Mobile IP and VPN. Overview. Tunneling. Tarik Cicic University of Oslo December 2001

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1 Mobile and VPN Tarik Cicic University of Oslo December 2001 Overview Concept of tunneling Mobile concepts and deployment Virtual Private Network principles 2 Tunneling Technique for modifying data transport Used to transport data with inconsistent addresses belonging to incompatible protocols Packets belonging to Layer n are transported on Layer m, where n <= m Examples: in (L3 in L3) ATM in (L2 in L3) 3 1

2 Regular Data Packets Information packed in the payload Control information in the header Each layer adds its header Header Payload TCP TCP 4 n-in-n Tunneling n-in-m TCP TCP 1 TCP TCP 2 1 TCP (Not drawn to scale ) 5 Proc and Cons + Tunneling is essential for a range of new services - It adds overhead and complexity to the communications We would prefer to not use it, whenever possible 6 2

3 Mobility Mobility Concepts Work in office and at home (DHCP, dialup) Home-network access wherever we are VPN, -SEC, dialup Switch networks without service interruption Mobile Other WLAN roaming, protocol service discovery, cellular technologies 8 Mobile Terminology Care-of-address: temporary address on a foreign network Home Agent (HA): computer on the home network responsible for tracking the mobile node Foreign (FA): computer on the remote network responsible for assigning the care-of addresses and informing HA about it 9 3

4 Home Local Address Care-of Address Basic Concept Sender Internet Tunnel 10 FA sends Careof Address to the HA Mobile node introduces itself to the FA Receiver Foreign Mobile Protocol Components Agent discovery Registration procedure Handoff rules: from one network to another triggered by, e.g., traffic drop, retransmissions Address binding 11 Route Optimization Avoiding the triangle communication through binding updates is at Sender Home Internet 12 Foreign Receiver 4

5 Mobile v6 Node autoconfiguration in foreign network Secure binding updates Source routing through the routing header Sender No FA needed No tunneling v6 Internet Receiver Home 13 Foreign Route Optimization in v6 Routing header normally used If a packet arrives to the HA, it is assumed that the source does not know the COA, and the packet is encapsulated to the mobile node: COA HA Dest Payload Mobile node sends a routing update to the source Src 14 Mobile Summary Mobile still not widely deployed: v4 networks need substantial software to run Mobile (client protocol stack, FA, HA ) v6 still on wait We believe Mobile will become widespread More work on dynamic (smooth) handover security compatibility merge between and telecom solutions 15 5

6 Virtual Private Networks Introduction Technique to interconnect networks on geographically spread locations Public network infrastructure is used instead of leased lines The network looks private to the user, hence term virtual 17 VPN Advantages Cost-saving, as it gains from statistical multiplexing Flexibility (connecting new sites, contract modifications, points of presence etc.) Transfer of servicing tasks to the network provider 18 6

7 Security Reliability and QoS Lack of standards VPN Challenges 19 Security Authentication (how to know that the data is really sent by the peer) Policy enforcement (control lists, firewalls) Transport of confidential data over public networks (encryption) Monitoring network intrusions 20 VPN QoS No QoS support in networks Heavy requirements on ingress points in order to maintain the traffic contracts Lesser efficiency 21 7

8 Where to Implement? Layer 3 ( SEC, GRE, L2TP, MPLS): + Flexibility, simplicity - only, poor standardization Layer 2 (FR, ATM, PPP): + Multi-protocol, integration with access networks - Maintenance, complexity 22 N1a /24 N2a /24 Simple VNP Topology R1 R2 P1 VPN identifiers are needed: - to discriminate packets on destination - to perform policing on their way R3 P2 R4 23 N1b /17 N2b /17 Three VPN Categories Access VPN: remote, dial-in access to a Point of Presence in local area Intranet VPN site-to-site communication Extranet VPN business-to-business mutual access policies enforced 24 8

9 Four VPN Implementation Methods Virtual Leased Lines intranet/extranet, L2 forwarding (e.g. AAL5/) Virtual Private Dial Networks access, L2 (e.g. PPP/L2TP/UDP//PPP/L2) Virtual Private Routed Networks intranet/extranet, L3 Virtual Private LAN Segments intranet, L2 25 Virtual Leased Lines VLL is designed for companies with developed L2 (ATM) intranets Intranet I AAL5 Link Backbone 26 Virtual Dial Network Telephone Network USA POP/ GW Backbone PPP PPP L2TP UDP Link Remote access with full functionality + cost reduction POP/ GW Telephone Network Norway 27 L2TP Server and Security Server PPP Intranet 9

10 Virtual Private Routed Networks Emulation of wide-area routed network Intranet I Most advanced Complex Backbone Virtual inter-domain routing (intra-vprn reachability info) Overlay/Piggybacked model 28 Link Virtual Private LAN Segments Full virtual LAN implementation complete protocol transparency Intranet I L2 Backbone Link Backbone interconnect performs as a L2 bridge 29 VPN Summary Suboptimal in theory, perfect in practice Cost-saving technology Security issues VPN QoS issues Full standardization needed 30 10

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