D-SPACE AND GREENSTONE: COMPARATIVE STUDY & USAGE IN Open DOAR (Directory of open Access Repositories)

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1 e-library Science Research Journal ISSN : Research Papers D-SPACE AND GREENSTONE: COMPARATIVE STUDY & USAGE IN Open DOAR (Directory of open Access Repositories) ASMAT ALI AND SAMBHAJI G. PATIL Faculty Dept. of library & information science University of Kashmir Librarian/Research Student MET's Institute of Engineering Bhujbal Knowledge City, Adgaon, Nashik-3, Maharashtra Abstract Open source software is a powerful ally for information dissemination. It helps to extend liberal traditions of information access. There are various open source software's available on web with diverse range of features and capabilities and are used by different Institutional, Disciplinary, Aggregating and Governmental Repositories. Greenstone, D-Space is widely used open source software systems, and prospective users sometimes wonder which one to adopt. In fact, the aims of these are very different, although their domains of application do overlap. The paper describes the comparative study of prominently used open source software's & their usage in Open DOAR (Directory of open access repositories) KEYWORDS: Open access, open source software, institutional repositories, 1INTRODUCTION Open access archiving, sometimes also referred to as self-archiving, and open access publishing through open access journals are two complementary ways to accomplish open access of the scholarly, refereed, research literature and other outputs of a field. For Harnad (2003), open access archives are the "green" and open access journals the "gold" roads to achieving open access of the refereed, research literature. According to Suber (2005), "Open-access (OA) literature is digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions." Open access to all the research outputs on a global scale is the goal of the OA movement (Harnad, (1995) (BOAI, 2002), and many solutions to reach this goal exist (Hitchcock, 2003). (Cana, 2003) Recognizes Ranganathan's five laws of Library Science and their underlying concepts.a `book' is the basic element of Ranganathan's laws: it contains objective knowledge. This calls for defining the comparative basic element of software development. The term `software' to be the basic element: it contains objective know ledge. Respectively, the Five Laws of the `Software Library' could be: 1

2 The First Law Books are for use Software is for use The Second Law Every readers his or her book (or Books are for all) Every user his or her software (or software is for all) The Third Law Every book its reader. Every software its user The Fourth Law Save the time of the reader. Save the time of the user The Fifth Law Library is a growing organism A software Library is a growing organism As the main philosophy behind open access is that scholarly literature all over the world should be made accessible to all. Many efforts have been seen in the sphere of open access archives, institutional repositories and open access journals and also an open courseware with the help of the availability of open source software's. Open source software is a powerful ally for information dissemination who wishes to extend liberal traditions of information access. A summarized definition from the frequently asked questions (FAQ) follows: "open source promotes software reliability and quality by supporting independent peer review and rapid evolution of source code. The software must be distributed under a license that guarantees the right to read, redistribute, modify and use the software freely." 2.PROBLEM No doubt Self-archiving, the practice of depositing one's works in an OAI-compliant archive, is a key strategy for innovating scholarly communication and achieving open access. Nowadays creation of institutional repositories has been initiated by various libraries and institutions for sharing & preservation of scholarly literature. The present study is an attempt that will aid users in assortment of particular software according to their need in the field of information. 3SCOPE The scope of the study is limited to two open access soft ware's DSpace & Greenstone for assessing coverage of the corpus and usage in open access worldwide. OBJECTIVES The study is undertaken with the following objectives: To conduct comparative study of open source software's (DSpace and Greenstone) prominently used worldwide. To determine the software usage for creation of open repositories globally. To identify the software usage in Repositories of India. 4.METHODOLOGY The work was carried out by carrying thorough study of greenstone software at (http://www.greenstone.org/) & DSpace (http://www.dspace.org/) respectively. In order to achieve above laid down objectives Open DOAR (a database that lists open-access repositories from all over the globe) was selected as the source directory for tracing the usage of software's for creation of open repositories globally as well as in India. Greenstone:- Greenstone (http://www.greenstone.org/) is a suite of software for building and distributing digital library collections that provides a way of organizing information and publishing it on the Internet or on removable media (e.g., CD-ROM/DVD). It is produced by the New Zealand Digital 2

3 Library Project at the University of Waikato, and is distributed as open source, multilingual software in cooperation with UNESCO and the Human Info NGO. The dissemination of educational, scientific and cultural information, and particularly its availability in developing countries, is central to UNESCO's goals, and appropriate, accessible technology is seen as a vital tool in this context. Greenstone's aim is to empower users, particularly in universities, libraries, and other public service institutions throughout the world, to build their own digital library collections in the fields of education, science and culture. UNESCO hopes this will encourage the effective deployment of digital libraries to share information and, where appropriate, place it in the public domain. The key points that Greenstone makes it its core business to support Design and construction of Distribution on the web and/or removable Customized structure depending on available End-user collection-building interface for Reader and librarian interfaces in many Multiplatform operation. DSpace: - DSpace (http://www.dspace.org/) facilitates the building of institutional repositories that capture, distribute and preserve intellectual output at an institutional level. It is produced by HP Labs and designed in partnership with MIT, who note that much of the intellectual output of professors and researchers is in digital form and potentially ephemeral unless the institution has an aggressive policy for collecting and preserving it. DSpace is designed to help capture and organize everything produced by faculty and staff - digitized versions of lecture notes, videos, papers, and data sets into an "institutional repository" that will make it available to future generations in its original digital form. Of course, it has applications in government organizations and commercial enterprises too. DSpace provides a set of tools for helping institutions keep track of their data, organize it in meaningful ways and migrate that data to new formats as old ones become obsolete. It helps establish a system for the curation of the data in a manner that is as automated as possible, in order to handle the increasing volume and complexity of the data being produced. The key points that DSpace makes it its core business to support Repositories at an institutional Self-deposit of digital assets by End-user interface for Assets made available for searching and Data retrievable many years in the Institutional commitment to ensure the continued availability of certain named formats 5.RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Greenstone: - Digital library software, Originated in 1996, Produced by the New Zealand. Digital Library Project at the University of Waikato University Distributed by UNESCO + Human Info NGO Author-oriented (Does not have) Design and construction of collections Distribution on the web and/or removable media Customized structure depending on available metadata End-user collection-building interface for librarians Reader and librarian interfaces in many languages Multiplatform operation 3

4 International users:- provides interfaces for readers in over 40 languages including many minority ones, and has a scheme that helps language maintainers keep the interfaces up to date when new interface features are added. Open source, multilingual software, reader's interface is available in over 40 languages, and the librarian's interface, including all documentation, is available in 4 (E, F, S, R) Distribution on removable media can write collection to a self-installing CD-ROM that operates on all Windows systems Build-in metadata standard: provides a widely used standard (DC) but also allows collectionbuilders to use their own metadata scheme either by extending an existing one in an ad hoc manner or by defining an entirely new one using a metadata set editor. Librarian-oriented supplies an end-user interface with which collections can be designed, customized, and built Dynamic collections: Adding documents to a collection normally involves rebuilding the full-text index and browse structures (though rebuilding can be scheduled to take place automatically) Over 70 countries Preservation (no) Support infrastructure - designed to be easy for anyone with basic computer-literacy skills to install, in a laptop, desktop, or institutional environment Aims to users build own library digital collections V.2.74, v.3.02 (still incomplete, not stable) Supports Open Archive Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting (OAIPMH) and METS metadata standards V1.4 Multiplatform operation Windows UNIX Mac OS/X DSpace: - Institutional repository, launched on Nov 4, 2002, Developed by MIT Libraries and HP Author-oriented -incorporates an interface whereby users (typically authors) can submit documents to the system, and define metadata for them Repositories at an institutional level Self-deposit of digital assets by faculty End-user interface for depositors Assets made available for searching and browsing Data retrievable many years in the future Institutional commitment to ensure the continued availability of certain named formats International users BSD open source NO Distribution on removable media DSpace Imposes a single metadata standard on all collections provides a generic design that can be tailored but not typical end users Dynamic collections -Operates incrementally (though Operations on recently-added documents like extracting text or producing image thumbnails are processed in batch mode) Over 240 Preservation Support infrastructure - designed for institutional use, where there are centralized computing facilities and a competent infrastructure for software support Designed to help capture and organize everything produced by faculty and staff digitized versa of lecture notes, videos, papers, data sets into an institutional repose - Provides basic functionality requ to operate an institutional repose and serve as a base for fu development to address long-t preservation and access issues Multiplatform operation Restricted to UNIX and OS/X Supports Open Archive Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvestin (OAI-PMH) Dublin Core Metadata 4

5 6.SOFTWARE USAGE The various open source software's with different range of features and capabilities available on web are: DSpace, Eprints, Bepress, Opus, Wildfire, ETD-db, XooNIps, Green-stone, Mikrobeta, InfoLib etc. As enlisted in Open DOAR it was found that out of 1250 repositories DSpace turns out to be most popular software among open repositories with 345 repositories using the software and onlyl9 repositories using the green-stone software. Table: Software Usage of Repositories Software Number %age Dspace Greenstone Total USE OF SOFTWARE IN INDIA: India is one of the foremost contributors to DOAR (Directory of open access Repositories) with total number of 30 repositories it was found that the leading software used by repositories in India is DSpace. Out of 30 repositories DSpace is used by 21 while as Greenstone is not in use till now. Table: Software Usage in India Country No. of Repositories Software Used Dspace Greenstone India CONCLUSION Today, open source software's reside in a space that is located somewhere between research and development. Greenstone and DSpace enable librarians to build their own collections, personalize them to their own taste, language, style, etc., and brand them appropriately to reflect the collection's ownership. These software's represent rather different perspectives and have different, and in many ways complementary, goals and strengths. One goal they share is to be flexible, and both can be customized and modified at many different levels including the programming level, since they are open source systems. This gives the ultimate flexibility and yields significant advantages over closedsource systems. There are fertile opportunities for crossover between the two systems. As well as being of great practical benefit to users, studying these opportunities sheds light on many practical issues of interoperability between different digital library systems. These open source software's act as a platform both within the Institute and with other institutions that want to advance the agendas of open access to scholarly information and the management and preservation of digital material. This software's can play as a vehicle for exploring and developing standards, and for ongoing research in digital asset management, archival, and preservation systems. 5

6 REFERENCES: 1BOAI. (2002). Budapest Open Access Initiative. From soros.org/openaccess/html., Retrieved July 2, Cana, mentor. (2003). Open source and Ranganathan's Five Laws of Library Science. From Retrieved July 2, Coleman, Anita, & Roback, Joseph. (2005). Open Access Federation for Library and Information Science: dlist and DL-Harvest. D-Lib Magazine, 11(12). From Retrieved July 2, Hamad, Stevan (1995). A Subversive Proposal. In Ann Okerson & James O'Donnell (Eds.) Scholarly Journals at the Crossroads. A Subversive Proposal for Electronic Publishing. Washington: Association of Research Libraries. From Retrieved July 2, Hamad, Stevan. (2003). The Green and Gold Roads to Open Access. From http: //www.ecs. soton. ac.uk/ harnad/hypermail/amsci/3148.html., Retrieved July 2, Hitchcock, S. (2003). Metalist of Open Access Archives: the Genesis of Institutional Archives and Independent Services. ARL Bimonthly Report 227. From org/newsltr/227/metalist.html., Retrieved July 2, Suber, Peter. (2005). Open Access Overview. From Retrieved July 2,

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