ESRC Research Report. RANCH follow-up study: the long-term effects of aircraft noise exposure on children s cognition RES

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "ESRC Research Report. RANCH follow-up study: the long-term effects of aircraft noise exposure on children s cognition RES-062-23-1165"

Transcription

1 ESRC Research Report RANCH follow-up study: the long-term effects of aircraft noise exposure on children s cognition RES Dr. Charlotte Clark Professor Stephen. A. Stansfeld Ms Jenny Head Centre for Psychiatry Barts & the London School of Medicine Queen Mary, University of London Charterhouse Square London EC1M 6BQ

2 CONTENTS Background 3 Objectives 3 Aim 3 Hypotheses 4 Methods 4 Pilot Study 4 Main Study 6 Design 6 Measures 6 Noise Exposure Assessment 6 Reading Comprehension 7 Academic achievement 8 Noise Annoyance 8 Psychological Health 8 Potential Confounding Factors 9 Procedure 9 Statistical Analysis 10 Results 11 Sample & Participation Rate 11 A Comparison of the Responders and Non-responders at Follow-Up 12 Patterns of Aircraft Noise Exposure at School at Baseline & Follow-up 14 Descriptive Reading Comprehension Scores at Follow-Up 15 Preliminary Analyses of the Effects of Aircraft Noise at School on Reading Comprehension 16 Difficulties 17 Activities 18 Outputs 19 Impacts 19 Future Research Priorities 20 References 21 2

3 Background Exposure to transport noise is an increasing and prominent feature of the urban environment. The RANCH project (Road Traffic Noise and Aircraft Noise Exposure and Children s Cognition and Health), the largest study of noise and children s cognition undertaken to date, examined the effects of aircraft noise and road traffic noise exposure at primary school on the cognitive performance of year old children attending 89 schools around Heathrow (London), Schiphol (Amsterdam), and Barajas (Madrid) airports. The study found linear exposure-effect relationships between aircraft noise exposure at school and children s reading comprehension and recognition memory (Clark et al., 2006, Stansfeld et al., 2005). Whilst previous studies had demonstrated effects of chronic aircraft noise exposure on primary school children s reading comprehension and long-term memory, comparing children with high noise exposure with those with low noise exposure (Haines et al., 2001a, Hygge et al., 2002), the RANCH study was the first to examine the shape of exposure-effect relations and to compare the effect of noise exposure on children s cognition across countries. The development of cognitive abilities such as reading are important not only in terms of educational achievement but also for subsequent life chances and adult health (Kuh and Ben-Shlomo, 2004). To understand the causal pathways between noise exposure and cognition, and design preventive interventions there is a need to study these associations longitudinally. Few longitudinal studies have examined the effects of persistent exposure throughout the child s education: a study over only a one-year period found that deficits in reading comprehension persisted and that children did not adapt to their noise exposure (Haines et al., 2001b). Studies of noise abatement suggest that a reduction of noise exposure eliminates previously observed reading deficits (Bronzaft, 1981, Hygge et al., 2002) but studies of the long-term consequences of noise exposure during primary school for later cognitive development have not been conducted. Objectives Aim The aim of this research was to conduct a follow-up study of the UK sample of the RANCH cohort examining the long-term effects of aircraft noise exposure at primary school on children s reading comprehension. Research has yet to establish whether children who attend aircraft noise exposed primary schools experience impaired cognitive abilities in secondary school, compared with peers who were not exposed to aircraft noise at primary school. Furthermore, the possible role of aircraft noise exposure at secondary school on these associations has yet to be examined. 3

4 This project followed-up the UK RANCH cohort to examine the long-term effects of aircraft noise exposure at primary school on children s reading comprehension. We obtained 12 months funding from the ESRC to collect data from the cohort in secondary schools, using a standardised reading comprehension test and sociodemographic questionnaire. The following specific hypotheses were examined: Hypotheses Do children who attend aircraft noise exposed primary schools experience impaired reading comprehension during secondary school, compared with peers who were not exposed to aircraft noise at primary school? Does secondary school aircraft noise exposure influence later reading comprehension, over and above the effect of aircraft noise exposure at primary school on later reading comprehension? Do the impairments apparent in primary school increase if children attend noise exposed secondary schools and/or decrease if children attend non-noise exposed secondary schools? Are some children more susceptible to long-term effects of noise on cognition (e.g. ethnicity, socioeconomic factors)? Methods Pilot Study A pilot study assessing the feasibility of following-up the UK RANCH cohort in secondary schools had been completed, funded by the Barts & the London Charitable Foundation, prior to this ESRC funded study. The pilot study had three main aims: 1) to trace the cohort to secondary school, 2) to establish patterns of aircraft noise exposure at secondary school for the cohort, and 3) to pilot a battery of cognitive tests for use in the follow-up study. 1. Tracing the cohort: The cohort was originally selected on the basis of noise exposure at primary school from the London Boroughs of Hounslow, Hillingdon, and Slough. Figure 1 describes the outcome of the tracing process for the sample. We traced the cohort members using home address provided at baseline, through primary- and secondary-schools, and Local Education Authorities (LEAs). The secondary school attended for 77.8% [N=1054] of the sample was identified: no secondary school could be identified for 18.5% [N=251] of the 4

5 sample and a further 3.7% [N=50] declined to take part in the follow-up study during the pilot study phase. Whilst the baseline study was conducted in 29 schools in 3 boroughs, the sample was traced to 80 secondary schools in 13 boroughs [excluding those schools outside of West London and the surrounding boroughs], with the majority remaining in Hounslow [31.2%], Hillingdon [16.2%], and Slough [18.6%], or in the accompanying boroughs of Richmond [3.5%], Surrey [3.0%] and Windsor & Maidenhead [2.4%]. It was not feasible to follow-up the sample in other boroughs where there were less than 12 cohort members per LEA or in boroughs outside West London [2.9%]. Thus, 1015 cohort members from 58 secondary schools could participate in the follow-up study (74.9% of the original sample). Figure 1: Flow-chart illustrating the tracing of the baseline RANCH sample into secondary schools. RANCH UK baseline sample Total N=1355 Not located in secondary school Total N=251 [18.5%] No consent for follow-up Total N=50 [3.7%] Located in secondary school Total N=1054 [77.8%] Attending secondary schools in Boroughs selected for follow-up Hillingdon N=219 [16.2%] Hounslow N=423 [31.2%] Slough N=252 [18.6%] Surrey N=41 [3.0%] Richmond N=48 [3.5%] Windsor & Maidenhead N=32 [2.4%] Total N=1015 [74.9%] Attending secondary schools in Boroughs not selected for follow-up Kingston N=2 Buckinghamshire N=12 Hertfordshire N=3 Brent N=1 Ealing N=8 Hammersmith & Fulham N=7 Wandsworth N=1 Out of London area N=5 Total N=39 [2.9%] 2. Pilot of Test Battery: At baseline a range of cognitive abilities were measured, including reading comprehension, long-term memory, and working memory during a test session which lasted for one morning. At follow-up we would only have access to the participants for one 45 minute class and therefore planned to measure only reading comprehension, which 5

6 had shown the strongest association with aircraft noise exposure at baseline. At baseline, reading comprehension was measured using the Suffolk Reading Scale 2, Level 2: a 30 minute test of 76 items suitable for 8-11 year olds (Hagley, 2002): a test suitable for older children was required for the follow-up study. A pilot study of year olds attending 3 secondary schools in Tower Hamlets conducted in early 2007 compared two reading comprehension tests: the Suffolk Reading Scale 2, Level 3 (Hagley et al 2002) and the Access Reading Test (McCarty and Crumpler, 2006). A child questionnaire, adapted from the baseline child and parent questionnaires, assessing sociodemographic factors was also piloted. Between and within group analyses of the reading comprehension tests revealed that participants were more likely to complete the Suffolk test compared with the Access test. Scale reliability was also higher for the Suffolk test (alpha=0.90 versus 0.83). The Suffolk test was selected for use in the follow-up given the stronger descriptive data, as well as the comparability afforded with the baseline measure of reading comprehension. The child questionnaire was successfully piloted and no revisions were required. Main Study Design Funding was obtained from the ESRC for the data collection of a quantitative longitudinal epidemiological follow-up of the UK RANCH cohort, six years after the initial baseline study. This was an exposure-effect study with participants drawn from across a range of aircraft noise exposures from low to high at both baseline and follow-up. Measures Noise Exposure Assessment At both baseline and follow-up aircraft noise estimates were based on 16-hour outdoor LAeq contours (LAeq is the equivalent average sound level measured by using the A-weighting most sensitive to speech intelligibility frequencies of the human ear), which give the average continuous equivalent sound level of aircraft noise in an area from 7 a.m. to 11 p.m. for a specified period. The aircraft noise contour data were available nationally from the Civil Aviation Authority and were not derived specifically for this study. At baseline these data were from July to September 1999; at follow up these data were from July to September These contours were used to estimate aircraft noise exposure at school and home for each participant, based upon postcode data. 6

7 At baseline acute noise measurements during testing were taken inside and outside the classroom: however, analyses revealed that acute noise had no effect on the observed association between aircraft noise and reading comprehension: acute noise was therefore not measured during the follow-up study. Reading Comprehension The reading comprehension assessment was chosen as it could be group administered in the classroom, used non-auditory stimuli to ensure that stimulus presentation was not confounded by noise exposure, and had graduated complexity (i.e. moved from simple to complex test items). As described in the pilot work, reading comprehension was measured using the Suffolk Reading Scale 2 Level 2 at baseline and Level 3 at follow-up (Hagley, 2002). These are established, nationally standardised tests. The Level 2 test is a 30 minute test of 86 items suitable for 8-11 year olds; the Level 3 test is a 30 minute test of 76 items suitable for 11-15y 4m 1. The Suffolk Reading Scale 2 has two parallel forms, Forms A & B, which enable equal numbers of randomly selected children to complete the different test forms. The test contains multi-choice questions with 5 potential answers (see examples below). The questions become progressively harder as the child works through the test. The test was introduced as a complete the sentence activity, was conducted in silence, in exam-like conditions, and timed out after 30 minutes. The test produces standardised scores using national norms and was converted to Z-scores for consistency with the baseline reading scale data. Figure 2: Examples of items contained in the Suffolk Reading Scale 2 Level 3 test. 18. February comes in the A. day B. night C. green D. hot E. winter 49. The pyromaniac confessed to over twenty counts of A. betrothal B. arson C.fidelity D. pustules E. pyramids 1 At the time of the study, no standardised reading test in the UK was suitable for children 16 years or older. Our sample included children aged 15 and 16 years of age. We discussed this with the publishers of the Suffolk Reading Scale 2, NFER-NELSON, who foresaw no additional problems of using the test with a sample up to 16y 6m (Personal Communication). 7

8 Academic achievement Data pertaining to the child s performance at their Key Stage 2 and 3, and GCSE exams is currently being collected directly from the Local Education Authorities, for those participants providing separate and specific written consent for the research team to access this data. 387 participants 84% of the follow-up sample have given consent for this data to be obtained. Noise Annoyance Several questions were asked pertaining to noise annoyance. Children were asked the standard ISO questions (ISO/TS15666, 2003, ISO/TS, 2003). Source-specific annoyance for both school and home was measured by single questions ( Thinking about the last year when you were at home/school how much does noise from road traffic/aircraft noise bother, disturb or annoy you?). Answers were adapted for children and indicated on a 5 point Likert Scale (not at all, slightly, moderately, very, extremely). The children were also asked whether and how often they heard noise from aircraft and road traffic noise when at school/home. Answers were indicated on a four point scale (never, sometimes, often, always). Further questions assessed the extent to which aircraft and road traffic noise disrupted activities both within the school and home and also how the children coped with noise in these environments. Noise annoyance as an outcome and a mediator of the associations between noise exposure and reading comprehension will be explored in analyses carried out after the end of the ESRC award. Psychological Health At baseline parents completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ: Goodman, 1997) which detects psychological morbidity in children. The SDQ gives a total difficulties score and also provides scores on five sub-scales: hyperactivity, emotional symptoms, conduct problems, peer problems and pro-social behaviour. Parents indicate agreement on a 3 point Likert scale (not true, somewhat true, certainly true) for 25 statements about the mental health of their child. For each sub-scale scores range from 0 to 10 and the total difficulties score is obtained from summing all the scales except pro-social behaviour, giving a score from 0 to 40. As the children were older at follow-up it was appropriate for them to self-complete the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, which was included in the questionnaire. The associations of noise exposure on psychological health will be explored in analyses carried out after the end of the ESRC award. 8

9 Potential Confounding Factors Data was available from child and parent questionnaires administered at baseline and a child questionnaire administered at follow-up which assessed socioeconomic status, parental and child health, and other demographic factors. From baseline the following key variables were available from parents: age (collected from both school records and parents); employment status (whether the parent reported working full- or part-time); crowding in the home (more than 1.5 persons per room); home ownership (rented or owned/mortgaged); long standing illness of the child (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, asthma/bronchitis, eczema, epilepsy, depression, diabetes, or dyslexia); and mother s educational attainment (measured by a relative inequality index based on a ranked index of standard qualifications (Mackenbach and Kunst, 1997). At both baseline and follow-up the children were asked questions directly relating to socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. They were asked to indicate gender, any languages they spoke as well as the main language spoken at home, and whether they received free school meals. Children were also asked questions relating to perceived parental support for school work. Extra data concerning potential confounding variables was also collected from the school either prior or after testing for each child in the study, such as data about English as an additional language and any official educational statements. At baseline the schools were matched in terms of sociodemographic data, which was not possible at follow-up. As secondary schools differ in how they select pupils, ability, socioeconomic background, ethnicity, and gender, measures of these school-level factors have been collected and will be included in final analyses to adjust for selection effects. We will also compare these school level factors across the original (matched) noise categories at baseline to see if there is differential selection into secondary schools. These analyses will be carried out after the end of the ESRC award. Procedure 1015 participants who had taken part in the initial baseline RANCH study in primary school, who now attended secondary schools in Hillingdon, Hounslow, Slough, Windsor & Maidenhead, Surrey, and Richmond, were invited to take part in the follow-up study. The participants were all in school year 11, aged years. 9

10 Data was collected from March to May 2008, during a 45 minute lesson. Written consent was obtained from the head teacher. Parents and participants received an information letter about the study one week prior to data collection; passive consent was obtained from parents who could opt their child out of the study if they wished. Written consent was obtained from the participant on the day of the study, after giving a further verbal explanation of the study and an opportunity to answer questions. Additional written consent was obtained for permission to access the participant s exam data held by the local education authority. Ethical approval for this study was obtained from the Queen Mary Research Ethics Committee [Reference QMREC2007/59] in November Statistical Analysis The ESRC funding covered the collection of the data but not the analysis, which will be carried out by the principal investigator as part of her RCUK Academic Fellowship. To date, basic descriptive analyses of the dependent and independent variables have been completed. More complex data analysis will examine the long-term effect of aircraft noise exposure at primary school on reading comprehension using multilevel modelling techniques. This will take into account the hierarchical nature of the data of pupils being nested within schools. Cross-classified models of primary school by secondary school will be used to study the effects of noise exposure at both primary and secondary school. The main outcome will be the continuous score from the total number of items scored correctly on the Suffolk Reading Test 2, Level 3, transformed into Z-scores to enable comparisons with the baseline measure of reading comprehension. Aircraft noise exposure at baseline and follow-up will be included as a continuous variable. Multilevel linear regression models will be applied for the main effects analyses which will examine: 1. The effect of aircraft noise exposure at primary school on follow-up reading comprehension, adjusted for confounders from baseline and follow-up. 2. Whether secondary school aircraft noise exposure influences later reading comprehension, over and above the effect of aircraft noise exposure at primary school on later reading comprehension: examined by further adjusting the model for secondary school aircraft noise exposure. 3. Whether some children are more susceptible to long-term effects of noise on cognition: examined by including interaction terms between individual variables (e.g. gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic factors) and aircraft noise exposure at primary school. 10

11 These research questions will also be examined using externally assessed educational attainment measured by SATS and GCSE exam data as outcomes including Key Stage 3 English scores, English Language GCSE grade, and the total number of GCSEs Grades A* to C. Results This section reports: 1. The sample and participation rate. 2. A comparison of the responders and non-responders at follow-up. 3. Patterns of aircraft noise exposure at school at baseline and follow-up. 4. The descriptive reading comprehension scores at follow-up. 5. Preliminary analyses of the effect of aircraft noise at primary and secondary school on reading comprehension at follow-up. Sample & Participation Rate 461 participants [45.4%] of the target sample took part in the follow-up study: 201 males [43.6%] and 260 females [56.4%]. The age of the participants ranged from 15y 4m to 16y 8m, with an average age of 15y 7m. Figure 3 illustrates the participation rate for the follow-up study in more detail. Of those who did not take part in the study, it was not feasible to include 39 [3.8%] participants who attended schools with fewer than 5 participants or 8 [0.8%] participants who attended schools for children with special needs. The lack of consent for the study to take place in their school by head teachers resulted in 190 [18.7%] participants not taking part in the study: very few parents or participants opted out of the study [N=28, 2.8%]. In total 11 out of the 58 schools refused consent for data to be collected in their school. 122 [12.0%] participants had left the school in the year since the tracing work had been completed and could not be retraced: a further 167 [16.5%] were unavailable for testing on the day due to absence from school or other school activities. This covered a broad range of reasons from other school activities, including GCSE practical exams, through to having been excluded from school. 11

12 Figure 3: Flow-chart illustrating participation in the RANCH follow-up study. Attending secondary schools in Boroughs selected for follow-up Total N=1015 Refused consent School N=190 [18.7%] Parent N=2 [0.2%] Pupil N=26 [2.6%] Total N=218 [21.5%] Left school since located Total N=122 [12.0%] Absent during testing Excluded from school N=9 [0.9%] Other school activity N=16 [1.6%] On alternative timetable N=7 [0.7%] GCSE exam N=21 [2.1%] Holiday N=2 [0.2%] Reason not known N=112 [11.0%] Total N=167 [16.5%] Participated in follow-up Total N=461[45.4%] Child and parent phase 1 N=374 [81.1%] Child data 1 N=77 [16.7%] No phase 1 N=10 [2.2%] Schools excluded from follow-up Special Schools N=8 [0.8%] Fewer than 5 participants N=39 [3.8%] Total N=47 [4.6%] A Comparison of the Responders and Non-responders at Follow-Up In order to assess the impact of our response rate on the representativeness of the sample several analyses were carried out comparing the characteristics of the cohort members who took part at follow-up [N-461] with those cohort members who did not take part at follow-up [N=554]. Overall these analyses suggested no serious differential non-response by baseline exposure to noise or sociodemographic characteristics. 12

13 Comparisons of the baseline characteristics of those cohort members who took part at follow-up with those cohort members who did not take part at follow-up are presented in Table 1. This table shows there was only one significant difference in baseline characteristics for the responders and non-responders: cohort members in primary schools with mixed single and double glazed primary school classrooms were less likely to take part in the follow-up study. In terms of other individual and sociodemographic characteristics the responders were not a significantly different sample to the non-responders. Table 1: A comparison of the baseline individual and sociodemographic characteristics of responders and non-responders at follow-up Baseline Characteristic Gender Nonresponder at followup % Responder at followup % Statistical Analysis OR, 95% CI for participating, being a responder at follow-up Male Female Chi 2 =1.59, df=1, p= [0.91, 1.51] Illness No long standing illness Long standing illness Chi 2 =0.44, df=1, p= [0.66, 1.23] Home ownership Home owner Not a home owner Chi 2 =1.71, df=1, p= [0.62, 1.10] Crowding in the home Parental employment Not crowded Crowded Chi 2 =0.16, df=1, p= [0.67, 1.30] Employed Not employed Chi 2 =3.09, df=1, p= [0.53, 1.03] Main language spoken English Other language Chi 2 =3.06, df=1, p= [0.96, 1.72] Classroom Glazing Single Double [0.79, 1.89] Mix of single and double Chi 2 =12.82, df=2, p= [0.50, 0.85] p=0.001 Mother s education mean=0.50 mean=0.50 t=0.481, p= [0.53, 1.45] index SD=0.279 SD=0.286 Parental support for school work mean=10.07 SD=2.02 mean=10.08 SD=1.96 t=0.041, p= [0.94, 1.06] 13

14 Table 2 shows that there was no significant difference between the responders and nonresponders in terms of their aircraft noise exposure at primary school, except for the responders being more likely to be have experienced dba aircraft noise at primary school. This difference is not likely to notably influence analyses. Table 2: Noise exposure at primary schools for the participants and non-participants at follow-up (N=1015). Aircraft Noise Exposure at Primary School Non-responder at follow-up N=554 Responder at followup N=461 OR (95% CI) showing odds for participating, being a responder at follow-up <51dBA 187 [56.2%] 146 [43.8%] dba 161 [57.5%] 119 [42.5%] 0.95 [0.68, 1.30] dba 83 [45.1%] 101 [54.9%] 1.56* [1.08, 2.23] >63 dba 123 [56.4%] 95 [43.6%] 0.98 [0.70, 1.40] % per row indicating % of sample with each aircraft noise exposure category successfully followed up. *=p=0.05 Aircraft noise exposure at secondary school data are presented in Table 3 for the 461 children who took part and the 554 who did not take part. There were significant differences in the percentage of the sample followed up in each noise exposure band: those in the range dba were half as likely and those in the range % were three and a half times as likely to participate compared with those exposed to <51 dba; furthermore, those exposed to >63dB were significant less likely to participate than those with the lowest exposure. Table 3: Noise exposure at secondary schools in Hounslow, Hillingdon, Slough, Surrey, Richmond, and Windsor & Maidenhead for the participants and non-participants at follow-up (N=1015). Aircraft Noise Exposure at Secondary School Did not participate N=554 Participated N=461 OR (95% CI) showing odds for participating <51dBA 213 [66.6%] 107 [33.4%] dba 193 [57.4%] 143 [42.6%] 1.47* [1.07, 2.02] dba 117 [36.3%] 205 [63.7%] 3.49*** [2.52, 4.82] >63 dba 31 [83.8%] 6 [16.2%] 0.34* [0.16, 0.95) % per row indicating % of sample with each aircraft noise exposure category successfully followed up. *=p=0.05. ***=p=0.001 Patterns of Aircraft Noise Exposure at School at Baseline & Follow-up At follow-up, aircraft noise exposure ranged from <50 dba to 65.4 dba: the mean exposure was dba. Patterns of baseline and follow-up aircraft noise exposure are presented in Table 4 for the 461 cohort members who took part in the follow-up study. Overall, nearly half of the participants (N=217, 47%) were attending secondary schools with a similar noise exposure level to their primary school: 51.4% for <51dBA, 60.5% for dba and 64.4% 14

15 for dBA. For those exposed to >63dBA at baseline, most were attending secondary schools with exposure between dba (84.2%): only 5% remained in schools with the highest exposure (>63 dba). The data indicate that in our sample, some cohort members remain exposed to high levels of aircraft noise at secondary school, whilst some have moved from noise exposed to quieter schools, and some have moved from quieter schools to noisier schools at follow-up. Table 4: Noise exposure at primary and secondary schools in Hounslow, Hillingdon, Slough & Windsor, Surrey, Berkshire, and Richmond for the cohort who participated in the follow-up (N=461). Aircraft Noise Aircraft Noise Exposure at Secondary School Exposure at Primary School <51dBA N [%] dba N [%] dba N [%] >63 dba N [%] <51dBA 75 [51.4%] 38 [26.0%] 33 [22.6%] 0 [0.0%] dba 20 [16.8%] 72 [60.5%] 27 [22.7%] 0 [0.0%] dba 8 [7.9%] 27 [26.7%] 65 [64.4%] 1 [1.0%] >63 dba 4 [4.2%] 6 [6.3%] 80 [84.2%] 5 [5.3%] [%]=row %. Descriptive Reading Comprehension Scores at Follow-Up Table 5 shows the descriptive statistics for the reading comprehension task and Figure 4 the distribution of the standardised scores in our sample. The standardised score for the Suffolk Reading Scale 2 are based on a normal distribution, thus in the representative national sample, the mean score is 100, with a standard deviation of 15. The difference in the mean score between our sample (91.9) and the standardised population (100) indicates that the reading comprehension ability of our sample is slightly below the national average. Table 5: Descriptive statistics for the reading comprehension task for the overall sample. Raw score from the Suffolk Reading Scale 2, Level 3 Age-standardised score from the Suffolk Reading Scale 2, Level 3 Mean Standard deviation Range

16 Figure 4: Distribution of age-standardised scores from the Suffolk Reading Scale 2, Level 3 for the overall sample. Preliminary Analyses of the Effects of Aircraft Noise at School on Reading Comprehension Initially, the baseline model of aircraft noise exposure at primary school on reading comprehension was re-run on the follow-up sub-sample (N=461) to assess whether the original RANCH reading findings (Clark et al., 2006, Stansfeld et al., 2005) could be replicated in the sub-sample participating at follow-up. Multilevel modelling analyses (Table 6) indicated that the effect size for the UK sample in the original sample was replicated in our sub-sample. This is suggestive that the achieved sample is representative of the UK baseline cohort. Table 7 gives the descriptive statistics for the reading comprehension task at follow-up for the sample by categorical aircraft noise exposure at primary school and secondary school. Preliminary ANOVA analyses indicate a trend for reading comprehension to be poorer at years of age for children who attended noise exposed primary schools [aircraft noise measured continuously] (F=4.15, df=19, p=0.0001) and a trend for reading comprehension performance to be poorer in aircraft noise exposed secondary schools (F=1.74, df=20, p=0.025 ). 16

17 Table 6: The effect size of aircraft noise at primary school on reading comprehension at primary school for the each country and for the UK sub-sample who took part in the follow-up study. B SE Confidence interval (95%) p-value from 2 Original Findings at Baseline Pooled estimate to UK to NL to Spain to Original Finding at Baseline for the Follow-up Sample UK to Indicates change in reading z-score per 1 db increase in noise exposure at primary school These analyses are preliminary and the next step is to see if these effects are explained by confounding factors at baseline and follow-up. Analyses with multilevel modelling analyses using continuous measures of aircraft noise exposure at school, taking into account baseline and follow-up school and individual level factors and confounders need to be carried out before more definite conclusions can be drawn. These analyses will be completed as part of Dr Clark s RCUK Academic Fellowship by the end of Table 7: Descriptive statistics for the reading comprehension task for the overall sample by aircraft noise exposure at secondary school. Aircraft Noise Exposure Age-standardised score from the Suffolk Reading Scale 2, Level 3 Mean Standard N Range deviation Aircraft Noise Exposure at Primary School <51dBA dba dba >63 dba Aircraft Noise Exposure at Secondary School <51dBA dba dba >63 dba >63 dba ANOVA comparing 3 aircraft noise categories with the highest two categories combined. Difficulties Some difficulties were caused by the late notification of the award, which pushed data collection into March to May 2008, which clashed with the participants GCSE exams. The participants were in Year 11 and would be leaving school at the end of the academic year, 17

18 making this the only opportunity to follow the sample up in secondary school. The timing definitely had an impact upon the participation rate, both at the school and the individual level. Some schools were unwilling to take part, some schools refused after originally agreeing to take part, and some participants missed data collection because of clashes with their GCSE practical exams. Given that only a small team were collecting data, opportunities for revisiting schools were limited and schools were mostly unwilling to let the data collection team re-visit. A larger data collection team for the project may have gone some way to addressing the effect of these time constraints upon the study but had not been budgeted for in the original proposal to the ESRC. Activities An oral presentation about the RANCH follow-up study was made at the 9 th Congress of the International Commission on Biological Effects of Noise (ICBEN) as part of the Team 4 Influence of Noise on Performance & Behaviour activities. This meeting was held in Connecticut, USA in July The ICBEN organisation promotes a high level of scientific research concerning all the aspects noise-induced effects on human being, holding a conference every 5 years. Oral presentations presenting the findings of the study have also been accepted for the upcoming INTERNOISE 2009 conference in Ottawa, Canada in August 2009, as well as for the upcoming EURONOISE 2009 conference in Edinburgh, Scotland in October These papers were invited to be part of symposiums on health effects of noise, and classroom acoustics, respectively. The study will feed into the European Union funded European Network on Noise & Health: ENNAH, which is a European-wide network of over 30 organisations conducting research on noise and health, which is being co-ordinated by Professor Stansfeld and Dr Clark. This network aims to review the existing knowledge in noise and health research and to identify future research priorities for noise and health research within Europe. The network will operate for two years, from September Dr Clark & Professor Stansfeld are also part of the World Health Organisation [Europe] working group on aircraft noise and health which offers further avenues for the dissemination of the findings of this study. 18

19 Outputs As well as the conference and network dissemination activities outlined in the Activities section, the final analyses of the dataset will be written up for publication in a peer-reviewed journal by the end of A dataset for this study will be deposited at the Data Archive in May A lay-persons leaflet will be developed by December 2009 that will summarise the findings of the study. This leaflet will be disseminated to head teachers and teachers of the primary and secondary schools involved in the RANCH study, as well as to parents and participants in the study. Leaflets will also be sent to relevant departments in the Boroughs involved in the study. A summary of the study will also be put on the existing RANCH project website [www.ranchproject.org]. Impacts The results of this project will have implications for noise policy within the UK and the results will have relevance to European, national and local authorities involved in public health, transport planning, and land-use planning. To date, as the results are not finalised, the research results have not been used or applied outside the project. The planned conference papers prioritise the need to inform scientific disciplines, including acoustical, epidemiological, public health, educational, psychological and design disciplines about the study. The investigators have close relationships with national and local government departments relating to noise policy, such as DEFRA and the London Borough of Hounslow Environmental Strategy group, enabling the findings of the RANCH follow-up study to be fed directly into national debates about the issue of children s noise exposure at school. Professor Stansfeld chairs the Expert Advisory Panel for the ongoing Westminster Noise Strategy. Professor Stansfeld is also on the Ambient Noise Committee for Environmental Protection UK. Over the next 15 years education authorities will be participating in the government funded Building Schools for the Future (BSF) scheme, which aims to rebuild or renew every secondary school in England. The findings of this project can inform guidelines and policy for the provision of healthy educational environments for children, having relevance for the 19

20 design and placement of new schools and airports, as well as for noise abatement schemes for schools exposed to high levels of noise. The original RANCH study findings fed into the EU Directive on Ambient Noise to inform targets for noise pollution in children s living environments. The findings of the current study provide additional scientific knowledge for this directive. DEFRA, who co-funded the RANCH study in the UK and with whom we have strong links, have also expressed an interest in the findings of the follow-up study, for the development of their noise strategy. Future Research Priorities As analyses of the dataset are ongoing, clear lines of research arising from this project have yet to be identified. One area which should be a future priority is a large scale epidemiological study of the effects of aircraft and road traffic noise on the health and cognition of secondary school children. Few studies examine effects on secondary school children: whilst the current study does examine this age group, the sample is prospective and has not been selected according to noise exposure at secondary school. Future studies could also examine a broader range of cognitive skills such as short- and long-term memory and word speed recognition. There is also scope for further experimental studies to examine mechanisms for noise effects on children s cognition, as well as for evaluations of interventions to examine the effectiveness of noise reduction designs within school environments. 20

Aircraft and road traffic noise and children s cognition and health: a cross-national study

Aircraft and road traffic noise and children s cognition and health: a cross-national study Aircraft and road traffic noise and children s cognition and health: a cross-national study S A Stansfeld, B Berglund, C Clark, I Lopez-Barrio, P Fischer, E Öhrström, M M Haines, J Head, S Hygge, I van

More information

Jochen Mayerl Empirical Social Research, University of Kaiserslautern, Kaiserslautern, Germany

Jochen Mayerl Empirical Social Research, University of Kaiserslautern, Kaiserslautern, Germany Effects of aircraft noise on reading and oral language abilities in German children near Frankfurt/Main airport: Results of the NORAH (noise-related annoyance, cognition, and health)- study Maria Klatte

More information

UMEÅ INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL

UMEÅ INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL UMEÅ INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL OF PUBLIC HEALTH Master Programme in Public Health - Programme and Courses Academic year 2015-2016 Public Health and Clinical Medicine Umeå International School of Public Health

More information

The Michael Palin Centre for Stammering 13 15 Pine Street, London EC1R OJG 0203 316 8100. www.stammeringcentre.org

The Michael Palin Centre for Stammering 13 15 Pine Street, London EC1R OJG 0203 316 8100. www.stammeringcentre.org The Michael Palin Centre for Stammering 13 15 Pine Street, London EC1R OJG 0203 316 8100 The Michael Palin Centre has an international reputation as a centre of excellence for therapy, research and training

More information

SPECIFIC LEARNING DISABILITY

SPECIFIC LEARNING DISABILITY SPECIFIC LEARNING DISABILITY 24:05:24.01:18. Specific learning disability defined. Specific learning disability is a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding

More information

MSc Applied Child Psychology

MSc Applied Child Psychology MSc Applied Child Psychology Module list Modules may include: The Child in Context: Understanding Disability This module aims to challenge understandings of child development that have emerged within the

More information

CURRENT ECOLOGICAL AND HEALTH PROBLEMS OF THE AIR TRANSPORT IN BULGARIA

CURRENT ECOLOGICAL AND HEALTH PROBLEMS OF THE AIR TRANSPORT IN BULGARIA CURRENT ECOLOGICAL AND HEALTH PROBLEMS OF THE AIR TRANSPORT IN BULGARIA Jeni Staykova 1, Tanya Turnovska 2, Tonko Petkov 3 Hygiene Epidemiologic Inspectorate Kardjali 1, Medical University Plovdiv 2, Air

More information

Aircraft noise effects on health

Aircraft noise effects on health Aircraft noise effects on health Prepared for the Airports Commission Dr Charlotte Clark Centre for Psychiatry Barts & the London School of Medicine Queen Mary University of London May 2015 Table of Contents

More information

Predictors of recovery and legal representation in a compensation setting 12 months post injury: The Whiplash Outcome Study [WOS]

Predictors of recovery and legal representation in a compensation setting 12 months post injury: The Whiplash Outcome Study [WOS] Predictors of recovery and legal representation in a compensation setting 12 months post injury: The Whiplash Outcome Study [WOS] Petrina Casey [PhD candidate], Rehabilitation Studies Unit, Sydney Medical

More information

Frequently Asked Questions about Making Specific Learning Disability (SLD) Eligibility Decisions

Frequently Asked Questions about Making Specific Learning Disability (SLD) Eligibility Decisions Frequently Asked Questions about Making Specific Learning Disability (SLD) Eligibility Decisions This document is part of the department s guidance on implementing Wisconsin SLD criteria. It provides answers

More information

Local action on health inequalities: Good quality parenting programmes

Local action on health inequalities: Good quality parenting programmes Local action on health inequalities: Good quality parenting programmes Health equity briefing 1a: September 2014 About PHE Public Health England exists to protect and improve the nation s health and wellbeing,

More information

Thank you for the opportunity to respond to the BAA consultation on Noise insulation and mitigation.

Thank you for the opportunity to respond to the BAA consultation on Noise insulation and mitigation. Deputy Leader s Office Councillor Ruth Cadbury Freepost RSLU-TKHH-BGTH Heathrow Community Relations The Compass Centre Nelson Road London Heathrow Airport Hounslow TW76 2GW Democratic Services The Civic

More information

12,6($&&,'(1760,125,1-85,(6$1'&2*1,7,9()$,/85(6

12,6($&&,'(1760,125,1-85,(6$1'&2*1,7,9()$,/85(6 12,6($&&,'(1760,125,1-85,(6$1'&2*1,7,9()$,/85(6 A.P. Smith Centre for Occupational and Health Psychology, Cardiff University, UK,QWURGXFWLRQ Smith (1990) reviewed studies of the effects of noise on accidents.

More information

The relationship between mental wellbeing and financial management among older people

The relationship between mental wellbeing and financial management among older people The relationship between mental wellbeing and financial management among older people An analysis using the third wave of Understanding Society January 2014 www.pfrc.bris.ac.uk www.ilcuk.org.uk A working

More information

Module 14: Missing Data Stata Practical

Module 14: Missing Data Stata Practical Module 14: Missing Data Stata Practical Jonathan Bartlett & James Carpenter London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine www.missingdata.org.uk Supported by ESRC grant RES 189-25-0103 and MRC grant G0900724

More information

Chapter 5: Analysis of The National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS:88)

Chapter 5: Analysis of The National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS:88) Chapter 5: Analysis of The National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS:88) Introduction The National Educational Longitudinal Survey (NELS:88) followed students from 8 th grade in 1988 to 10 th grade in

More information

Commentary: Is it time to redefine Cognitive Epidemiology?

Commentary: Is it time to redefine Cognitive Epidemiology? Commentary: Is it time to redefine Cognitive Epidemiology? Archana Singh-Manoux 1,2,3 * Corresponding author & address: 1 INSERM, U1018 Centre for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health Hôpital

More information

QUEEN S COLLEGE, LONDON. Special Educational Needs (SEN) and Learning Difficulties and Disabilities (LDD) POLICY DOCUMENT

QUEEN S COLLEGE, LONDON. Special Educational Needs (SEN) and Learning Difficulties and Disabilities (LDD) POLICY DOCUMENT QUEEN S COLLEGE, LONDON Special Educational Needs (SEN) and Learning Difficulties and Disabilities (LDD) POLICY DOCUMENT Policy for Special Educational Needs (SEN) and Learning Difficulties and Disabilities

More information

Getting access to NPD data for EEF evaluations: Advice for evaluators

Getting access to NPD data for EEF evaluations: Advice for evaluators Getting access to NPD data for EEF evaluations: Advice for evaluators This document outlines the EEF s plans for a data archive and discusses the implications this will have for evaluators. It includes

More information

Roads Task Force Technical Note 12 How many cars are there in London and who owns them?

Roads Task Force Technical Note 12 How many cars are there in London and who owns them? Roads Task Force Technical Note 12 How many cars are there in London and who owns them? Introduction ROADS TASK FORCE This paper forms one of a series of thematic analyses, produced to contribute to the

More information

Exclusion and Mental Health. Professor Harry Daniels Fellow of Green Templeton College Department of Education University of Oxford

Exclusion and Mental Health. Professor Harry Daniels Fellow of Green Templeton College Department of Education University of Oxford Exclusion and Mental Health Professor Harry Daniels Fellow of Green Templeton College Department of Education University of Oxford BBC News Today Mental health services in England are "a car crash" and

More information

Non-replication of interaction between cannabis use and trauma in predicting psychosis. & Jim van Os

Non-replication of interaction between cannabis use and trauma in predicting psychosis. & Jim van Os Non-replication of interaction between cannabis use and trauma in predicting psychosis Rebecca Kuepper 1, Cécile Henquet 1, 3, Roselind Lieb 4, 5, Hans-Ulrich Wittchen 4, 6 1, 2* & Jim van Os 1 Department

More information

The association between health risk status and health care costs among the membership of an Australian health plan

The association between health risk status and health care costs among the membership of an Australian health plan HEALTH PROMOTION INTERNATIONAL Vol. 18, No. 1 Oxford University Press 2003. All rights reserved Printed in Great Britain The association between health risk status and health care costs among the membership

More information

How has Hounslow s demographic profile changed? An analysis of the 2011 Census data based on releases available up to January 2013

How has Hounslow s demographic profile changed? An analysis of the 2011 Census data based on releases available up to January 2013 How has Hounslow s demographic profile changed? An analysis of the 2011 Census data based on releases available up to January 2013 Background Since 2001 Hounslow s population has grown by 19.6% from 212,341

More information

Minsthorpe Community College Local Offer

Minsthorpe Community College Local Offer Minsthorpe Community College Local Offer Vision / mission statement Minsthorpe Community College is an inclusive school with a strong belief that all students needs should be met as fully as possible irrespective

More information

Progress Report Phase I Study of North Carolina Evidence-based Transition to Practice Initiative Project Foundation for Nursing Excellence

Progress Report Phase I Study of North Carolina Evidence-based Transition to Practice Initiative Project Foundation for Nursing Excellence Progress Report Phase I Study of North Carolina Evidence-based Transition to Practice Initiative Project Foundation for Nursing Excellence Prepared by the NCSBN Research Department INTRODUCTION In 2006,

More information

Prepared by:jane Healey (Email: janie_healey@yahoo.com) 4 th year undergraduate occupational therapy student, University of Western Sydney

Prepared by:jane Healey (Email: janie_healey@yahoo.com) 4 th year undergraduate occupational therapy student, University of Western Sydney 1 There is fair (2b) level evidence that living skills training is effective at improving independence in food preparation, money management, personal possessions, and efficacy, in adults with persistent

More information

EDUCATION RELATED EDUCATIONAL INTERVENTION: EVALUATION, EDUCATION AND THE LAW

EDUCATION RELATED EDUCATIONAL INTERVENTION: EVALUATION, EDUCATION AND THE LAW National(Association(of(Pediatric(Nurse(Practitioners,(April(2013 EDUCATION RELATED EDUCATIONAL INTERVENTION: EVALUATION, EDUCATION AND THE LAW Once a pediatric healthcare provider recommends that a child

More information

RESEARCH OBJECTIVE/QUESTION

RESEARCH OBJECTIVE/QUESTION ADHD 9 Study results from confirm effectiveness of combined treatments and medication management in reducing children s Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms CITATION: MTA Cooperative

More information

University of Maryland School of Medicine Master of Public Health Program. Evaluation of Public Health Competencies

University of Maryland School of Medicine Master of Public Health Program. Evaluation of Public Health Competencies Semester/Year of Graduation University of Maryland School of Medicine Master of Public Health Program Evaluation of Public Health Competencies Students graduating with an MPH degree, and planning to work

More information

Excellence in Prevention descriptions of the prevention programs and strategies with the greatest evidence of success

Excellence in Prevention descriptions of the prevention programs and strategies with the greatest evidence of success Name of Program/Strategy: Coping With Work and Family Stress Report Contents 1. Overview and description 2. Implementation considerations (if available) 3. Descriptive information 4. Outcomes 5. Cost effectiveness

More information

Master of Public Health Program Competencies. Implemented Fall 2015

Master of Public Health Program Competencies. Implemented Fall 2015 Master of Public Program Competencies Implemented Fall 2015 Master of Public Core Competencies SPH Q501 Biostatistics 1. Describe the roles biostatistics serve in the discipline of public health. 2. Apply

More information

Acoustics of indoor sports halls and gymnasia

Acoustics of indoor sports halls and gymnasia Acoustics of indoor sports halls and gymnasia Robert Conetta 1, Bridget Shield 1, Trevor Cox 2, Charlie Mydlarz 2, Julie Dockrell 3, Daniel Connolly 3 1 London South Bank University 2 University of Salford

More information

THE EFFECTS OF NOISE ON CHILDREN AT SCHOOL: A REVIEW

THE EFFECTS OF NOISE ON CHILDREN AT SCHOOL: A REVIEW THE EFFECTS OF NOISE ON CHILDREN AT SCHOOL: A REVIEW Bridget M Shield 1 and Julie E Dockrell 2 1 Division of Building Services, Faculty of Engineering Science and Technology, South Bank University, London

More information

Summary of health effects

Summary of health effects Review of Findings on Chronic Disease Self- Management Program (CDSMP) Outcomes: Physical, Emotional & Health-Related Quality of Life, Healthcare Utilization and Costs Summary of health effects The major

More information

The relationship among alcohol use, related problems, and symptoms of psychological distress: Gender as a moderator in a college sample

The relationship among alcohol use, related problems, and symptoms of psychological distress: Gender as a moderator in a college sample Addictive Behaviors 29 (2004) 843 848 The relationship among alcohol use, related problems, and symptoms of psychological distress: Gender as a moderator in a college sample Irene Markman Geisner*, Mary

More information

The use of text messaging to improve asthma control: a pilot study using the mobile phone short messaging service (SMS)

The use of text messaging to improve asthma control: a pilot study using the mobile phone short messaging service (SMS) RESEARCH Original article... Q The use of text messaging to improve asthma control: a pilot study using the mobile phone short messaging service (SMS) Lathy Prabhakaran*, Wai Yan Chee*, Kia Chong Chua,

More information

School-based humanistic counselling: Does it help reduce distress, and if so, how?

School-based humanistic counselling: Does it help reduce distress, and if so, how? School-based humanistic counselling: Does it help reduce distress, and if so, how? EBPU 2012, London Mick Cooper, Jo Pybis, Katherine McArthur, Karen Cromarty, Andy Hill, Nancy Rowland, Jamie Murdoch,

More information

A Parent Management Training Program for Parents of Very Young Children with a Developmental Disability

A Parent Management Training Program for Parents of Very Young Children with a Developmental Disability A Parent Management Training Program for Parents of Very Young Children with a Developmental Disability Marcia Huipe April 25 th, 2008 Description of Project The purpose of this project was to determine

More information

Degrees of Ethnic Inclusion Revisited. Analysing Irish inclusion in JSNAs

Degrees of Ethnic Inclusion Revisited. Analysing Irish inclusion in JSNAs Degrees of Ethnic Inclusion Revisited Analysing Irish inclusion in JSNAs April 2014 Rob ert Walsh With additional con trib ution s b y Charlotte Curran, S eán Hutton, and Mary Tilki ISBN: 978-1-906325-28-2

More information

1. Basic information about the school s special educational provision

1. Basic information about the school s special educational provision KNOTTINGLEY HIGH SCHOOL & SPORTS COLLEGE SPECIAL EDUCATION NEEDS POLICY Reviewed and Revised: September 2009 1. Basic information about the school s special educational provision a) Objectives To enable

More information

A Framework for Governance: A flexible guide to strategic planning

A Framework for Governance: A flexible guide to strategic planning Improving governance for schools A Framework for Governance: A flexible guide to strategic planning January 2015 Improving School Governance 2 Improving governance for schools Why a Framework for Governance

More information

The National Survey of Children s Health 2011-2012 The Child

The National Survey of Children s Health 2011-2012 The Child The National Survey of Children s 11-12 The Child The National Survey of Children s measures children s health status, their health care, and their activities in and outside of school. Taken together,

More information

6.9 Health of young offenders

6.9 Health of young offenders 6.9 Health of young offenders 6.91 Introduction The youth justice system (YJS) was set up under the Crime and Disorder Act (1998), to prevent young people from reoffending. The Youth Offending Service

More information

Online Reading Support London School of Economics Sandra McNally

Online Reading Support London School of Economics Sandra McNally Online Reading Support London School of Economics Sandra McNally Evaluation Summary Age range Primary (Year 1) Number of pupils c. 2700 Number of schools 60 Design Randomised controlled trial randomised

More information

C. The null hypothesis is not rejected when the alternative hypothesis is true. A. population parameters.

C. The null hypothesis is not rejected when the alternative hypothesis is true. A. population parameters. Sample Multiple Choice Questions for the material since Midterm 2. Sample questions from Midterms and 2 are also representative of questions that may appear on the final exam.. A randomly selected sample

More information

How to Develop a Sporting Habit for Life

How to Develop a Sporting Habit for Life How to Develop a Sporting Habit for Life Final report December 2012 Context Sport England s 2012-17 strategy aims to help people and communities across the country transform our sporting culture, so that

More information

SENCo (Special Education Needs Coordinator):

SENCo (Special Education Needs Coordinator): Special Educational Needs and Disabilities (SEND) Offer At St Columba's Head Teacher: SENCo (Special Education Needs Coordinator): Mr N Fisher Mrs K Kallend The following is a summary of the changes to

More information

The Ohio Longitudinal Transition Study Annual State Report

The Ohio Longitudinal Transition Study Annual State Report The Ohio Longitudinal Transition Study Annual State Report SPRING 2013 In this Report Employment Outcomes Post-school Education Outcomes Trends and Engagement Rates Student Satisfaction with Services Predictors

More information

problems in 6 year olds

problems in 6 year olds Archives of Disease in Childhood, 1984, 59, 815-819 Ortiginal articles Early hospital admissions and subsequent behaviour problems in 6 year olds F T SHANNON. D M FERGUSSON, AND M E DIMOND Christchurch

More information

Early Childhood Study of Language and Literacy Development of Spanish-Speaking Children

Early Childhood Study of Language and Literacy Development of Spanish-Speaking Children Early Childhood Study of Language and Literacy Development of Spanish-Speaking Children Subproject 1 of Acquiring Literacy in English: Crosslinguistic, Intralinguistic, and Developmental Factors Project

More information

Department of Psychology

Department of Psychology Department of Psychology Tanner Babb, Mary Ruthi The Psychology Department seeks to provide a curriculum that stimulates the necessary knowledge base and skills for participation in a variety of fields

More information

Fostering Changes: Addressing the mental health needs of fostered children in the UK

Fostering Changes: Addressing the mental health needs of fostered children in the UK Fostering Changes: Addressing the mental health needs of fostered children in the UK Dr Matt Woolgar Consultant Clinical Psychologist National Adoption & Fostering Service South London & Maudsley NHS Foundation

More information

GORDON S SCHOOL POLICY AND PROGRAMME ON MEETING SPECIAL EDUCATIONAL NEEDS

GORDON S SCHOOL POLICY AND PROGRAMME ON MEETING SPECIAL EDUCATIONAL NEEDS GORDON S SCHOOL POLICY AND PROGRAMME ON MEETING SPECIAL EDUCATIONAL NEEDS 1. INTRODUCTION This policy is based on the recommendations contained in the Code of Practice and provides the information required

More information

The Effects of Moderate Aerobic Exercise on Memory Retention and Recall

The Effects of Moderate Aerobic Exercise on Memory Retention and Recall The Effects of Moderate Aerobic Exercise on Memory Retention and Recall Lab 603 Group 1 Kailey Fritz, Emily Drakas, Naureen Rashid, Terry Schmitt, Graham King Medical Sciences Center University of Wisconsin-Madison

More information

Self-efficacy and degree choice among sports coaching and physical education students

Self-efficacy and degree choice among sports coaching and physical education students Self-efficacy and degree choice among sports coaching and physical education students Andrew Horrell (a.horrell@wlv.ac.uk) Andy Lane (a.m.lane2@wlv.ac.uk) Nick O Leary (n.o leary@wlv.ac.uk) Alison Barber

More information

The lifetime prevalence of depression in patients with MS is approximately 1

The lifetime prevalence of depression in patients with MS is approximately 1 Rebecca M. Floyd, Ph.D., Kimberly Lewis, Ph.D., Eliot Lopez, M.S., Thomas Toomey, B.A., Kena Arnold, B.A., and Lara Stepleman, Ph.D. The lifetime prevalence of depression in patients with MS is approximately

More information

ADMISSION TO THE PSYCHIATRIC EMERGENCY SERVICES OF PATIENTS WITH ALCOHOL-RELATED MENTAL DISORDER

ADMISSION TO THE PSYCHIATRIC EMERGENCY SERVICES OF PATIENTS WITH ALCOHOL-RELATED MENTAL DISORDER Bulletin of the Transilvania University of Braşov Series VI: Medical Sciences Vol. 4 (53) No. 2-2011 ADMISSION TO THE PSYCHIATRIC EMERGENCY SERVICES OF PATIENTS WITH ALCOHOL-RELATED MENTAL DISORDER P.

More information

Treatment Satisfaction among patients attending a private dental school in Vadodara, India

Treatment Satisfaction among patients attending a private dental school in Vadodara, India J. Int Oral Health 2010 Case Report All right reserved Treatment Satisfaction among patients attending a private dental school in Vadodara, India Thanveer K* Ajith Krishnan** Sudheer Hongal*** *M.D.S,

More information

The Effect of Nocturnal Aircraft Noise on Health: a Review of Recent Evidence.

The Effect of Nocturnal Aircraft Noise on Health: a Review of Recent Evidence. The Effect of Nocturnal Aircraft Noise on Health: a Review of Recent Evidence. Charlotte Clark & Stephen A Stansfeld Barts & the London School of Medicine, Queen Mary, University of London Report prepared

More information

Adolescent Depression and Attachment Ima G. Student Purdue University

Adolescent Depression and Attachment Ima G. Student Purdue University Heading (on all pages): running head plus page number Adolescent Depression 1 Running Head: ADOLESCENT DEPRESSION Running head (a shortened version of the title is defined on the title page and used in

More information

ADOPTION RESEARCH INITIATIVE BRIEFING ENHANCING ADOPTIVE PARENTING: A RANDOMISED CONTROLLED TRIAL OF ADOPTION SUPPORT

ADOPTION RESEARCH INITIATIVE BRIEFING ENHANCING ADOPTIVE PARENTING: A RANDOMISED CONTROLLED TRIAL OF ADOPTION SUPPORT Research Brief DCSF-RBX-19-08 ADOPTION RESEARCH INITIATIVE BRIEFING ENHANCING ADOPTIVE PARENTING: A RANDOMISED CONTROLLED TRIAL OF ADOPTION SUPPORT January 2009 Professor Alan Rushton, Institute of Psychiatry,

More information

The South African Child Support Grant Impact Assessment. Evidence from a survey of children, adolescents and their households

The South African Child Support Grant Impact Assessment. Evidence from a survey of children, adolescents and their households The South African Child Support Grant Impact Assessment Evidence from a survey of children, adolescents and their households Executive Summary EXECUTIVE SUMMARY UNICEF/Schermbrucker Cover photograph: UNICEF/Pirozzi

More information

Navigate the changes in special educational needs and disability (SEND) provision

Navigate the changes in special educational needs and disability (SEND) provision How to Navigate the changes in special educational needs and disability (SEND) provision For parents and carers supporting children affected by literacy difficulties including dyslexia. www.dyslexiaaction.org.uk

More information

St Mary s College Crosby. Special Educational Needs and Disability Policy (P46) Date of Policy September 2014. Date of Review September 2015

St Mary s College Crosby. Special Educational Needs and Disability Policy (P46) Date of Policy September 2014. Date of Review September 2015 St Mary s College Crosby Special Educational Needs and Disability Policy (P46) Date of Policy September 2014 Date of Review September 2015 Introduction The College is committed to giving all pupils the

More information

Managing Pupil Mobility

Managing Pupil Mobility O F F I C E F O R S T A N D A R D S I N E D U C A T I O N Managing Pupil Mobility Reference number HMI 403 March 2002 Contents Managing Pupil Mobility...4 Introduction...4 Main findings...4 Data on mobility

More information

CORE-INFO: Emotional neglect and emotional abuse in pre-school children

CORE-INFO: Emotional neglect and emotional abuse in pre-school children CORE-INFO: Emotional neglect and emotional abuse in pre-school children Introduction This leaflet summarises what is currently known about children aged less than six years who have been emotionally neglected

More information

When You Are Born Matters: The Impact of Date of Birth on Child Cognitive Outcomes in England

When You Are Born Matters: The Impact of Date of Birth on Child Cognitive Outcomes in England When You Are Born Matters: The Impact of Date of Birth on Child Cognitive Outcomes in England Claire Crawford Institute for Fiscal Studies Lorraine Dearden Institute for Fiscal Studies and Institute of

More information

We are developing a Facebook page and the website is consistently being updated.

We are developing a Facebook page and the website is consistently being updated. Introduction For The Connection Lab at McGill University, a major goal is to develop partnerships with schools, families, and other organizations for the benefit of students. The purpose of this document

More information

Transport for London. Travel in London, Supplementary Report: London Travel Demand Survey (LTDS)

Transport for London. Travel in London, Supplementary Report: London Travel Demand Survey (LTDS) Transport for London Travel in London, Supplementary Report: London Travel Demand Survey (LTDS) i Transport for London 2011 All rights reserved. Reproduction permitted for research, private study and internal

More information

MRC Autism Research Forum Interventions in Autism

MRC Autism Research Forum Interventions in Autism MRC Autism Research Forum Interventions in Autism Date: 10 July 2003 Location: Aim: Commonwealth Institute, London The aim of the forum was to bring academics in relevant disciplines together, to discuss

More information

QUALITY OF WORK, HEALTH AND EARLY RETIREMENT: EUROPEAN COMPARISONS

QUALITY OF WORK, HEALTH AND EARLY RETIREMENT: EUROPEAN COMPARISONS QUALY OF WORK, HEALTH AND EARLY RETIREMENT: EUROPEAN COMPARISONS Johannes Siegrist, Morten Wahrendorf 224-2010 15 Quality of Work, Health and Early Retirement: European Comparisons Johannes Siegrist and

More information

Executive Summary Relationship of Student Outcomes to School-Based Physical Therapy Service PT COUNTS

Executive Summary Relationship of Student Outcomes to School-Based Physical Therapy Service PT COUNTS Executive Summary Relationship of Student Outcomes to School-Based Physical Therapy Service PT COUNTS Physical Therapy related Child Outcomes in the Schools (PT COUNTS) was a national study supported by

More information

Teachers and performance management: one year on. (Provisional results)

Teachers and performance management: one year on. (Provisional results) Teachers and performance management: one year on. (Provisional results) David Marsden, Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics A personal apology to all the teachers who replied to

More information

Subject to Background

Subject to Background Subject to Background What promotes better achievement for bright but disadvantaged students? Pam Sammons, Katalin Toth & Kathy Sylva University of Oxford Department of Education March 2015 Improving social

More information

Internal Policy on the Provision of Educational Support in the European School Karlsruhe

Internal Policy on the Provision of Educational Support in the European School Karlsruhe Internal Policy on the Provision of Educational Support in the European School Karlsruhe Produced in line with: Policy on the Provision of Educational Support in the European Schools, (Ref: 2012-05-D-15-en-7,

More information

Lessons from London schools for attainment gaps and social mobility

Lessons from London schools for attainment gaps and social mobility Lessons from London schools for attainment gaps and social mobility Research report June 2014 Ellen Greaves, Lindsey Macmillan and Luke Sibieta Institute for Fiscal Studies and Institute of Education Social

More information

The Relationship between Ethnicity and Academic Success in Online Education Courses

The Relationship between Ethnicity and Academic Success in Online Education Courses The Relationship between Ethnicity and Academic Success in Online Education Courses Lori Kupczynski Texas A&M University-Kingsville Department of Educational Leadership and Counseling 700 University Blvd.,

More information

Study Design and Statistical Analysis

Study Design and Statistical Analysis Study Design and Statistical Analysis Anny H Xiang, PhD Department of Preventive Medicine University of Southern California Outline Designing Clinical Research Studies Statistical Data Analysis Designing

More information

S weden as well as most other rich countries has a highly

S weden as well as most other rich countries has a highly 188 RESEARCH REPORT Class differences in the social consequences of illness? C Lindholm, B Burström, F Diderichsen... J Epidemiol Community Health 2002;56:188 192 See end of article for authors affiliations...

More information

World Health Organization Guidelines on Community Noise

World Health Organization Guidelines on Community Noise World Health Organization Guidelines on Community Noise Dietrich Schwela World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland Presentation at the TRB Session 391 Setting an Agenda for Transportation Noise Management

More information

STARS Europe Accreditation Scheme

STARS Europe Accreditation Scheme STARS Europe Accreditation Scheme Accreditation Guidance for STARS SCHOOLS Primary Schools This document brings together all the information needed for STARS schools implementing the STARS campaign Mobiel

More information

EVALUATION OF A PILOT FIT FOR WORK SERVICE

EVALUATION OF A PILOT FIT FOR WORK SERVICE EVALUATION OF A PILOT FIT FOR WORK SERVICE Dr Julia Smedley Lead Consultant Occupational Health, University Hospital Southampton NHS Foundation Trust and Honorary Senior Lecturer, University of Southampton

More information

Assessment, Recording and Reporting Policy. Committee Responsible: Curriculum & Standards

Assessment, Recording and Reporting Policy. Committee Responsible: Curriculum & Standards The process of assessing, recording and reporting is required to: Inform students, parents and teachers of attainment and progress being made by students in all areas of the curriculum. Allow realistic

More information

Children with MS at school - Factsheet for teachers.

Children with MS at school - Factsheet for teachers. Children with MS at school - Factsheet for teachers. There are approximately 4000 children under 16 years old who have symptoms of or a firm diagnosis of Multiple Sclerosis. For a child with any chronic

More information

National school banding Q&A. Background

National school banding Q&A. Background National school banding Q&A Background The previous Minister for Education and Skills, Leighton Andrews AM, announced in February 2011, as part of wider set of actions aimed at improving standards, the

More information

Guided Reading 9 th Edition. informed consent, protection from harm, deception, confidentiality, and anonymity.

Guided Reading 9 th Edition. informed consent, protection from harm, deception, confidentiality, and anonymity. Guided Reading Educational Research: Competencies for Analysis and Applications 9th Edition EDFS 635: Educational Research Chapter 1: Introduction to Educational Research 1. List and briefly describe the

More information

EBM Cheat Sheet- Measurements Card

EBM Cheat Sheet- Measurements Card EBM Cheat Sheet- Measurements Card Basic terms: Prevalence = Number of existing cases of disease at a point in time / Total population. Notes: Numerator includes old and new cases Prevalence is cross-sectional

More information

Identification of Sluggish Cognitive Tempo by Teachers

Identification of Sluggish Cognitive Tempo by Teachers University of Northern Iowa UNI ScholarWorks Annual Graduate Student Symposium 2015 Annual Graduate Student Symposium Apr 1st, 2:00 PM - 4:00 PM Identification of Sluggish Cognitive Tempo by Teachers Rachel

More information

Hounslow JSNA: Physical Activity Factsheet May 2014

Hounslow JSNA: Physical Activity Factsheet May 2014 Hounslow JSNA: Physical Activity Factsheet May 2014 1. Introduction This factsheet includes physical activity in children, young people and adults in the London Borough of Hounslow. Physical activity is

More information

St. George s College Academic Support Policy and Special Educational Needs and Disability Policy (SEND Policy)

St. George s College Academic Support Policy and Special Educational Needs and Disability Policy (SEND Policy) St. George s College Academic Support Policy and Special Educational Needs and Disability Policy (SEND Policy) Mission Statement We are an independent Roman Catholic selective co-educational College which

More information

Michael E Dewey 1 and Martin J Prince 1. Lund, September 2005. Retirement and depression. Michael E Dewey. Outline. Introduction.

Michael E Dewey 1 and Martin J Prince 1. Lund, September 2005. Retirement and depression. Michael E Dewey. Outline. Introduction. 1 and Martin J Prince 1 1 Institute of Psychiatry, London Lund, September 2005 1 Background to depression and What did we already know? Why was this worth doing? 2 Study methods and measures 3 What does

More information

Department of Psychology

Department of Psychology The University of Texas at San Antonio 1 Department of Psychology The Department of Psychology offers the Master of Science Degree in Psychology and the Doctor of Philosophy Degree in Psychology. Master

More information

FINAL REPORT 2005 08 RESEARCH GRADE 7 TO 12 PROGRAMS. Frontier College would like to thank the Ontario Ministry of Education for their support.

FINAL REPORT 2005 08 RESEARCH GRADE 7 TO 12 PROGRAMS. Frontier College would like to thank the Ontario Ministry of Education for their support. FINAL REPORT 2005 08 RESEARCH GRADE 7 TO 12 PROGRAMS Frontier College would like to thank the Ontario Ministry of Education for their support. 1 Introduction For the past three years, Frontier College

More information

Chapter 1: Educational Psychology - A Foundation for Teaching. 1. Define educational psychology and state its main purpose.

Chapter 1: Educational Psychology - A Foundation for Teaching. 1. Define educational psychology and state its main purpose. LEARNING OBJECTIVES Educational Psychology - Slavin, Ninth Edition Psychology 207 Mr. Conjar Chapter 1: Educational Psychology - A Foundation for Teaching 1. Define educational psychology and state its

More information

Behavioral Sciences INDIVIDUAL PROGRAM INFORMATION 2015 2016. 866.Macomb1 (866.622.6621) www.macomb.edu

Behavioral Sciences INDIVIDUAL PROGRAM INFORMATION 2015 2016. 866.Macomb1 (866.622.6621) www.macomb.edu Behavioral Sciences INDIVIDUAL PROGRAM INFORMATION 2015 2016 866.Macomb1 (866.622.6621) www.macomb.edu Behavioral Sciences CREDENTIAL TITLE PROGRAM OPTIONS CREDIT HOURS REQUIRED Certificate Behavioral

More information

2014 School and College Performance Tables. Statement of Intent

2014 School and College Performance Tables. Statement of Intent 2014 School and College Performance Tables Statement of Intent July 2014 Table of Contents Introduction... 3 Primary performance tables... 4 Future developments... 4 Secondary performance tables... 5 Future

More information

Distribution of Pupils by School Type and Population Growth Estimates. anewdirection.org.uk

Distribution of Pupils by School Type and Population Growth Estimates. anewdirection.org.uk Distribution of Pupils by School Type and Population Growth Estimates anewdirection.org.uk Where young Londoners go to school and population change over the next ten years 16% of all pupils in England

More information

Long-term impact of childhood bereavement

Long-term impact of childhood bereavement Long-term impact of childhood bereavement Preliminary analysis of the 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS70) Samantha Parsons CWRC WORKING PAPER September 2011 Long-Term Impact of Childhood Bereavement Preliminary

More information

2015-2016 Academic Catalog

2015-2016 Academic Catalog 2015-2016 Academic Catalog Autism Behavioral Studies Professors: Kuykendall, Rowe, Director Assistant Professors: Fetherston, Mitchell, Sharma, Sullivan Bachelor of Science in Autism Behavioral Studies

More information