# Tutorial 1 (Week 6) Introduction

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2 COMP 333/933 Computer Networks and Applications origin servers Public Internet institutional network.5 Mbps access link Figure : Figure for web cache problem institutional cache (a) Find the total average response time. Answer: The time to transmit an object of size L over a link of rate R is L/R. The average time is the average size of the object divided by the transmission rate of the link, R: X = (9, bits)/(,5, bits/sec) =.6 sec The traffic intensity on the link is = AB= (.5 requests/sec)(.6 msec/request) =.9. Thus, the average access delay is (.6 sec)/( -.9) = 6 seconds. The total average response time is therefore 6 sec + 2 sec = 8 sec. (b) Now suppose a cache is installed in the institutional LAN. Suppose the hit rate is.4. Find the total response time. Answer: The traffic intensity on the access link is reduced by 4% since the 4% of the requests are satisfied within the institutional network. Thus, the arrival rate of the objects to the link also changes since only 6% of the objects need to be fetched from the origin servers (the rest are obtained from the cache). As a result, B=.5 x.6 =.9 requests/sec. Thus the average access delay is (.6 sec)/[ (.6)(.9)] =.2 seconds. The response time is approximately zero if the request is satisfied by the cache (which happens with probability.4); the average response time is.2 sec + 2 sec = 3.2 sec for cache misses (which happens 6% of the time). So the average response time is (.4)( sec) + (.6)(3.2 sec) =.92 seconds. Thus the average response time is reduced from 8 sec to.92 sec. 2

3 COMP 333/933 Computer Networks and Applications Question: Consider an HTTP client that wants to retrieve a web document at a given URL. The IP address of the HTTP server is initially unknown. The web document at the URL has one embedded GIF image that resides at the same server as the original document. What transport and application layer protocols besides HTTP are needed in this scenario? Answer: Before the HTTP GET request can be sent for the web document, the HTTP client needs to obtain the IP address of the HTTP server hosting the document. So a DNS request is sent out to obtain the hostname to IP address mapping. Recall that DNS runs over UDP. Once the mapping is obtained, the HTTP client first establishes a TCP connection with the server (Recall that HTTP runs over TCP). Following the TCP connection establishment a GET request for the web document is sent over this connection. In summary, the following are the protocols that are used: Application layer protocols: DNS and HTTP Transport layer protocols: UDP for DNS; TCP for HTTP Transport Layer Problem Set 3, Question 3: Solution is in the file Transport_Q3_Answer.pdf 3

5 COMP 333/933 Computer Networks and Applications Question: Look at the graph in Figure 3 showing how the congestion window is changed over time in a TCP Reno connection. Certain parts of the graph that are of extra interest have been marked with numbers. Looking at the graph, answer the following questions. Figure 3: Congestion Window for a TCP Reno Connection (a) What is the difference of the loss events happening at and 2 in the figure? Explain why the effect on the size of the congestion window is different in the two cases. Answer: At a loss was detected through triple duplicate ACKs, while at 2 it was detected through a timeout. Since a timeout is considered worse than triple duplicate ACKs, the congestion window is decreased more drastically in that case. (b) Look at the circled segment marked as 3. What phase do you think that TCP is in? Answer: Slow Start. (c) Look at the circled segment marked as 4. What phase do you think that TCP is in? Answer: Congestion Avoidance. (d) Why is the congestion window increased more rapidly in 3 than at 4? Answer: To rapidly increase the transmission rate so that it can approach the capacity of the network briskly. This prevents the wastage of resources that would result with additive increase. Question: UDP and TCP use s complement for their checksms. Suppose you have the following three 8-bit bytes:,,. What is the s complement of the sum of these 8-bit bytes? (Note although TCP and UDP use 6-bit words in computing the checksum, for this problem we will only consider 8-bit summands). Show 5

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