# The Fate of the Universe

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

1 The Fate of the Universe How one set of equations changed an entire field of science Brian Kay PHY 495

2 Objective Examine the Friedmann equation and its impact on our understanding of the evolution of the universe Produce numerical and analytical solutions to the Friemann equation The results will provide us with the geometry, current age, and ultimate fate of the universe

3 Outline Part 1 - Early 20 th century cosmology Part 2 Understanding the Friedmann Equation Part 3 Solving the Friedmann equation

4 The Friedmann Equation

5 Part I The origins of cosmology

6 Alexander A. Friedmann ( ) The Man Who Made the Universe Expand ndr_fridman.png Soviet mathematician and meteorologist Most famous for contributions to cosmology First person to mathematically predict an expanding universe (1922) Derived from Einstein's general relativity Einstein initially dismissed Friedmann s equations as nothing more that a mathematical curiosity Developed his equation based on an isotropic and homogenous universe

7 Expanding Universe First general relativistic models by Einstein predicted a contracting universe (1917) Introduction of Cosmological Constant by Einstein 1922 the Friedmann equation predicted an expanding universe 1928 Georges Lemaitre independently concluded the same Lemaitre was the first to propose a primeval atom theory, later known as the Big Bang

8 Edwin Hubble Confirmed the existence of other galaxies besides the Milky way (1924) Vesto Slipher first discovered the Doppler shift in the spectra of galaxies, Hubble used this to prove the universe is expanding (1929) Velocities of receding galaxies from Earth are proportional to their distance from Earth Caused Einstein to abandon his cosmological constant

9 Hubble s Constant Gives the speed of a galaxy in km/s that is 1 Mpc away The inverse H 0-1 is known as Hubble time referred to as the expansion time scale Hubble first calculated H 0 to be 500 km s -1 Mpc -1 H 0 = 2.26 x s -1 H Gyr

10 Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMB) Radiation from the Big Bang first theorized in 1948 by Gamow, Alpher, and Herman Steady State (SS) was an alternative theory develpoed in 1948 by Hoyle, Gold, and Bondi SS claimed that new matter was continuously being created as the universe expanded to keep the average density of matter equal over time Discovered in 1964 by radio astronomers Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson CMB caused most cosmologists to accept Big Bang and reject SS COBE ( ), WMAP ( ), Plank Spacecraft -No data yet Uniform distribution suggesting an isotropic and homogeneous universe The mean temperature is ± 0002 K

11 Rate of Expansion Two teams in the 1990 s set out to show the rate deceleration of the universe They both independently concluded the expansion is accelerating Appears to be a repulsive force countering gravity now dubbed dark energy Now cosmologists are reevaluating the importance of the cosmological constant

12 Part II Understanding the Friedmann Equation

13 Robertson-Walker Metric Derived from Einstein s general relativity A space-time metric that satisfies the principle of a homogeneous, isotropic universe The geometric structure should remain constant with time in comoving coordinates (r, θ, φ) and physical distances scale with a(t) Represents the κ value in the Friedmann equation with values of either (1, -1, 0)

14 Cosmic Scale Factor a(t) Represents relative expansion of the universe Dimensionless function of time Also called the Robertson-Walker scale factor Relates proper distance between a pair of objects undergoing isotropic and homogeneous expansion

15 Curvature Open, closed, flat Data suggests we live in a flat universe Derived from Robertson-Walker metric Κ is the curvature constant R 0 is the radius of curvature Determines how the universe will end

16 Density is Destiny! Consists of matter, radiation, and most likely a cosmological constant (Λ) Einstein s biggest blunder might have been correct all along. (Dark energy) More convenient to use the ratio of the density to the critical density κ/ R 0 = 0 gives the critical density The density parameter Ω ultimately governs whether the curvature is: negative (Ω < 1) positive (Ω > 1) flat (Ω = 1)

17 Rewriting the Friedmann equation in integral form

18 Part III Analytic and numerical solutions to the Friedmann equation

19 a(t) Matter Only ( κ = 0) Einstein-de Sitter Einstein de Sitter = H 0 t

20 a(t) Matter Only ( κ = 1) Exact Solution These are closed universes with a finite time At some time in the future expansion will cease and all matter will collapse in on itself called the Big Crunch 12 Matter Only Positve Curvature H 0 t

21 a(t) Expansion will continue for all time. Universe ends in the Big Chill Matter Only ( κ = -1) Exact Solution Matter Only Negative Curvature H 0 t

22 a(t) Matter Only Numerical Solutions Matter Only Numerical H 0 t

23 Matter + Λ (κ = 0)

24 a a Matter + Λ (κ = 0) 2.5 Matter + Universe 30 Matter + Universe H 0 t H 0 t

25 Matter + Λ Curved Loitering is when during expansion a remains almost constant for a long period of time Could be a big bounce universe, however, we cannot calculate a present time with no beginning time Could lead to unphysical, forbidden range of the scale factor

26 a(t) Benchmark model Considered the best fit to the currently available observational data with t 0 = 14Gyr Is spatially flat and contains radiation, matter, and a dominant cosmological constant Benchmark Plot benchmark benchmark no radiation H 0 t

27 Conclusion

28 Bibliogrpahy Ryden, Barbara Sue. Introduction to Cosmology. San Francisco: Addison-Wesley, Print Tropp, Eduard A. Alexander a Friedmann The Man Who Made the Universe Expand.Cambridge: Cambridge Univ Pr, Print.

### The Expanding Universe. Prof Jim Dunlop University of Edinburgh

The Expanding Universe Prof Jim Dunlop University of Edinburgh Cosmology: The Study of Structure & Evolution of the Universe Small & Hot Big & Cold Observational Evidence for the Expansion of the Universe

### Why is the Night Sky Dark?

Why is the Night Sky Dark? Cosmology Studies of the universe as a whole Today Brief history of ideas (Early Greeks Big Bang) The expanding universe (Hubble, Relativity, density & destiny) An alternative

### Our UNIVERSE: where it all came from.

Our UNIVERSE: where it all came from. QUESTIONS OF THE DAY. How did the Universe start? How did the Universe evolve up to the present day? What is the fate of our Universe? The theory of general relativity

### History of the universe!

Cosmology & the CMB - Cosmology: Overview - Cosmic Microwave Background - Large Scale Structure (Wed) - CMB Fluctuations (Wed) Wednesday: HW#8 presentations Nov 02, 2015 History of the universe Discovery

### Theoretical Astrophysics & Cosmology Spring 2015

Theoretical Astrophysics & Cosmology Spring 2015 Lectures: Lucio Mayer & Alexandre Refregier Problem sessions: Andrina Nicola & Aleksandra Sokolowska Lectures take place at: Wednesday at ETH: 13-15 room

### World of Particles Big Bang Thomas Gajdosik. Big Bang (model)

Big Bang (model) What can be seen / measured? basically only light (and a few particles: e ±, p, p, ν x ) in different wave lengths: microwave to γ-rays in different intensities (measured in magnitudes)

### Federation of Galaxy Explorers Space Science

Federation of Galaxy Explorers Space Science Once Upon A Big Bang Learning Objectives: 1. Explain how the universe was created using the Big Bang theory. 2. Understand how the existence of Cosmic Background

### The History and Philosophy of Astronomy

Astronomy 350L (Fall 2006) The History and Philosophy of Astronomy (Lecture 23: Steady State vs Big Bang) Instructor: Volker Bromm TA: Jarrett Johnson The University of Texas at Austin Steady State vs

### The Big Bang Theory David Terr, Ph.D 4/10/13

The Big Bang Theory David Terr, Ph.D 4/10/13 The Big Bang theory is the currently accepted theory of the origin of the universe. According to this theory, the observable universe was formed approximately

### Einstein and the big bang

Einstein and the big bang A new perspective on Einstein s universe The Big Bang: Fact or Fiction? Cormac O Raifeartaigh FRAS (WIT) Cosmology: the study of the universe How big is the universe? Is it finite

### Big Bang Cosmology. Big Bang vs. Steady State

Big Bang vs. Steady State Big Bang Cosmology Perfect cosmological principle: universe is unchanging in space and time => Steady-State universe - Bondi, Hoyle, Gold. True? No! Hubble s Law => expansion

### Void Cosmology-Better Explains What Happens First, Background Radiation, Voids in Space, Hydrogen Concentrations

From the SelectedWorks of James T Struck 2015 Void Cosmology-Better Explains What Happens First, Background Radiation, Voids in Space, Hydrogen Concentrations James T Struck Available at: http://works.bepress.com/james_struck/63/

### Lecture 19 Big Bang Cosmology

The Nature of the Physical World Lecture 19 Big Bang Cosmology Arán García-Bellido 1 News Exam 2: you can do better! Presentations April 14: Great Physicist life, Controlled fusion April 19: Nuclear power,

### Your years of toil Said Ryle to Hoyle Are wasted years, believe me. The Steady State Is out of date Unless my eyes deceive me.

Your years of toil Said Ryle to Hoyle Are wasted years, believe me. The Steady State Is out of date Unless my eyes deceive me. My telescope Has dashed your hope; Your tenets are refuted. Let me be terse:

### Astronomy & Physics Resources for Middle & High School Teachers

Astronomy & Physics Resources for Middle & High School Teachers Gillian Wilson http://www.faculty.ucr.edu/~gillianw/k12 A cosmologist is.... an astronomer who studies the formation and evolution of the

### Dark Matter and the Universe

Dark Matter and the Universe Topic 1 Dark Matter, Dark Energy and the Cosmology Revolution What is the real structure of our Universe and how do we know it is so? Contents of Topic 1 This first Topic provides

### Ralph Alpher, the Big Bang, and the Prize(s) USU Physics Colloquium September 4, 2007

Ralph Alpher, the Big Bang, and the Prize(s) USU Physics Colloquium September 4, 2007 Ralph Asher Alpher passed away on August 12, 2007 at the age of 86 He made two of the most important contributions

### Lecture 15 Fundamentals of Physics Phys 120, Fall 2015 Cosmology

Lecture 15 Fundamentals of Physics Phys 120, Fall 2015 Cosmology A. J. Wagner North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58108 Fargo, October 20, 2015 Overview A history of our view of the universe The Big

### The Origin, Evolution, and Fate of the Universe

The Origin, Evolution, and Fate of the Universe Announcements n Homework # 8 is available as of this morning in OWL. Due date for is Friday Dec 9th n Exam # 3 will take place on Tuesday, December 6 th

### Lecture 17: Dark Energy & The Big Bang

Lecture 17: Dark Energy & The Big Bang As with all course material (including homework, exams), these lecture notes are not be reproduced, redistributed, or sold in any form. Solution? ~1998 astronomers

### Pretest Ch 20: Origins of the Universe

Name: _Answer key Pretest: _2_/ 58 Posttest: _58_/ 58 Pretest Ch 20: Origins of the Universe Vocab/Matching: Match the definition on the left with the term on the right by placing the letter of the term

### A Century of Paradigm Shifts in our Thinking About the Universe

A Century of Paradigm Shifts in our Thinking About the Universe George R. Blumenthal Chancellor, UC Santa Cruz Professor of Astronomy and Astrophysics Why start 100 years ago? Before 1910 there was no

### THE BIG BANG. Ian Howley General Relativity Dr. Zdzislaw Musielak 8 December 2010

THE BIG BANG Ian Howley General Relativity Dr. Zdzislaw Musielak 8 December 2010 1 2 OUTLINE Early Theoretical Work and Observational Evidence Timeline of the Big Bang t=0 Shortcomings Inflation The Big

### Topic 3. Evidence for the Big Bang

Topic 3 Primordial nucleosynthesis Evidence for the Big Bang! Back in the 1920s it was generally thought that the Universe was infinite! However a number of experimental observations started to question

### Astro 102 Test 5 Review Spring 2016. See Old Test 4 #16-23, Test 5 #1-3, Old Final #1-14

Astro 102 Test 5 Review Spring 2016 See Old Test 4 #16-23, Test 5 #1-3, Old Final #1-14 Sec 14.5 Expanding Universe Know: Doppler shift, redshift, Hubble s Law, cosmic distance ladder, standard candles,

### The Big Bang: History of a Scientific Theory

1 The Big Bang: History of a Scientific Theory The evolution of the world can be compared to a display of fireworks that has just ended: some few red wisps, ashes and smoke. Standing on a well-chilled

### The Birth of Our Universe Today s Lecture:

The Birth of Our Universe Today s Lecture: (Chapter 19, pages 454-481) Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) The first few minutes of the Universe Inflation! Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) A. Penzias and

### II Jose Plinio Baptista School of Cosmology March CMB theory. David Wands. Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation University of Portsmouth

II Jose Plinio Baptista School of Cosmology March 014 CMB theory David Wands Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation University of Portsmouth Part 1: overview introduction cosmological parameters a brief

### Einstein s legacy: Relativistic cosmology

Einstein s legacy: Relativistic cosmology Jayant V. Narlikar Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Post Bag 4, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411 007, India This review gives a historical account

### The Origin and Evolution of the Universe

The Origin and Evolution of the Universe 9.7 People have been wondering about the Universe for a long time. They have asked questions such as Where did the Universe come from? How big is it? What will

### Interesting note: When the Big Bang theory came out, many Christians embraced it. Why?

Cosmology Interesting note: When the Big Bang theory came out, many Christians embraced it. Why? Because the prevailing scientific view about the Universe in the early 1900 s was: The Universe is infinite

### What was before the Big Bang?

1 / 68 Std. What was before the Big Bang? of the Very Robert Brandenberger McGill University February 21, 2013 2 / 68 Outline Std. 1 What is? 2 Standard Big Bang 3 ary 4 String 5 3 / 68 Plan Std. 1 What

### Unit 1.7: Earth and Space Science The Structure of the Cosmos

Lesson Summary: This week students will search for evidence provided in passages that lend support about the structure and organization of the Cosmos. Then students will summarize a passage. Materials

### The first minutes of the Universe released energy which changed to matter, forming stars and galaxies. Introduction

THE COSMIC ENGINE CHAPTER 18 The Universe begins The first minutes of the Universe released energy which changed to matter, forming stars and galaxies Introduction Cosmology, the study of the Universe

### Observing the Origin of the Universe. Edward L. (Ned) Wright UCLA 20 October 2006

Observing the Origin of the Universe Edward L. (Ned) Wright UCLA 20 October 2006 Old Style Cosmology Cosmology is an Observational Science We can t do experiments on the Universe. We can t change the initial

### Knox Academy, Haddington. Our Dynamic Universe. 4. The Expanding Universe and Big Bang Theory

Knox Academy, Haddington Our Dynamic Universe 4. The Expanding Universe and Big Bang Theory 2014 Our Dynamic Universe: The Expanding Universe and Big Bang Theory Contents Unit Specification... 2 Notes...

### Evolution of the Universe from 13 to 4 Billion Years Ago

Evolution of the Universe from 13 to 4 Billion Years Ago Prof. Dr. Harold Geller hgeller@gmu.edu http://physics.gmu.edu/~hgeller/ Department of Physics and Astronomy George Mason University Unity in the

### WHAT EMERGED FROM THE BIG BANG?

2 WHAT EMERGED FROM THE BIG BANG? David Christian explains how the Big Bang theory developed during the 20th century. This three-part lecture focuses on how the evidence for the expansion of the Universe

### The Rise of Big Bang Models, from Myth to Theory and Observations. Jean-Pierre Luminet

The Rise of Big Bang Models, from Myth to Theory and Observations Jean-Pierre Luminet Laboratoire Univers et Théories, CNRS-UMR 8102, Observatoire de Paris, F-92195 Meudon cedex, France jean-pierre.luminet@obspm.fr

### Modern Ways of Dating the Universe. Martha P. Haynes Goldwin Smith Professor of Astronomy Cornell University. CAU Study Tour June 2014

Modern Ways of Dating the Universe Martha P. Haynes Goldwin Smith Professor of Astronomy Cornell University CAU Study Tour June 2014 What does the night sky look like? The disk of the Milky Way, our galaxy

### Cosmology - The Story of our Universe. Raghu Rangarajan Physical Research Laboratory Ahmedabad

Cosmology - The Story of our Universe Raghu Rangarajan Physical Research Laboratory Ahmedabad What is Cosmology? Study of our Universe today galaxies, clusters, superclusters Understanding the past history

### SCIENCE 101 DISTANCES IN ASTRONOMY LECTURE NOTES

SCIENCE 0 DISTANCES IN ASTRONOMY LECTURE NOTES Distances in the Solar System Distance to Venus can be obtained using radar ranging Send signal, determine how long it takes to return Radio waves move at

### Chapter 15 Cosmology: Will the universe end?

Cosmology: Will the universe end? 1. Who first showed that the Milky Way is not the only galaxy in the universe? a. Kepler b. Copernicus c. Newton d. Hubble e. Galileo Ans: d 2. The big bang theory and

### Astronomy 330. Outline. Big Bang. Putting it all together: ! The early Universe The origin of H! The probable fate of the Universe

Astronomy 330 Outline! The early Universe The origin of H! The probable fate of the Universe This class (Lecture 4): Origin of Elements Next Class: End of the Universe Presentation Synopsis due Thur. Music:

### The Fundamental Forces of Nature

Gravity The Fundamental Forces of Nature There exist only four fundamental forces Electromagnetism Strong force Weak force Gravity Gravity 2 The Hierarchy Problem Gravity is far weaker than any of the

### Malcolm S. Longair. Galaxy Formation. With 141 Figures and 12 Tables. Springer

Malcolm S. Longair Galaxy Formation With 141 Figures and 12 Tables Springer Contents Part I Preliminaries 1. Introduction, History and Outline 3 1.1 Prehistory 3 1.2 The Theory of the Expanding Universe

### The Cosmic Microwave Background and the Big Bang Theory of the Universe

The Cosmic Microwave Background and the Big Bang Theory of the Universe 1. Concepts from General Relativity 1.1 Curvature of space As we discussed earlier, Einstein s equivalence principle states that

### Astrophysics Syllabus

Astrophysics Syllabus Center for Talented Youth Johns Hopkins University Text: Astronomy Today: Stars and Galaxies, Volume II Author: Chaisson and McMillan Course Objective: The purpose of this course

### Origins of the Cosmos Summer 2016. Pre-course assessment

Origins of the Cosmos Summer 2016 Pre-course assessment In order to grant two graduate credits for the workshop, we do require you to spend some hours before arriving at Penn State. We encourage all of

### thermal history of the universe and big bang nucleosynthesis

thermal history of the universe and big bang nucleosynthesis Kosmologie für Nichtphysiker Markus Pössel (vertreten durch Björn Malte Schäfer) Fakultät für Physik und Astronomie, Universität Heidelberg

### What Energy Drives the Universe? Andrei Linde

What Energy Drives the Universe? Andrei Linde Two major cosmological discoveries:! The new-born universe experienced rapid acceleration (inflation)! A new (slow) stage of acceleration started 5 billion

### Einstein's Cosmological Principle: the foundation of cosmology

Einstein's Cosmological Principle: the foundation of cosmology The Universe, on average, is homogeneous (equal density everywhere if averaged over a sufficiently large volume) and isotropic (it looks the

### Lecture 2 - The current state of fundamental physics

Lecture 2 - The current state of fundamental physics 1) Einstein & General Relativity Gravity as Spacetime Curvature Gravitational Radiation, LIGO & LISA Cosmology & the Expanding Universe Dark Energy

### Einstein s cosmological legacy: From the big bang to black holes

School of Mathematical and Computing Sciences Te Kura Pangarau, Rorohiko Einstein s cosmological legacy: From the big bang to black holes Matt Visser Overview: 2005 marks 100 years since Einstein discovered

### The facts we know today will be the same tomorrow but today s theories may tomorrow be obsolete.

The Scale of the Universe Some Introductory Material and Pretty Pictures The facts we know today will be the same tomorrow but today s theories may tomorrow be obsolete. A scientific theory is regarded

### AST Cosmology and extragalactic astronomy. Lecture 1. Introduction/Background

AST4320 - Cosmology and extragalactic astronomy Lecture 1 Introduction/Background 1 Relevant information Class times + day: Tuesday + Wednesday 12:15-14:00. Group sessions: Monday 14:15-16:00, led by Max

### GENERAL RELATIVITY & the UNIVERSE

GENERAL RELATIVITY & the UNIVERSE PCES 3.32 It was realised almost immediately after Einstein published his theory that it possessed solutions for the configuration of spacetime, in the presence of a homogeneous

### WHEN AN OBSCURE RUSSIAN METEOROLOGIST named

Was Cosmic Inflation the Two thousand years after Lucretius proclaimed that nothing can be created from nothing, inflationary cosmology asserts that he was wrong. WHEN AN OBSCURE RUSSIAN METEOROLOGIST

### When the Wall fell I was only eleven years old. I must admit that I did not fully appreciate the significance of the event at that age.

Breaking the Wall of the Beginning of Time. How Cosmology Will Tell Us What Happened Before the Big Bang. Jean-Luc Lehners, Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics, Potsdam, Germany. When the Wall

### 10 Things Everyone Should Know About the Universe

10 Things Everyone Should Know About the Universe Dragan Huterer KICP, University of Chicago 10 Things Everyone Should Know About the Universe p.1/12 1. What is Dark Matter? DM is the unseen matter that

### Cormac O Raifeartaigh. Waterford Institute of Technology Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies

A new perspective on Einstein s cosmology Cormac O Raifeartaigh Waterford Institute of Technology Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies The Big Bang: Fact or Fiction? Brendan McCann, Michael O Keeffe (Waterford

### PROLOGUE: THE BIG PICTURE

1 PROLOGUE: THE BIG PICTURE 1.1 In the Beginning As the Universe expands, galaxies get separated from one another, and the average density of matter over a large volume of space is reduced. If we imagine

### On the Size of Einstein s Spherically Symmetric Universe

On the Size of Einstein s Spherically Symmetric Universe Stephen J Crothers Queensland, Australia E-mail: thenarmis@yahoocom It is alleged by the Standard Cosmological Model that Einstein s Universe is

### Unit 1 Our Dynamic Universe Section 6 The Expanding Universe

North Berwick High School Department of Physics Higher Physics Unit 1 Our Dynamic Universe Section 6 The Expanding Universe Section 6 The Expanding Universe Note Making Make a dictionary with the meanings

### Lecture I: Structure Formation in the Universe. Avi Loeb Harvard University

Lecture I: Structure Formation in the Universe Avi Loeb Harvard University we are here Cradle Mountain Lodge Tasmania, January 2008 The initial conditions of the Universe can be summarized on a single

### Espacio,, Tiempo y materia en el Cosmos. J. Alberto Lobo ICE/CISC-IEEC

Espacio,, Tiempo y materia en el J. Alberto Lobo ICE/CISC-IEEC Summary Part I: I General Relativity Theory Part II: General Relativistic Cosmology Concepts of motion: From Aristotle to Newton Newton s

### Chapter 23 The Beginning of Time

Chapter 23 The Beginning of Time 23.1 The Big Bang Our goals for learning What were conditions like in the early universe? What is the history of the universe according to the Big Bang theory? What were

### Our Expanding Universe: Humanity s changing vision of the cosmos

Our Expanding Universe: Humanity s changing vision of the cosmos Structure and Evolution of the Universe Workshop What is Cosmology? The Study of the Universe: its structure, origin, evolution, and destiny

### 165 points. Name Date Period. Column B a. Cepheid variables b. luminosity c. RR Lyrae variables d. Sagittarius e. variable stars

Name Date Period 30 GALAXIES AND THE UNIVERSE SECTION 30.1 The Milky Way Galaxy In your textbook, read about discovering the Milky Way. (20 points) For each item in Column A, write the letter of the matching

### DYNAMICAL SYSTEMS APPROACH TO F(R) GRAVITY

DYNAMICAL SYSTEMS APPROACH TO F(R) GRAVITY Sulona Kandhai University of Cape Town, South Africa Supervised by Prof. Peter Dunsby FIELD EQUATIONS OF F(R) GRAVITY Field equations are derived from the generalised

### MASS BOOM VERSUS BIG BANG: EINSTEIN WAS RIGHT

MASS BOOM VERSUS BIG BANG: EINSTEIN WAS RIGHT Antonio Alfonso-Faus E.U.I.T. Aeronáutica Pl Cardenal Cisneros s/n 28040 Madrid, Spain aalfonso@euita.upm.es When considering possible time variations of fundamental

### Big Bang and the Quantum: Einstein and Beyond

Big Bang and the Quantum: Einstein and Beyond An Ode to the eternal themes of the `Beginning and the `Origin Abhay Ashtekar Institute for Gravitation and the Cosmos The Pennsylvania State University Florida

### Measuring the Rotational Speed of Spiral Galaxies and Discovering Dark Matter

Measuring the Rotational Speed of Spiral Galaxies and Discovering Dark Matter Activity UCIObs 9 Grade Level: College Source: Copyright (2009) by Rachel Kuzio de Naray & Tammy Smecker-Hane. Contact tsmecker@uci.edu

### The Expanding Universe

Stars, Galaxies, Guided Reading and Study This section explains how astronomers think the universe and the solar system formed. Use Target Reading Skills As you read about the evidence that supports the

### THE ORIGIN OF THE UNIVERSE

Scientific Insights into the Evolution of the Universe and of Life Pontifical Academy of Sciences, Acta 20, 2009 www.pas.va/content/dam/accademia/pdf/acta20/acta20-hawking.pdf THE ORIGIN OF THE UNIVERSE

### Q1. (a) Scientists have observed that the wavelengths of the light from galaxies moving away from the Earth are longer than expected....

Q1. (a) Scientists have observed that the wavelengths of the light from galaxies moving away from the Earth are longer than expected. What name is given to this observation? (ii) Draw a ring around the

### Lecture 7: Light Waves. Newton s Laws of Motion (1666) Newton s First Law of Motion

Lecture 7: Light Waves Isaac Newton (1643-1727) was born in the year Galileo died He discovered the Law of Gravitation in 1665 He developed the Laws of Mechanics that govern all motions In order to solve

### Exploring the Universe Through the Hubble Space Telescope

Exploring the Universe Through the Hubble Space Telescope WEEK FIVE: THE HUBBLE DEEP FIELD + LIMITATIONS OF HUBBLE, COLLABORATIONS, AND THE FUTURE OF ASTRONOMY Date: October 14, 2013 Instructor: Robert

### Lecture 6 - The relativistic doppler shift of light

Lecture 6 - The relativistic doppler shift of light E. Daw April 4, 2011 1 Introduction Today we will study the doppler effect, and in particular the redshift of light emitted by a source receding from

### cosmology, the study of the origin, content, form, and time evolution of the Universe.

16 Cosmology Chapter Outline 16.1 Epochs of the Big Bang 16.2 Observation of Radiation from the Primordial Fireball 16.3 Spectrum Emitted by a Receding Blackbody 16.4 Ripples in the Microwave Bath What

### Lecture 9: Cosmology Origin and Evolution of the Universe. Introduction to Astronomy and Astrophysics. Hubble and Expansion of the Universe

Intrductin t Astrnmy and Astrphysics Lecture 9: Csmlgy Origin and Evlutin f the Universe Lectures Planets 1. Astrnmy and Observatinal Science 2. The Sun 3. Planets f the Slar System 4. Extra-slar Planets

### The Plasma Universe Theory

The Plasma Universe Theory Duncan Bartlett 1. Abstract: The Big Bang theory has long been accepted as the correct theory for the birth and evolution of the universe. However, over the decades, observations

### The Evolution of the Universe

The Evolution of the Universe Some 12 billion years ago the universe emerged from a hot, dense sea of matter and energy. As the cosmos expanded and cooled, it spawned galaxies, stars, planets and life

### The Doppler Effect & Hubble

The Doppler Effect & Hubble Objectives Explain the Doppler Effect. Describe Hubble s discoveries. Explain Hubble s Law. The Doppler Effect The Doppler Effect is named after Austrian physicist Christian

### Chapter 18 Friedmann Cosmologies

Chapter 18 Friedmann Cosmologies Let us now consider solutions of the Einstein equations that may be relevant for describing the large-scale structure of the Universe and its evolution following the big

### THE BIG BANG HOW CLOSE CAN WE COME? Michael Dine Final Lecture Physics 171, 2009

THE BIG BANG HOW CLOSE CAN WE COME? Michael Dine Final Lecture Physics 171, 2009 New York Times: April, 2003 Reports a debate among cosmologists about the Big Bang. lll1.html Dr. Tyson, who introduced

### Big Bang Nucleosynthesis

Big Bang Nucleosynthesis The emergence of elements in the universe Benjamin Topper Abstract. In this paper, I will first give a brief overview of what general relativity has to say about cosmology, getting

### The Big Bounce Overtakes the Big Bang

The Big Bounce Overtakes the Big Bang A playful child bounces a ball as he walks; the ball constantly changes trajectory as well as height. This simple concept is the brainchild behind Martin Bojowald

### FXA 2008. UNIT G485 Module 5 5.5.1 Structure of the Universe. Δλ = v λ c CONTENTS OF THE UNIVERSE. Candidates should be able to :

1 Candidates should be able to : CONTENTS OF THE UNIVERSE Describe the principal contents of the universe, including stars, galaxies and radiation. Describe the solar system in terms of the Sun, planets,

### Modeling the Expanding Universe

H9 Modeling the Expanding Universe Activity H9 Grade Level: 8 12 Source: This activity is produced by the Universe Forum at NASA s Office of Space Science, along with their Structure and Evolution of the

### Part 1 Composition of Earth Composition of solar system Origin of the elements Part 2 Geochronometry: Age of Earth Formation of Earth and Moon.

Part 1 Composition of Earth Composition of solar system Origin of the elements Part 2 Geochronometry: Age of Earth Formation of Earth and Moon. Differentiation of core and mantle. Isotope tracing: sequence

### Galaxy Formation Carlos Frenk Institute of Computational Cosmology University of Durham. Books:

Galaxy Formation Carlos Frenk Institute of Computational Cosmology Goal: understand origin and evolution of cosmic structures Review of standard Big Bang model Growth of small fluctuations (linear theory)

### Pillars of Standard Model. Homogeneity and Isotropy Night Sky is Dark

Pillars of Standard Model Homogeneity and Isotropy Night Sky is Dark Linear Expansion Light Element Abundances Microwave Background Radiation [+other large scale structures] Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy

### Some FAQs and Answers for the Big Bang, Dark Matter, and Dark Energy. Abstract

Some FAQs and Answers for the Big Bang, Dark Matter, and Dark Energy Ganpathy Murthy Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky Abstract There are three main topics connected to the three

### ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS - Expansion Of The Universe - Standard Big Bang Model - Matts Roos EXPANSION OF THE UNIVERSE - STANDARD BIG BANG MODEL

EXPANSION OF THE UNIVERSE - STANDARD BIG BANG MODEL Matts Roos Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland Keywords: Relativity, gravitational lensing, black holes, cosmic inflation,

### 1 Introduction. 1 There may, of course, in principle, exist other universes, but they are not accessible to our

1 1 Introduction Cosmology is the study of the universe as a whole, its structure, its origin, and its evolution. Cosmology is soundly based on observations, mostly astronomical, and laws of physics. These

### The Universe. The Solar system, Stars and Galaxies

The Universe The Universe is everything. All us, the room, the U.S. the earth, the solar system, all the other stars in the Milky way galaxy, all the other galaxies... everything. How big and how old is

### Elaborated by Helmut Söllinger April 2005 and February About the Nature of Dark Energy.

About the Nature of Dark Energy. Abstract The concept of dark energy has been integrated in the cosmology in order to explain some phenomena of the universe, such as the flatness of its geometry or its