1981 Parker Chiropractic Resource Foundation Acute lower back pain caused by muscle strain Spine-health.com.
7 18. Back muscles and low back pain Spine-health.com Lower Back Pain: (LBP) What You Need to Know. Fessler, R., M.D., Ph.D Structural Components of the Spine. Regan, J.J., M.D.
8 Attachment 1. Illustration courtesy of Reference 16.
BACK PAIN: WHAT YOU SHOULD KNOW Diane Metzer LOWER BACK PAIN Nearly everyone at some point has back pain that interferes with work, recreation and routine daily activities. Four out of five adults experience
Castleknock GAA club member and Chartered Physiotherapist, James Sherry MISCP, has prepared an informative article on the common causes of back pain and how best it can be treated. To book a physiotherapy
Sciatica Yuliya Mutsa PTA 236 Sciatica is a common type of pain affecting the sciatic nerve, which extends from the lower back all the way through the back of the thigh and down through the leg. Depending
Neck Injuries and Disorders Introduction Any part of your neck can be affected by neck problems. These affect the muscles, bones, joints, tendons, ligaments or nerves in the neck. There are many common
Temple Physical Therapy A General Overview of Common Neck Injuries For current information on Temple Physical Therapy related news and for a healthy and safe return to work, sport and recreation Like Us
Spine University s Guide to Cauda Equina Syndrome 2 Introduction Your spine is a very complicated part of your body. It s made up of the bones (vertebrae) that keep it aligned, nerves that channel down
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Avoid The Dreaded Back Injury by Proper Lifting Techniques If you ve ever strained your back while lifting something, you ll know the importance of lifting safely. Agenda Introduction About the Back The
Table of Contents What are Core Muscles?... 2 A Healthy Lumbar Spine...3 What is Low Back Pain?...4 Rehabilitation...6 Stages of Rehabilitation...7 Pain Management....................... 8 Heat/Ice What
Low Back Pain Introduction Back problems are common, affecting about 80 percent of adults at some time in their lives. Back problems may begin for many reasons including minor strains, sprains or injuries.
Lower Back Pain An Educational Guide A publication from the Center of Pain Medicine and Physiatric Rehabilitation 2002 Medical Parkway Ste 150 1630 Main St Ste 215 Annapolis, MD 21401 Chester, MD 21619
THE LUMBAR SPINE (BACK) At a glance Chronic back pain, especially in the area of the lumbar spine (lower back), is a widespread condition. It can be assumed that 75 % of all people have it sometimes or
The following is a sampling of products offered by Zimmer Spine for use in Open Lumbar Fusion procedures. Patient Guide to Lower Back Surgery Open Lumbar Fusion Dynesys The Dynesys Dynamic Stabilization
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Chiropractic Care of Lower Back Pain Lower back pain is probably the most common condition seen the the Chiropractic office. Each month it is estimated that up to one third of persons experience some type
Herniated Disk Introduction Your backbone, or spine, has 24 moveable vertebrae made of bone. Between the bones are soft disks filled with a jelly-like substance. These disks cushion the vertebrae and keep
UNIT 10 Musculoskeletal Systems Pathological Conditions MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY Group of hereditary diseases characterized by gradual atrophy and weakness of muscle tissue. There is no cure for muscular dystrophy.
Do you have Back Pain? Associated with: Herniated Discs? Protruding Discs? Degenerative Disk Disease? Posterior Facet Syndrome? Sciatica? You may be a candidate for Decompression Therapy The Dynatronics
Preventing & Treating Low Back Pain An Introduction to Low Back Pain Low back pain is the number two reason that Americans see a health care practitioner second only to colds and flu. While most people
Hitting a Nerve: The Triggers of Sciatica Bruce Tranmer MD FRCS FACS Disclosures I have no financial disclosures Objectives - Sciatica Historical Perspective What is Sciatica What can cause Sciatica Clinical
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Patient Information Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion Table of Contents Anatomy of the Spine 2 The Healthy Spine 3 General Treatment Options 4 General Conditions of the Lumbar Spine 5 What is Spondylolisthesis?
SPINE ANATOMY AND PROCEDURES Tulsa Spine & Specialty Hospital 6901 S. Olympia Avenue Tulsa, Oklahoma 74132 SPINE ANATOMY The spine consists of 33 bones called vertebrae. The top 7 are cervical, or neck
Herniated Lumbar Disc North American Spine Society Public Education Series What Is a Herniated Disc? The spine is made up of a series of connected bones called vertebrae. The disc is a combination of strong
Cervical Spondylosis (Arthritis of the Neck) Page ( 1 ) Neck pain can be caused by many things but is most often related to getting older. Like the rest of the body, the disks and joints in the neck (cervical
Copyright 2009 American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Cervical Spondylosis (Arthritis of the Neck) Neck pain is extremely common. It can be caused by many things, and is most often related to getting
If you or a loved one have suffered because of a negligent error during spinal surgery, you will be going through a difficult time. You may be worried about your future, both in respect of finances and
Cervical Radiculopathy (Pinched Nerve) Page ( 1 ) Cervical radiculopathy, commonly called a pinched nerve occurs when a nerve in the neck is compressed or irritated where it branches away from the spinal
Orthopaedic Spine Center Graham Calvert MD James Woodall MD PhD Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion (ACDF) Normal Discs The cervical spine consists of the bony vertebrae, discs, nerves and other structures.
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DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS OF LOW BACK PAIN Arnold J. Weil, M.D., M.B.A. Non-Surgical Orthopaedics, P.C. Atlanta, GA MEDICAL ALGORITHM OF REALITY LOWER BACK PAIN Yes Patient will never get better until case
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Lower Back Pain Introduction Back pain is the number one problem facing the workforce in the United States today. To illustrate just how big a problem low back pain is, consider these facts: Low back pain
Frequently Asked Questions Common Orthopaedic Conditions What is the difference between a sprain and a strain? A strain occurs when a muscle is stretched or torn. A sprain occurs when a ligament is stretched
Low Back Injury in the Industrial Athlete: An Anatomic Approach Earl J. Craig, M.D. Assistant Professor Indiana University School of Medicine Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Epidemiology
Contents 3 4 5 6 7 9 10 Summary How To Identify Your Back Pain Muscular Back Conditions Skeletal Back Conditions Nerve Back Conditions The Development of Back Pain Treatments Back Pain: A Serious Issue
Patient Guide Sacroiliac Joint Pain Anatomy Where is the Sacroiliac Joint? The sacroiliac joint (SIJ) is located at the bottom end of your spine, where the "tailbone" (sacrum) joins the pelvis (ilium).
1. GET THE FACTS: Back and neck pain affects 8 out of 10 people at some point in their life. Acute back and neck pain comes on suddenly and usually lasts from a few days to a few weeks. Chronic back and
INFORMATION FOR YOU Lower Back Pain WHAT IS ACUTE LOWER BACK PAIN? Acute lower back pain is defined as low back pain present for up to six weeks. It may be experienced as aching, burning, stabbing, sharp
High Prevalence and Incidence Prevalence 85% of Americans will experience low back pain at some time in their life. Incidence 5% annual Timothy C. Shen, M.D. Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Sub-specialty
Non-Surgical Spinal Decompression with Computerized Spinal Table (Traction, Deep heat and Massage) for Treating and Rehabilitating Spinal patients New treatment for back problems not just medicines and
Spine University s Guide to Kinetic MRIs Detect Disc Herniations 2 Introduction Traditionally, doctors use a procedure called magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to diagnose disc injuries. Kinetic magnetic
Injury Prevention for the Back and Neck www.csmr.org We have created this brochure to provide you with information regarding: Common Causes of Back and Neck Injuries and Pain Tips for Avoiding Neck and
What is low back pain? Almost everyone has back pain at one time or another. The pain may be in the center of the back or to one side, or even move down the leg. Symptoms may also include pain in the back
STEPHEN MARANO, M.D. JAMES COOK PA-C Consent for Lumbar Spine Discectomy Surgery at Patient Name: Patient Diagnosis: o Lumbar Disc Herniation (rupture of the disc) o Lumbar Degenerative Disc Disease (wear
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ESSENTIALSKILLS 108 MASSAGE & BODYWORK FEBRUARY/MARCH 2006 The Mystery of Low-Back Pain, Part II Ligament Tears By Ben E. Benjamin In the first article in this series, we examined the anatomy of the low
BACK PAIN CHRONIC / PERSISTENT If you ve got back pain you are in good company because 4 out of 5 of us get back pain at some time. However, most bouts of back pain get better in a short time and simple
BACK PAIN Red Flags & Referral for Surgery B BALAIN Cons Spine Surgeon RJ&AH Orthopaedic Hospital, Oswestry Mini Quiz Diagnosis? Role for Surgery? Patient history no 1 Low back Pain for 6 months, getting
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SPINE SURGERY - LUMBAR DECOMPRESSION Information Leaflet Your Health. Our Priority. Page 2 of 7 Introduction This booklet has been compiled by the physiotherapy department to help you understand lumbar
Acute Low Back Pain North American Spine Society Public Education Series What Is Acute Low Back Pain? Acute low back pain (LBP) is defined as low back pain present for up to six weeks. It may be experienced
LOWER BACK PAIN Low Back Pain ( LBP ) Most common musculoskeletal problem world wide 85% of all people exp. LBP in lifetime Impacts Life style Quality of life Work UNITED STATES $$$$ 100 BILLION PER YEAR
HealthshareHull Information for Guided Patient Management Index Introduction 2 Lumbar spine anatomy 2 What is lower back pain? 3 Conditions that may be causing your back pain 3 When should I see my doctor?
Lumbar Laminectomy and Interspinous Process Fusion Introduction Low back and leg pain caused by pinched nerves in the back is a common condition that limits your ability to move, walk, and work. This condition
(+)Dean T. Harrison, MPAS,PA C,DFAAPA Director of Mid Level Practitioners; Assistant Medical Director Clinical Evaluation Unit, Division of Emergency Medicine, Department of Surgery, Duke University Medical
Herniated Cervical Disc North American Spine Society Public Education Series What Is a Herniated Disc? The backbone, or spine, is composed of a series of connected bones called vertebrae. The vertebrae
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LOW BACK PAIN Most episodes of low back pain are caused by relatively harmless conditions. The most common of these conditions include: muscle strain ( pulled muscle ), weak core muscles (abdominal and
X Stop Spinal Stenosis Decompression Am I a candidate for X Stop spinal surgery? You may be a candidate for the X Stop spinal surgery if you have primarily leg pain rather than mostly back pain and your
A Patient s Guide to Artificial Cervical Disc Replacement Each year, hundreds of thousands of adults are diagnosed with Cervical Disc Degeneration, an upper spine condition that can cause pain and numbness
Page 1 of 5 Cervical Spondylosis This leaflet is aimed at people who have been told they have cervical spondylosis as a cause of their neck symptoms. Cervical spondylosis is a 'wear and tear' of the vertebrae
A Patient s Guide to Lumbar Spine Anatomy 228 West Main St., Suite D Missoula, MT 59802-4345 Phone: 406-721-3072 Fax: 406-721-2619 email@example.com DISCLAIMER: The information in this booklet is compiled
Dr Ulrich R Hähnle MD, FCS Orthopaedic Surgeon, Wits Facharzt für Orthopädie, Berlin Phone: +27 11 485 3236 Fax: +27 11 485 2446 Suite 102, Medical Centre, Linksfield Park Clinic P.O. Box 949, Johannesburg
BACK EXERCISES To Promote a Healthy Back Knee-to-chest stretch Lower back rotational stretch Lie on your back with your knees bent and your feet flat on the floor (A). Using both hands, pull up one knee
Back Safety and Lifting Structure of the Back: Spine The spine is the part of the back that supports the trunk and head. It protects the spinal cord as well as giving flexibility to the body. Vertebrae
Diagnosis and Management for Chronic Back Pain: Critical for your Recovery Dr. Connie D Astolfo, DC, PhD (candidate) In past articles I have stressed that the causes of back pain can be very complex. This
Options for Cervical Disc Degeneration A Guide to the Fusion Arm of the M6 -C Artificial Disc Study Each year, hundreds of thousands of adults are diagnosed with Cervical Disc Degeneration, an upper spine
Whiplash and Whiplash- Associated Disorders North American Spine Society Public Education Series What Is Whiplash? The term whiplash might be confusing because it describes both a mechanism of injury and
Biomechanical Basis of Lumbar Pain Prepared by S. Pollak Introduction: The lumbar area of the back is made up of five movable L1-L5 vertebrae which have intervertebral discs in between them 1. The intervertebral
Stickler Syndrome and Arthritis Arthritis Foundation Pacific Region, Nevada Office Presented by: Crystal Schulz, MPH Community Development Manager Arthritis Foundation Improving lives through leadership
Objectives Axial Skeleton 2 Vertebral Column and Thorax 1. Identify the subdivisions of the skeleton as axial or appendicular 2. Explain how the spine supports the body. 3. Explain the changes on vertebrae
X-Plain Rheumatoid Arthritis Reference Summary Introduction Rheumatoid arthritis is a fairly common joint disease that affects up to 2 million Americans. Rheumatoid arthritis is one of the most debilitating
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SPINAL STENOSIS Information for Patients WHAT IS SPINAL STENOSIS? The spinal canal is best imagined as a bony tube through which nerve fibres pass. The tube is interrupted between each pair of adjacent