Scope Planning. Scope planning flow. Project scope. Projektitöö / Project work. Lecture 3. Scope Planning, Scheduling Projects, Resourcing Projects

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1 HPP3310 Projektitöö / Project work Lecture 3 Scope Planning Compiled by Mart Murdvee Scope planning flow Input * WBS - work breakdown structure Scope - the sum of the products, services, and results to be provided as a project. Project scope Plan scope management - the process of creating a scope management plan that documents how the project scope will be defined, validated, and controlled. Product scope - the features and functions that characterize a product, service, or result. Project scope - the work performed to deliver a product, service, or result with the specified features and functions. Product scope (the outputs the team will deliver to its customers) + the project scope (the work they need to perform to create the project s outputs) = total scope. Compilation M. Murdvee

2 Collect requirements - the process of defining, documenting, and managing stakeholder needs and requirements to meet project objectives. 1. Review the project charter particularly the why section that justifies the project. 2. Gather input from the project stakeholders: asking questions, placing themselves in the customer s situation. 3. Customer wants and needs are stated in operational terms that the people performing the project work can use to plan their work. Main questions asked: 1. What do we not understand about the request? 2. What is the business reason for the request? 3. What is the impact of not providing this feature? 4. What action items need to be accomplished if we do this? 5. What impact will this have on other parts of the project or elsewhere? Requirements traceability matrix Business need Requirements Stakeholder(s) Priority A B C Requirements each needs to be: Traceable back to the business reason for it Identified with the stakeholder(s) who need it Clear so everyone understands it the same way Measurable so its value and completion can be verified Prioritized according to value, cost, time risk, or mandate so tradeoff decisions can be made if needed Compilation M. Murdvee

3 Define scope - the process of developing a detailed description of the project and product. Project scope statement includes: 1. Deliverables the product scope: What they will deliver to the project stakeholders at the end of the project. What they need to deliver along the way to ensure they will be successful in the end. 2. Project work the project scope: What work needs to be accomplished to create the deliverables. 3. Exclusions, constraints, and assumptions: What will limit or influence the project work. Scope definition is an important part of project planning because all other planning is based upon the project scope. How to Define Scope: 1. List deliverables and acceptance criteria 2. Establish project boundaries Which features and work elements are included (in scope) Which are excluded (out of scope) 3. Create a scope description The work that needs to be accomplished to create the project deliverables Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) The work breakdown structure or WBS is a tool that project teams use to progressively divide the deliverables of a project into smaller and smaller pieces. Activity - specific actions to be performed to produce the project deliverables Structure of WBS: Deliverable - activity Deliverable A - activity Deliverable AA - activity Deliverable AB activity Deliverable - activity Deliverable activity Deliverable B - activity Deliverable BA activity Deliverable BB activity The WBS is the basis for all subsequent planning of such important functions as schedule, resources, cost, quality, and risk. Compilation M. Murdvee

4 Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) logics: object orientated disaggregating the project into individual subsets according to the topic, object, work product, or other issues that will be created. functions orientated structuring the project according to the functionalities and capabilities that the project will enable. mixed grouping the project according to a combined, mixed set of criteria such as requirements, activities, products, services, location, project life cycle, department, etc. WBS in organizational chart format WBS in free format Compilation M. Murdvee

5 Work Packages - the work defined at the lowest level of the work breakdown structure for which cost and duration can be estimated and managed. Work packages are the basis for all subsequent planning and control activities. The work package is the point from which: Work activities are defined The schedule is formed Resources are assigned Many of the control features are developed Work packages need to be detailed enough to facilitate further planning and control. If they are too detailed, the burden of tracking details increases. How to Construct a WBS When a project team needs to construct a WBS, it needs to include in its planning team a subject matter expert (SME) who understands how each portion of the work will be accomplished. 1. Identify major deliverables 2. Decompose deliverables 3. Continue until deliverables are the right size 4. Review - all of its children components are complete? Things can change during the course of a project. Establish Change Control BASELINE - the approved version of a work product that can be changed only through formal change control procedures and is used as a basis for comparison. Change control system - approved set of procedures that describes how modifications to the project deliverables and documentation will be managed and controlled. Documentation Procedures Compilation M. Murdvee

6 Change request form Date: Description of Change: Why needed: Impact on project scope: Impact on deadline dates: Impact on budget: Impact on quality: Impact on risk: Impact on team: Date approved: HPP3310 Projektitöö / Project work Lecture 3 Scheduling Projects Activity - a distinct, scheduled portion of work performed during the course of a project. Activities are yhe building blocks of a project schedule. Activities should have the following characteristics: Clear starting and ending points Tangible output that can be verified Scope small enough to understand and control without micromanaging Labor, other costs, and schedule that can be estimated and controlled A single person who can be held accountable for each activity (even if more than one person does the work, one person should be responsible) Compilation M. Murdvee

7 Activities Specific technical activities that require technical skills and which define the type of project. General problem solving activities that require a broad spectrum of skills e.g., analytical and facilitation skills. Project management activities that ensure that the project runs smoothly. These project management and project governance activities are often defined in a project management methodology to provide a framework ensuring quality and success. Project time management work processes: 1. Plan schedule management the process of establishing the policies, procedures, and documentation for planning, developing, managing, executing, and controlling the project schedule 2. Define activities the process of identifying the specific actions that need to be performed to produce the project deliverables 3. Sequence activities the process of identifying and documenting dependencies among the project activities 4. Estimate activity resources the process of estimating the type and quantities of material, human resources, equipment, or supplies required to perform each activity 5. Estimate activity durations the process of approximating the number of work periods needed to complete individual activities with estimated resources 6. Develop schedule the process of analyzing activity sequences, durations, resource requirements, and schedule constraints to create the project schedule 7. Control schedule the process of monitoring the status of the project activities to update project progress and managing changes to the schedule baseline to achieve the plan Critical Path Method (CPM) CPM is for projects that are made up of a number of individual "activities." If some of the activities require other activities to finish before they can start, then the project becomes a complex web of activities. CPM can help you figure out: how long your complex project will take to complete which activities are "critical," meaning that they have to be done on time or else the whole project will take longer If you put in information about the cost of each activity, and how much it costs to speed up each activity, CPM can help you figure out: whether you should try to speed up the project, and, if so, what is the least costly way to speed up the project. Compilation M. Murdvee

8 Program evaluation and review technique (PERT) PERT is a method to analyze the involved tasks in completing a given project, especially the time needed to complete each task, and to identify the minimum time needed to complete the total project. PERT was developed primarily to simplify the planning and scheduling of large and complex projects. It was developed for the U.S. Navy Special Projects Office in 1957 to support the U.S. Navy's Polaris nuclear submarine project. It was able to incorporate uncertainty by making it possible to schedule a project while not knowing precisely the details and durations of all the activities. It is more of an event-oriented technique rather than start- and completion-oriented, and is used more in projects where time is the major factor rather than cost. It is applied to very large-scale, one-time, complex, non-routine infrastructure and Research and Development projects. An example of this was for the 1968 Winter Olympics in Grenoble which applied PERT from 1965 until the opening of the 1968 Games How Project Schedules Are Limited Factors what limit how fast a project can be completed: 1. Logical order 2. Activity duration 3. Resource availability 4. Imposed dates 5. Cash flow Because project schedules are limited by these five factors, creating a realistic schedule is an iterative process. How Project Schedules Are Created Define Activities Sequence Activities Predecessor activity - an activity that logically comes before a dependent activity in a schedule. Successor activity - a dependent activity that logically comes after another activity in a schedule. Mandatory dependency - a relationship that is contractually required or inherent in the nature of the work. Discretionary dependency - a relationship that is established based on knowledge of best practices, here a specific sequence is desired. Dependency: Finish-to-start (FS) - a logical relationship in which a successor activity cannot start until a predecessor activity has finished. Finish-to-finish (FF) - a logical relationship in which a successor activity cannot finish until a predecessor activity has finished. Start-to-start (SS) - a logical relationship in which a successor activity cannot start until a predecessor activity has started. Start-to-finish (SF) - a logical relationship in which a successor activity cannot finish until a predecessor activity has started. Estimate Activity Duration Compilation M. Murdvee

9 Suggestions for creating realistic time estimates 1. Verify all time estimations with the people doing the work. Or, even better, have the people doing the work provide the initial estimates of the activity completion time. 2. Estimate times of completion of work without initial reference to a calendar. Just consider how long you believe each activity will take under normal working conditions. 3. Make sure all time units are identical: work days, work weeks, months (consider time off for company holidays), or another measure. 4. Some people tend to estimate optimistically. Keep in mind the following time constraints: Unexpected meetings Learning curves Competing priorities Vacation Resources or information not available on time Inaccuracy in work instructions Interruptions Emergencies and illness Rework 5. Contrary to point 4, some people estimate pessimistically in order to look good when they bring their project or activities in under budget and under schedule. Try to develop an understanding of the estimator s experience along with their optimistic or pessimistic tendencies and try to encourage balance in estimates. 6. Don t initially worry about who is going to do the work, and don t worry about the mandatory deadline. Figure out a realistic estimate first, and then figure out what to cut later. 7. When using the actual time from a previous project, adjust the estimate up or down based upon size, familiarity, and complexity differences. Two-Pass Method Forward pass - a critical path method technique for calculating the early start and early finish dates by working forward through the schedule model from the project start. Backward pass - a critical path method technique for calculating the late start and late finish dates by working backward through the schedule model from the project end date. Early start date (ES) the earliest possible point in time on which uncompleted portions of a schedule activity can start, based upon the schedule network logic, the data date, and any schedule constraints. Early finish date (EF) the earliest possible point in time on which uncompleted portions of a schedule activity can finish, based upon the schedule network logic, the data date, and any schedule constraints. Late start date (LS) the latest possible point in time in which uncompleted portions of a schedule activity can start, based upon the schedule network logic, the project completion date, and any schedule constraints. Late finish date (LF) the latest possible point in time when the uncompleted portions of a schedule activity can finish based upon the network logic, the project completion date, and any schedule constraints. Two-pass complete schedule Early start date (ES) Early finish date (EF) Late start date (LS) Late finish date (LF) Total float - the amount of time a schedule activity may be delayed or extended from its early start date without delaying the project finish date Free float - the amount of time a schedule activity can be delayed without delaying the early start of any successor. Float = Late start Early start Float = LS ES Compilation M. Murdvee

10 PERT duration estimate Et = O + 4ML + P 6 Where: Et = estimated time, O = optimistic time, ML = most likely time, P = pessimistic time. Gantt chart - a bar chart of schedule information where activities are listed on the vertical axis, dates are shown on the horizontal axis, and activity durations are shown as horizontal bars placed according to start and end dates. Critical chain method - a schedule method that allows the project team to place buffers on any project schedule path to account for limited resources and project uncertainties. Rather than calculate the critical path based upon predecessor successor relationships alone, it also incorporates calculations on resource availability. Once the resource that is most in demand is identified, efforts are made to keep that resource appropriately busy on critical chain activities (those critical both because of the predecessor successor relationships and because of resource shortages) but not overloaded. Other components of the CCPM system include the following: Avoiding multitasking Estimating aggressively how quickly each activity can be completed Putting a feeding buffer of time directly in front of critical chain activities to ensure they will not be delayed Putting the time normally reserved for the uncertainty in each individual activity at the end of the project as a total project buffer that the project manager can use as needed Finishing activities early if possible and passing the work on to the next worker. Compilation M. Murdvee

11 Reverse Phase Schedules method that is sometimes used in the construction industry or Last Planner System. The reverse phase schedule is developed by the people closest to the work (often either the hands-on workers or the forepersons who directly supervise work) by starting with the final project deliverables and continually asking what needs to be completed prior to starting work on this deliverable. As each activity is defined, its order is established, and the person proposing it verifies that their company has the worker(s) to complete the activity as shown in the tentative schedule. Using this method, the team systematically thinks from the end of the project toward the beginning. Rolling Wave Planning - to plan the first part of the project in as much detail as needed and to plan later portions only at a high level. This allows the project team to focus on the near term without ignoring the longer term. Project team needs to plan progressively more detail as information becomes available. HPP3310 Projektitöö / Project work Lecture 3 Resourcing Projects Compilation M. Murdvee

12 Abilities Needed when Resourcing Projects Selecting the right people Identifying exactly what each person needs to accomplish Ensuring each person either has the capability needed or developing that person to be capable Dealing with difficult individual work schedules Getting people to work overtime when there are conflicts Making honest and open estimates of the amount of work required to complete an activity Assembling an effective team Dealing with people from diverse backgrounds Deciding where each person will work Deciding how a team that is geographically split can work in an effective virtual manner Considerations when Resourcing Projects If some of the key people on a project do not have the skills to participate, managers should help them develop those skills. Projects always have tradeoffs; with regard to resources, time versus human resources versus other costs versus scope should be considered. Which of these takes precedence on the project you are planning? Project managers need to understand resource limitations to prevent over-promising. Often, after activities are tentatively scheduled, it appears that the project can be completed by a particular date. However, the schedule may be unrealistic if enough resources are not available at key points in time. People are often a large portion of total project cost. This is especially true when a project requires special knowledge. Estimate activity resources - the process of estimating the types and quantities of material, human resources, equipment, or supplies required to perform each activity. This can be accomplished at either a detailed or an overview level. Compilation M. Murdvee

13 Plan Human Resource Management - the process of identifying and documenting project roles, responsibilities, required skills, reporting relationships, and creating a staffing management plan. Roles and responsibilities for project participants can be documented in role descriptions: title, assigned duties, limits of authority. A staffing management plan - a component of the human resource plan that describes when and how project team members will be acquired and how long they will be needed. Identify Potential Resources Identifying the people who could potentially work on the project. Information can include factors such as: Work functions (may include job titles and range of responsibilities) Professional discipline (may include degrees and professional certifications) Skill level (may include experience and performance ratings) Physical location (may include willingness to relocate and travel) Organizational/administrative unit (may include costs and contractual issues) Key people should be identified as early as possible. When possible, create options for people try not to assign people who are unwilling participants. Make opportunities equally available to qualified candidates. Decide Timing Issues when Resourcing Projects Assign key players as quickly as possible. This helps establish good project planning, effective project culture, and early project progress. How are they rewarded? Under what circumstances are they released from the project, and what provision is made for them to be assigned to new work and/or promoted? Compilation M. Murdvee

14 Project Team Composition Issues Cross-Functional Teams Projects often require cross-functional teams since the work of many projects requires input from multiple disciplines. Co-Located Teams Another team issue is where everyone physically sits. Teams are co-located if the members are assigned work spaces near each other. Co-location helps to create these opportunities for easy communications. Virtual Teams Virtual teams are also common and represent the opposite approach. Members of virtual teams do not meet face to face very often. Sometimes a project requires the expertise of many far-flung people, and it is impractical to have them all work in the same area. These teams require many forms of communications. Outsourcing Many project managers are faced with the prospect of not finding the necessary talent within their organization. When that is the case, project managers often need to hire expertise from one or more other organizations. Outsourcing can allow a project to bring in talent from anywhere in the world, but it can also lead to some tense situations. Assign a Resource to Each Activity A responsibility assignment matrix (RAM) - a grid that shows the project resources assigned to each work package. RACI - responsibility assignment matrix that uses responsible, accountable, consult, and inform to define involvement of stakeholders in project activities. Activity Person 1 Person 2 Person 3 Person 4 Person 5 Person 6 Person 7 A x x x B x x x x C x x D x x x E x x x Actions to Reduce the Critical Path Reduce the project scope and/or quality. Overlap sequential activities using finish-to-finish (FF), start-to-start (SS), or start-to-finish (SF) relationships. Partially overlap sequential activities. Increase the number of work hours per day or work days per week. Schedule activities that are normally in sequence at the same time. Shorten activities by assigning more resources. Shorten activities that cost the least to speed up. Compilation M. Murdvee

15 Techniques used to compress schedules Crashing - a technique used to shorten the schedule duration for the least incremental cost by adding resources. Costs? / Benefits? Fast tracking - a schedule compression technique in which activities or phases normally done in sequence are performed in parallel for at least a portion of their duration. Overlapping? Compilation M. Murdvee

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