Why Teens Choose Tobacco and Other Drugs & What We Can Do to Intervene

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1 Why Teens Choose Tobacco and Other Drugs & What We Can Do to Intervene Bonnie L. Halpern-Felsher, Ph.D. Professor of Pediatrics Division of Adolescent and Young Adult Medicine University of California, San Francisco Plumas County, November 30, 2011

2 Outline Epidemiology Why teens use drugs Protec5ve factors Screening Treatment/Interven5ons

3 Substance Use, 11 th graders In the past 30 days, did you Percent Plumas Calif USA 10 0 smoke cigarette Chew tobacco drink alcohol smoke marijuana

4 Binge Drinking During the past 30 days did you drink 5 or more drinks in a couple of hours? Plumas ; Calif 2007; US Percent Plumas Calif. USA th grade 9th grade 11th grade

5 Why Do Teens Use Drugs?

6 Why Teens Use Drugs SCHOOL & PEERS FAMILY TEEN COMMUNITY

7 Teen-Level Variables Early and persistent problems in childhood Depression and/or anxiety Perceive low risk and high benefits

8 Perceptions Predict Smoking Initiation Lowest percep5ons of short- term risk: 2.7 5mes more likely to start smoking Lowest percep5ons of long- term risk: 3.6 5mes more likely to start smoking Highest percep5ons of benefits: 3.3 5mes more likely to start smoking

9 Consideration of Risks I think almost everyone knows what they re gepng into by smoking. I think they know what the long term causes are, but I think the reason people s5ll smoke is because either those long term causes aren t relevant enough to them or they choose to live so far into the moment that they block out those other nega5ve impacts.

10 Teen-Level Variables Early and persistent problems in childhood Depression and/or anxiety Perceive low risk and high benefits Perceived control over outcomes

11 Perceived Control Over Risks I just didn t think it would be that bad just to try one.

12 Controlling Amount Smoked I haven t smoked in three weeks, so I guess it s alright if I have a cigarette this weekend.

13 Why Teens Use Drugs: Teen-Level Variables Early and persistent problems in childhood Depression and/or anxiety Perceive low risk and high benefits Perceived control over outcomes Lack understanding of outcomes

14 Don t Know Addic5on? I don't really know that much. I can say, I guess, if you smoke a lot, you're I honestly don't know that much, like about the sta5s5cal informa5on and then I imagine if you smoke enough you become addicted.

15 Teen-Level Variables Early and persistent problems in childhood Depression and/or anxiety Perceive low risk and high benefits Perceived control over outcomes Lack understanding of outcomes To look cool or more grown up

16 Differences in Perceptions Social Benefits Look cool Never Smoked Look grown up Smoked

17 Teen-Level Variables Early and persistent problems in childhood Depression and/or anxiety Perceive low risk and high benefits Perceived control over outcomes Lack understanding of outcomes To look cool or more grown up Need to experiment

18 Need To Experience to Make An Informed Decision I think everyone should just to see what it is like and figure out for themselves whether or not they like.

19 Reflection on Experiences Well the first 5me was more curiosity and this 5me it was kind of, I guess curiosity again just to see how it would be different from the first 5me.

20 Reflection on Experiences Well, my friend, he smokes like it is nothing, so is there something wrong with me or should I keep trying and maybe it ll get beyer?

21 Family-Level Variables History of parental alcohol or other drug usage Familial aliena5on or conflict Family supplies drugs

22 Peer-and School-Level Variables School failure Peer usage Perceived social norms

23 Peers I think, why people really smoke, it s like a social [thing], I need to smoke too, you know? It s like have something in common.

24 Peer-and School-Level Variables School failure Peer usage Perceived social norms Ready availability of drugs

25 Purposeful Peer/Activity Choice I try to stay out of situa5ons where it might come up. I try to choose the right friends who don t do it and go to places where it most likely won t be happening.

26 Community and Contextual-Level Variables High prevalence of drugs in community Ready availability of drugs Pro- drug adver5sements

27

28

29 Alcopops are made to look and taste like juice, soda, tea, and other soft drinks:

30 Influence of the Media In movies it seems like when they do somethin bad, like if they do a killing or something, some5mes they pick up a cigareye and they just relax. The kids see all that right away and figure oh, that relaxes.

31

32 Religiosity Defini5ve future goals Protective Factors Posi5ve and meaningful rela5onships with family, friends, school, and other adults Peers not involved with substance use

33 Screening for Substance Abuse

34 Behavioral Indicators of Substance Use Change in clothing Depression and withdrawal Moodiness and irritability Reduced communica5on with family members Deteriora5on in school performance and/or truancy Physical changes

35 History What drugs have been used? Frequency and amount of use Routes of administra5on Significant intoxica5on Ever passed out or experienced blackouts? Other adverse outcomes?

36 CRAFFT CAR Relax Alone Forget Family/Friends Trouble > 2 yes answers = significant problem which needs for further assessment/ intervention

37 If Screen, Need to Treat

38 Interventions Primary Interven5ons/Preven5ons: Promo5ng healthy lifestyle choices, resilience and abs5nence Elimina5ng precursor risks Secondary Interven5ons: Intervening early with experimenters Individual and group youth counseling Family counseling Ter5ary Interven5ons: Drug treatment programs

39 Principles of Effective Treatment No single treatment is appropriate for all individuals Effec5ve treatment ayends to mul5ple needs of the individual, not just his or her drug use An individual's treatment and services plan must be assessed con5nually and modified as necessary to ensure it meets the person's changing needs

40 Effective Treatment (cont.) Counseling and other behavioral therapies are cri5cal components of effec5ve treatment Medica5ons are an important element of treatment for many pa5ent Individuals with coexis5ng mental disorders should have both disorders treated Can be a long- term process and frequently requires mul5ple episodes of treatment

41 Interventions Stages of Change (Handout in packet): First Step Just thinking Second Step Planning Third Step Just do it! Fourth Step Keep trying

42 Interventions 5 A s ASK about drug usage ADVISE by delivering clear message to stop using ASSESS mo5va5on to stop ASSIST with a quit plan and provide materials ARRANGE for follow- up visits

43 Interventions Referral to Alateen if alcohol or drug dependent parents Consulta5on or referral to mental health specialist Engage youth in healthy peer groups (Boys and Girls clubs) Seek to engage youth with posi5ve adult role model (mentor programs, Big Brothers/Big Sisters)

44 Failed Strategies Scare tac5cs - misinforma5on propagated mistrust among teens Consequence- based preven5on - media5on by former drug users Just Say No - single faceted approach ignored environmental and familial factors

45 Teens Drug Usage SCHOOL & PEERS FAMILY TEEN COMMUNITY

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