Hidrodinámica y magnetismo estelares

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1 Hidrodinámica y magnetismo estelares la convección estelar y las erupciones solares gigantes la convección estelar y las erupciones solares gigantes Fernando Moreno Insertis Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias

2 SOHO-EIT 284 Å coronal emission Scharmer, Langhans + Löfdahl G-band, AR425, 2003Aug09 Photosphere Ca-K chromospheric emission

3 TRACE (17.1 nm): emergence of an active region and flaring

4 I. To model the emergence of magnetized plasma through the convection cells into the atmosphere III. To understand the fundamental features of the eruption processes in the Sun II. Objective of our numerical modeling efforts: Global, long-term objective: to disclose via numerical experiments the complicated structure of the atmosphere of the Sun and cool stars.

5 Collaboration (since 2004) Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias Niels-Bohr Inst., Copenhagen Fernando Moreno-Insertis Abel Tortosa Vasilis Archontis ( ) Klaus Galsgaard Naval Research Lab., Washington University of St Andrews Alan Hood Vasilis Archontis ( ) Michelle Murray Ignacio Ugarte

6 Part 1: high-temperature jets in the corona A. Tortosa, F. Moreno-Insertis F. Moreno-Insertis, K. Galsgaard, I. Ugarte Urra Hydrodynamics + magnetic fields No radiation transfer Simplified thermodynamics.

7 Method used: solve the equations of hydrodynamics for a magnetized plasma Mass, momentum and energy conservation eqs Faraday, Ohm, Ampere + equation of state thermodynamics: ideal gas, no heat conduction

8 Numerical code (Galsgaard + Nordlund) Explicit finite-difference scheme Staggered, non-uniform (but non-adaptive) grid 6th order derivation + 5th order interpolation in space 3d order Hyman update in time Shocks, current sheets, sharp transitions are resolved using hyperdiffusivity algorithms

9 The background stratification integration domain isothermal corona steep temperature rise (T.R.) isothermal photosphere upper convection zone 9 Pressure contrast: 10 10

10 Typical computational requirements Standard run: Numerical grid of 512x512x512 points RAM memory requirements: typically around 10 GB Parallelization: Excellent up to 512 CPUs Method used: MPI Storage requirements: Experiment with 100 snapshots: 400 GBs

11 Yohkoh s high-velocity jets in soft X-Rays (SXT) Shimojo et al, PASJ 48, 1996

12 Hinode XRT: observation of X-Ray jets in coronal holes

13 Inverted-Y jet shapes

14 Reconnection and jet emission following flux emergence: Heyvaerts, Priest & Rust 1977

15 Our results: We studied a jet that appeared right after a magnetic bipole emerged at the photosphere. Observations: X-Rays and Extreme UV (Hinode satellite) full disk magnetograms (SOHO MDI) Computer modeling: study the emergence of magnetized plasma into a coronal hole

16 3D numerical simulation carried out in the Marenostrum and LaPalma supercomputing installations of the Red Española de Supercomputación

17 Background coronal field

18 Domain size: (x,y,z) km x km x km (5 000 km below, km above the solar surface) For this experiment, physical values adequate to a coronal hole were used: ρ atoms cm-3 open ambient field lines coronal field strength: 10 G T K

19

20 Current distribution (t=15 min)

21 Velocity map (t=22 min)

22

23 3D view: current and temperature

24

25 Temperature map (t=22 min)

26 Horizontal drift of the 2-chamber + jet structure

27 Agreement between the numerical results and the observations Observations: Savcheva etal 2007 Statistics from 7197 polar jets using Hinode/Soho Maximum jet velocity at 160 km /s Jet duration between 10 and 20 min Transverse (=drift?) velocities between 0 and 20 km / s => the overall agreement is excellent

28 Part 2: Experiments with convection A. Tortosa, F. Moreno-Insertis Hydrodynamics + radiation transfer + + magnetic fields => realistic models of convective cells.

29 The equation of radiation transfer is solved for I(ν, n, x) Radiation transfer / heating of the plasma along 24 rays at each grid point for a number of frequency bins The radiative heating / cooling is calculated through:

30 Simulation of emergence of magnetic flux across solar convection including chromospheric layers Size of simulation domain: 16,000 km (x); 12,000 km (y); 3,800 km (z) Computational grid: 320 points x 240 points x 190 points Optical depth unity located ~ 2600 km above bottom boundary Open bottom boundary + periodic side boundaries

31 Observation of emergence of an active region in the solar photosphere 80-min G-band movie of AR 8737 (Dutch Open Telescope) Area: arcsec2

32 Anomalous granulation during flux emergence episodes

33 Temperature structure at the visible surface Temperature structure at the visible surfacesurface Temperature structure at the visible and at the chromosphere (t=12.6 min and t=14.5 min) and in the chromosphere (t=12.6, 14.5 min) and in the chromosphere (t=12.6 min; 14.5 min)

34 Topology of field lines issuing from photospheric concentrations

35 Plasma dynamics and heating resulting from impact by upcoming shock wave

36 Some final points With 3D massively parallel numerical experiments important aspects of the giant stellar eruptions can be explained. There is still a long way to go to understand some basic aspects and many details of those phenomena. The amazing pace of improvement of computing equipment and visualization tools promises fast progress in the coming years.

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