CIP R1.5 Spring CIP Audit Workshop. April 14, 2016 Scott Pelfrey, CISA, CISSP, GISP, MBA Senior Technical Auditor

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1 CIP R1.5 Spring CIP Audit Workshop April 14, 2016 Scott Pelfrey, CISA, CISSP, GISP, MBA Senior Technical Auditor

2 CIP Part 1.5 Learning Objectives Terminology Discussion of IPS/IDS & firewall Questions Answered Overview of Requirement Audit Approach by RF 2

3 CIP Part 1.5 Terminology BES Cyber Asset (BCA) High Impact BES Cyber Systems (BCS) Protected Cyber Asset (PCA) Electronic Security Perimeter (ESP) Electronic Access Point (EAP) Intrusion Prevention System (IPS) Intrusion Detection System (IDS) Firewall 3

4 CIP Part 1.5 Discussion Firewalls, Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS), Intrusion Prevention Systems (IPS) 4

5 CIP Part Firewall Firewall Analyzes packet headers, enforces policy Policy based on: Protocol Type Source Address Destination Address Source Port Destination Port Transparent and Fast 5

6 CIP Part 1.5 Firewall Details (1) Capabilities Single point for monitoring, exclusion of attacks, unauthorized users, malware, viruses, etc. Convenient platform for Internet functions not security related Can log or audit ingress / egress activities Stateful Inspection Keeps directory of TCP connections Only allows incoming traffic for known connections May also keep track of TCP sequence numbers as well 6

7 CIP Part 1.5 Firewall Details (2) Limitations Cannot protect against attacks bypassing device (Transient devices) May not fully protect against threats May be vulnerable to IP address spoofing, source route attacks & tiny fragment attacks Vulnerable to TCP/IP protocol bugs Improper configuration may lead to breaches Wireless connections may circumvent firewall 7

8 CIP Part 1.5 Firewall Example 8

9 CIP Part 1.5 IDS Intrusion Detection System (IDS) Analyzes packets both header and payload looks for known events known event detected; a log message generated detailing event 9

10 CIP Part 1.5 IDS Details (1) Two Physical Types Host-Based Resident on one system Monitors only that system s activity Can detect both Internal / External intrusions Network-Based Monitors particular network segments or devices May be inline (as part of another net device) or passive (copy of traffic through tap or mirrored port) 10

11 CIP Part 1.5 IDS Details (2) Two Detection Types Signature or Rules Detection Analyze records for match with current rules or signatures Requires constant updates for protection Issue: only knows known intrusions, new intrusions may not be found Anomaly Detection Builds profile or keeps thresholds Matches incoming packets to profiles or thresholds Issue: May have false positives during extreme events Events generated from deviations of either 11

12 CIP Part 1.5 IDS Example Corporate Network 12

13 CIP Part 1.5 IPS Intrusion Prevention System (IPS) analyzes packets both header and payload looks for known events known event detected the packet is rejected 13

14 CIP Part 1.5 IPS Details (1) Host Based Resident on one system Monitors only that system s activity Can detect both Internal / External intrusions Uses both Signature/Rules & Anomaly Detection Can be tailored for specific purpose Web, Database, General May use sandbox to monitor behavior May give file, registry, or I/O protection 14

15 CIP Part 1.5 IPS Details (2) Network Based Inline IPS can discard packets or terminate TCP connections Uses both Signature/Rules & Anomaly Detection May provide content flow protection Identifies malicious packets using multiple methods 15

16 CIP Part 1.5 IPS Example Host-Based IPS 16

17 CIP Part 1.5 Differences (1) Firewall use of rules to pass traffic through (looking for a rule to allow packets through) IPS use of rules to block traffic through (looking for a rule to drop packets) Firewall/IPS control devices, sitting inline and controlling packets IDS visibility tool 17

18 CIP Part 1.5 Differences (2) IPS/IDS Functional difference very subtle between two IPS/IDS Sometimes only configuration setting IPS/IDS May or may not be physical modules IPS/IDS Often functionally indistinguishable (even if they are two separate devices or modules) 18

19 CIP Part 1.5 IDS/IPS Management 19

20 CIP Part 1.5 NGFW (1) Next Generation Firewall (NGFW) Newer concept Single device converges FW and IDS/IPS Deep packet inspection of both Header and Payload in one action Decision-making capabilities for policy enforcement 20

21 CIP Part 1.5 NGFW (2) Supports typical FW capabilities (NAT, VPN, QoS, packet filtering) Adds Intrusion Prevention SSL / SSH inspection Reputation-based Malware detection Application Awareness Signature-based antivirus 21

22 CIP Part 1.5 NGFW (3) 22

23 CIP Part 1.5 NGFW Single Pass Architecture 23

24 CIP Part 1.5 Overview (1) 24

25 CIP Part 1.5 Overview (2) Applies to only Electronic Access Points (EAPs) Applies only to High/Medium Control Centers specifically RC, BA, TO, GO Best Practice apply to all EAPs 25

26 CIP Part 1.5 Questions A couple of questions answered first 26

27 CIP Part 1.5 Question 1 Why include outbound communications? 27

28 CIP Part 1.5 Answer Compromised BCA outside communication (Command and Control) First level of defense to stop Command & Control (C&C) exploit Know what you connect to and limit traffic to those communications needs to include: Normal Operations Emergency Operations Support Maintenance Troubleshooting 28

29 CIP Part 1.5 Question 2 Do we need two separate devices? Part 1.5 direct result of FERC Order 706, Paragraphs ESPs required to have two DISTINCT security measures Further explanation in FERC Order 706-A, paragraph 66 - requirement for two separate and distinct electronic devices (but that doesn t necessarily mean two physical devices) for defense-in-depth 29

30 CIP Part Answer Short Answer: No. CIP Version 5 FAQs Need one or more METHODS not physical devices modules CAN reside on same appliance 30

31 CIP Part 1.5 Guidelines Guidelines and Technical Basis Overview 31

32 CIP Part 1.5 Guidelines (1) Large ranges of internal addresses allowed (ephemeral ports ) You know what ranges are required (Document) Suggest communication through EAP to Entities address space ONLY no internet Know what you talk to both inside and outside of ESP (Document) Need to detect rogue connections and block 32

33 CIP Part 1.5 Guidelines (2) Deny by default need to see explicit (or implicit) deny all in ruleset Direct serial or non-routable connections not included Use common sense and due diligence Fail open but maintain perimeter protection Show malicious traffic inspection (Document) Require deep packet inspection Redundancy of firewalls does NOT count 33

34 CIP Part 1.5 Audit Approach ReliabilityFirst s Audit Approach 34

35 CIP Part 1.5 Audit Approach (1) 35 Most entities EAP is firewall (Juniper, Cisco, Microsoft, Check Point, Palo Alto, Sophos, WatchGuard, Barracuda, many others ) - first line of defense May add modules, separate systems, taps to monitor ingress egress traffic on EAP May be host-based or network-based for malicious communications Entity decision (Document) Updates Software / Firmware Change control for updates

36 CIP Part 1.5 Audit Approach (2) Testing signatures and rules prior to deployment Testing of recovery from failure Process updates from new or unknown alarms or alerts Process for false positives? Tell us your story help audit team understand your environment 36

37 CIP Part 1.5 Review Need to show separation of method Failure of IPS/IDS must be open Deny by default rules Justification for rules Outgoing rules required Testing of signatures and rules updates Unrestricted rules (any any) heavily scrutinized Tell your story know your connections 37

38 Questions & Answers Forward Together ReliabilityFirst 38

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