# Math PreCalc 20 Chapter 4 Review of Factoring. Questions to try. 2. x 2 6xy x x x x 2 y + 8xy

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1 Math PreCalc 20 Chapter 4 Review of Factoring Multiplying (Expanding) Type 1: Monomial x Binomial Monomial x Trinomial Ex: 3(x + 4) = 3x (x 2 + 2x 1) = -2x 2 4x + 2 Multiply the following: 1. 5(x 3) 2. x(x + 5) 3. 2x(x 2 3x + 2) 4. -4(x 5) 5. -3x(x + 2y) Type 2: Binomial x Binomial Pattern is (a + b)(a b) = a 2 b 2 Ex: (x + 7)(x 7) = x 2 49 (2y + 3)(2y 3) = 4y 2 9 Multiply the following: 1. (x + 6)(x 6) 2. (3y + 5)(3y 5) 3. (2 + x)(2 x) 4. (2x + 5y)(2x 5y) 5. (x + 2y)(x 2y) Type 1: Factoring GCF Factoring (Dividing) Ex: 2x + 10 = 2(x + 5) Note: GCF is 2-3x 2 + 6x = -3x(x 2) Note: GCF is -3x Factor the following: 1. 4x x 2 6xy 3. 10x x 4. -5x x 2 y + 8xy Type 2: Factoring Difference of 2 Squares Pattern is a 2 b 2 = (a + b)(a b) Ex: x 2 4 = (x + 2)(x 2) 25y 2 16z 2 = (5y + 4z)(5y 4z) Factor the following: 1. x x y x 2 81z 2 5. y 2 9z 2

2 Type 3: Binomial x Binomial (x ±?)(x ±?) Pattern: Multiply 2 numbers to get the last term Add 2 numbers to get the middle term Type 3: Factoring Trinomials (1x 2 only x 2 ±?x ±?) Pattern: Find 2 numbers whose product is last # Same 2 numbers add up to middle # Or Use FOIL (Double Distributive Property) Ex: (x + 3)(x + 4) = x 2 + 7x + 12 (x 3)(x 4) = x 2 7x + 12 (x + 3)(x 4) = x 2 1x 12 or x 2 x 12 (x 3)(x + 4) = x 2 + 1x 12 or x 2 + x 12 Multiply the following: 1. (x + 2)(x + 5) 2. (y + 1)(y + 7) 3. (x 5)(x 7) 4. (y 2)(y 3) 5. (x + 2)(x 4) 6. (x + 6)(x 8) 7. (y 5)(y + 1) 8. (y 8)(y + 10) Type 4: Combos of Types 1,2,3 (GCF + one other) Ex: 2x 2 8 = 2(x 2 4) = 2(x + 2)(x 2) x 3 + 3x 2 10x = x(x 2 + 3x 10) = x(x + 5)(x 2) Ex: x 2 + 8x + 15 = (x + 5)(x + 3) x 2 8x + 15 = (x 5)(x 3) x 2 2x 15 = (x 5)(x + 3) x 2 + 2x 15 = (x + 5)(x 3) Factor the following: 1. x x y 2 + 9y x 2 7x y 2 10y x 2 3x x 2 7x y 2 + 2y y 2 + 5y 36 Type 4: Combos of Types 1,2,3 (GCF + one other) Factor the following: 1. 3x x x 150

3 Type 5: Binomial x Binomial (?x ±?)(?x ±?) Use FOIL (double distributive property) or Box Method Not both 1x s here anymore! Ex: (2x + 3)(3x + 4) FOIL: 6x 2 + 8x + 9x + 12 (First,Outside,Inside,Last) 6x x + 12 OR (Box Method) Type 5: Factoring Trinomials (?x 2 ±?x ±?) Use Trial_and_Error Method or Box Method Not just 1x 2 here anymore! Ex: 2x 2 + 5x + 2 = (2x + 1)(x + 2) (Try numbers and Test by Multiplying until it works.) (This method is only good if numbers are small!) OR (Box Method) 3x +4 2x +3 2x 2 + 5x + 2 4x 2 4x 1x Multiply the two end terms. Now find two numbers that multiply to get 4x 2 and add to get 5x. Fill Box with these values. 2x +3 3x 6x 2 9x +4 8x 12 = 6x 2 + 9x + 8x + 12 = 6x x x 2 4x 1x 2 Now find GCF of 2 rows and 2 columns. x +2 2x 2x 2 4x +1 1x 2 Multiply the following: 1. (2x + 5)(x + 3) 2. (3x + 2)(2x + 1) 3. (x 4)(3x 5) 4. (2x + 1)(3x 2) Factor the following: 1. 2x x x x x 2 3x x 2 19x + 20

4 Type 5 continued: Factoring Trinomials (a 1) (Guess Method) Remember that the general form of a trinomial is ax 2 + bx + c Examples of FOIL with this type (3x + 2)(2x + 1) = 6x 2 + 3x + 4x + 2 = 6x 2 + 7x + 2 (3x 2)(2x 1) = 6x 2 3x 4x + 2 = 6x 2 7x + 2 (5x + 7)(2x 3) = 10x 2 15x + 14x 21 = 10x 2 x 21 (5x 7)(2x + 3) = 10x x 14x 21 = 10x 2 + x 21 Remember the following patterns from Section 2.5: x 2 + x + = (x + )(x + ) x 2 x + = (x )(x ) x 2 + x = (x + )(x ) x 2 x = (x )(x + ) Note: If the last term is pos, signs are the same! Note: If the last term is neg, signs are opposite! Factoring Trinomials Using Intelligent Guessing Method (We use this method with the 1 st and last terms have very few factors, especially if the numbers are prime!) 2x 2 7x + 5 = ( x )( x ) Write pattern of signs = (2x )( x ) Choose factors of 1 st term. = (2x 1) ( x 5) Choose factors of last term. Quickly Foil to check this guess. If it doesn t work, try another guess by rearranging the factors of the last term. In this case the middle term will become -11x which is not correct! = (2x 5) ( x 1) Quickly Foil again to check. If it works, then you are done. In this case the middle term will become -7x which is correct! Factor the following using the Guess Method: 2x 2 + 5x + 2 = ( x + )( x + ) Notice that the signs have to be positive! 3x 2 + 4x 7 = ( x + )( x ) = (3x + ) ( x ) OR = (3x ) (x + ) Notice how there are 2 choices for the signs! Only ONE will be correct!! 3x 2 x 2 = ( x + )( x )

5 Type 5 continued: Factoring Trinomials (a 1) (Box Method) Ex1: Factor 3x x x 2 x x 20 Step 1. Fill in the 1 st and last terms into the boxes shown. Notice that the other 2 boxes will both have x terms. Note: 3 20 = 60 We need this for step 2! 3x 2 10x 6x 20 Step 2. Fill in the final 2 boxes with 2 numbers that multiply to 60. Remember that when you Cross Multiply, each must be the same result. These numbers must also add up to 16. (Middle Term) 6 10 = = 16 x +2 3x +10 3x 2 10x 6x 20 Step 3. Now factor out the GCF of each row and each column to product the final answer. The final answer is 3x x + 20 = (3x + 10)(x + 2) Check by using FOIL to confirm your answer! Try the following 3 examples (Note: All signs are positive for these 3 problems.) #1. 15x x + 4 #2. 6x x + 4 #3. 6x x + 5

6 We can use the Box Method to Factor any of the more difficult types (even those with negative values): {KEY NOTE: There cannot be any GCF factors in the original question for this method to work!!} Ex2: Factor 2x 2 x 15 2x 2 x x -15 Step 1. Fill in the 1 st and last terms into the boxes shown. Notice that the other 2 boxes will both have x terms. Note: 2-15 = -30 We need this for step 2! 2x 2-6x 5x -15 Step 2. Fill in the final 2 boxes with 2 numbers that multiply to -30. Remember that when you Cross Multiply, each must be the same result. These numbers must also add up to -1. (Middle Term) 5-6 = = -1 2x +5 x -3 2x 2-6x 5x -15 Step 3. Now factor out the GCF of each row and each column to product the final answer. If the first number is negative in that row or column, factor out the negative also! The final answer is 2x 2 x 15= (x 3)(2x + 5) Check by using FOIL to confirm your answer! Practice Factor the following: (Watch for GCF first, then Diff of 2 Squares, then Trinomials!!) 1. x x 2 x x 2 + 7x x 2 6x x 2 + 2x x 2 6x 7. 2x 2 13x x 2 13x + 6

7 Math PreCalc 20 Extra Practice Factoring (Answers on the next page!) Factor the following. (Watch for all the different types!) 1. 5x² + 17x x² - 16x x² x² - 17x x² + 19x x² - 5x x² x² + 8x x² + 6x x² - 15x + 28

8 Solutions to previous questions: 1. 5x² + 17x x² - 16x + 21 (5x + 12)(x + 1) (3x - 7)(x - 3) 3. x² x² - 17x + 3 (x - 6)(x + 6) (5x - 1)(2x - 3) 5. 3x² + 19x x² - 5x - 25 (x + 3)(3x + 10) (2x + 5)(x - 5) 7. 9x² x² + 8x - 11 (3x + 2)(3x - 2) (x - 1)(3x + 11) 9. x² + 6x x² - 15x + 28 (x + 4)(x + 2) (x - 4)(2x - 7) Box Method Solutions for some of the above: #1. 5x x + 12 #2. 3x 2 16x + 21 x +1 3x -7 5x 5x 2 5x x 3x 2-7x x x 21 #4. 10x 2 17x 3 #6. 2x 2 5x 25 5x -1 2x +5 2x 10x 2-2x x 2x 2 5x -3-15x x -25

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