Load as a Resource: Examples from Field Tests

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1 Load as a Resource: Examples from Field Tests Sila Kiliccote Demand Response Research Center November 19, 2014 IRED 2014

2 Presentation outline Background on R&D activities on DR Buildings Communication ISO signals Field Tests Intermittent Resource Management Pilot 2: Santa Rita Jail Synchronous Reserves: Walmart Regulation: Los Angeles Air Force Base Conclusions 2

3 DR Research Motivation Early on Peak load growing faster Load duration curve Later Integration of renewable generation WA: 15% by OR: 25% by 2025 (large utilities) 5-10% by 2025 (smaller utilities) CA: 33% by 2020 AK: 50% by 2025 NV: 25% by 2025 AZ: 15% by 2025 MT: 15% by 2015 UT: 20% by 2025 ND: 10% by 2015 SD: 10% by 2015 KS: 20% of peak demand by 2020 CO: 30% by 2020 (IOUs) 10% by 2020 (co-ops and munis) NM: 20% by 2020 (IOUs) 10% by 2020 (co-ops) MN: 25% by 2025 Xcel: 30% by 2020 WI: 10% by 2015 IA: 105 MW by 1999 IL: 25% by 2025 MO: 15% by 2021 OK: 15% by 2015 MI: 10% by 2015 VT: 20% by 2017 NY: 30% by 2015 PA: 8.5% by 2020 NJ: 22.5% by 2020 OH: 12.5% by 2024 MD: 20% by 2022 DE: 25% by 2025 ME: 40% by 2017 MA: 11.1% by %/yr RI: 16% by 2019 DC: 20% by 2020 VA: 15% by 2025 NH: 23.8% by 2025 CT: 23% by 2020 NC: 12.5% by 2021 (IOUs) 10% by 2018 (co-ops and munis) Source: Berkeley Lab 3 HI: 40% by 2030 TX: 5,880 MW by 2015 Mandatory RPS Non-Binding Goal

4 Demand-side activities Increasing Interactions with Grid (OpenADR & Smart Grid) Solar Resources Sold Back to Grid OpenADR Daily Energy Efficiency Daily Time-Of- Use Energy (TOU Rates) Dynamic Peak Load Management (Dynamic Rates) Scheduled Demand Response Real-Time Demand Response (Ancillary Reserves) Regulation (Ancillary Services) Service Levels Optimized Time of Use Optimized Service Levels Temporarily Reduced Increasing Levels of Granularity of Control Increasing Speed of Telemetry 4

5 OpenADR (Open Automated DR) Has Been Developed and Deployed Provides open standardized interface to allow electricity providers to communicate DR signals directly to customers using a common language and existing communications such as Internet. Pricing Data Models Physical Communications Control Strategies Price Signal $/kwh Data Model OpenADR Comm Internet Auto-DR Client Server End-Use Controls Building Action 5

6 Global temp. adjustment Duct static pres. Increase SAT Increase Fan VFD limit CHW temp. Increase Fan qty. reduction Pre-cooling Cooling valve limit Boiler lockout Slow recovery Extended shed period Common area light dim Office area light dim Turn off light Dimmable ballast Bi-level switching Non-critical process shed DR Strategies Evaluated for Commercial Buildings HVAC Lighting Other Building use ACWD Office, lab X X X X X X X B of A Office, data center X X X X X Chabot Museum X X 2530 Arnold Office X X 50 Douglas Office X X MDF Detention facility X Echelon Hi-tech office X X X X X X X X Centerville Junior Highschool X X Irvington Highschool X X Gilead 300 Office X Gilead 342 Office, Lab X X Gilead 357 Office, Lab X X IKEA EPaloAlto Furniture retail X IKEA Emeryville Furniture retail X IKEA WSacto Furniture retail Oracle Rocklin Office X X Safeway Stockton Supermarket X Solectron Office, Manufacture X X Svenhard's Bakery X Sybase Hi-tech office X Target Antioch Retail X X Target Bakersfield Retail X X Target Hayward Retail X X X X Walmart Fresno Retail X 6 X Global temperature reset migrated to State Energy Code

7 Evaluated Baseline Methodologies x over y baselines: Go back y representative days, select x days (top x peak days, etc.) and average every hour. Adjustments: multiplier calculated based on ratio of measured and calculated data during a representative time period Ex: 10/10 baseline with morning adjustment 7

8 0:00 1:00 2:00 3:00 4:00 5:00 6:00 7:00 8:00 9:00 10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00 17:00 18:00 19:00 20:00 21:00 22:00 23:00 Power [MW] 12:00 AM 1:00 AM 2:00 AM 3:00 AM 4:00 AM 5:00 AM 6:00 AM 7:00 AM 8:00 AM 9:00 AM 10:00 AM 11:00 AM 12:00 PM 1:00 PM 2:00 PM 3:00 PM 4:00 PM 5:00 PM 6:00 PM 7:00 PM 8:00 PM 9:00 PM 10:00 PM 11:00 PM 12:00 AM 0:05 0:45 1:25 2:05 2:45 3:25 4:05 4:45 5:25 6:05 6:45 7:25 8:05 8:45 9:25 10:05 10:45 11:25 12:05 12:45 13:25 14:05 14:45 15:25 16:05 16:45 17:25 18:05 18:45 19:25 20:05 20:45 21:25 22:05 22:45 23:25 Whole Building Power (kw) Demand (kw) OpenADR in DR Programs in California and Beyond Hot summer afternoons day-ahead price response OpenADR Cumulative 7/9/2008 Shed in July 2008 CPP MA Baseline DR and Ancillary Services non-spinning reserves, 2010 PLP EVENT Time of Day Cold winter mornings, Test Period DR events, 2009 Actual 5 min. Data Hourly Forecast with reduction Forecasted Data OpenADR is one of the NIST Smart Grid Standards. Over 260 MW of OpenADR in CA 8 Countries including China, India, Korea, Australia, Scotland, Ireland, Netherlands, Canada 70+ companies with products! 0.0 Seattle Municipal Tower Mckinstry Target - T1284 3/10 BL OAT Reg BL 8

9 End-to-end Grid Integration for Electricity Reliability Fast Demand Response Can loads act like generators? Development of architecture communication, control and telemetry (e.g., latency) Understanding markets and market participation rules Research concepts supported with field tests 9

10 Open Smart Energy Gateway Purpose enable greater use of both near real-time and high resolution (10 sec) meter data Methods Gateway translates SEP 1.x to more secure protocol (e.g. WiFi) Use Cases 1.Energy monitoring - Consumers can collect near real time energy consumption data 2. Enable near real time DR aggregation- Time stamped energy data can be aggregated to develop controllable loads for advanced DR programs that need kw feedback 3. Fast DR May provide lowest-cost telemetry for Fast DR 4. Load disaggregation 10 sec data provides information to identify end-use loads 10

11 LBNL s Wholesale DR Pilots Regulation with Electric Vehicles (on going) Funded by DoD and CEC Partners: Akuacom/Honeywell, Kisensum, SCE, CPUC, CAISO Integrating Renewable Resources - Phase 2 (ending in December) Funded by PG&E Partners: Olivine Synchronous Reserves PJM (completed) Funded by DoE Partners: IPKeys 11

12 LA Air Force Base Los Angeles Air Force Base 90,000 m 2 office complex 4 MW peak electrical load 12

13 Applying DR experience: Vehicle-to-Grid Integration V2G integration adds key capabilities to demonstrate V2G the full electric grid integration of all-electric fleets. Optimal charging and bidding into wholesale regulation markets of a fleet of 100% plug-in electric vehicle (PEV PEVs will be given additional fleet management capabilities and enabled for OpenADR Optimization to schedule charging and discharging of PEVs to minimize energy costs and maximize benefits from DR and ancillary services markets Integration of PEVs into energy system to examine their potential role in base microgrids Fleet Bosch s emobility Management Front end interface and databases for PEV fleet management and tools for charging services. Fleet Management Simulation/Modeling Optimal scheduling of the PEV fleet using Distributed Energy Resource Customer Adoption (DER-CAM) Model. OpenADR (DRAS) Participate in DR and Ancillary Services markets using the U.S. Smart Grid standard, OpenADR.

14 Integrating Renewable Management Pilot Fundamentals IRM Phase 2 is a monthly program with ISO bidding requirements: 3 or 6-hour commitment with Day-Ahead notification Pay $10 / kw-month for capacity Settles in ISO market CAISO market participation fees covered by PG&E Requires 6-month customer commitment 7 participants active in the market today. 3 HVAC (one of which is also using Lighting) Rest is using batteries, EVs, Fuel cell. 14

15 Alameda County - Santa Rita Jail (SRJ) 3 MW peak load facility CERTS microgrid functionality DER On-site: photovoltaic: 1.2 MW peak fuel cell: 1 MW molten carbonate electric storage: 2 MW 2MWh Li-ion 15

16 Alameda County Santa Rita Jail Enrolled in January HVAC, Lighting and Fuel Cell Monthly Bid: Three hours 24 days At or above Net Benefits Test price 450 kw in Feb, 810 kw starting in March Total payments to date: $69,161 + $649 = $69, Date Feb 3 Feb 4 Feb 5 Feb 7 Feb 10 Feb 11 Bid and Award Start 8 am 8 am 7 am 7 am 8 am 8 am Capacity payment Energy payment $4,361 $536 April am $8,100 $68 July am $8,100 $45

17 Performance 17

18 Background - PJM PJM is a Regional Transmission Organization (RTO) Operates regional transmission grid as well as wholesale energy and ancillary services markets In 13 states and DC Largest ISO/RTO in the country (by load) Most conducive rules for demand response for AS Source: FERC.gov

19 Synchronous Reserve Demo - Site HVAC and Lighting in a big box retail through central building energy management system control Walmart Store in Quakertown, PA BMS Honeywell Novar Metering Schneider M820 Control actions: HVAC thru setpoint adjustment Lighting thru 1/3 shed of perimeter lights

20 Synchronous Reserve Demo Comm. Architecture Client polled using http every 20 seconds Client connected via cellular network Testing with new PJM automated M2M signaling next month

21 Synchronous Reserve Demo - Response Loads successfully responded to synchronous reserve tests Lighting response ~2% within 2 minutes HVAC response ~ 4% immediately or preemptively (?) Load response achieved without noticeable rebound

22 Regulation Demonstration - Site A heat pump cooling a small laboratory space was retrofitted with a VFD on supply fan Schneider Electric s VFD laboratory in Knightdale, NC Connected to VFD through PLC Telemetry Schneider M820 Controls: 0.5 Hz frequency adjustments Frequency range: 55 and 65 Hz.

23 Regulation Demonstration Comm. Architecture Signals pushed to client via XMPP Wired internet connection At the time of tests, connection with PJM not established

24 Conclusion System operators insist that DR looks like a generator Technology for fast DR is available. Thank you! Challenges include: - Uncertain value - Lack of standards/streamlined integration platforms - Cost and availability of telemetry - Measurement and verification issues - baselines - Regulatory barriers 24

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