I. Polymers & Macromolecules Figure 1: Polymers. Polymer: Macromolecule: Figure 2: Dehydration Synthesis

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1 I. Polymers & Macromolecules Figure 1: Polymers Polymer: Macromolecule: Figure 2: Dehydration Synthesis 1

2 Dehydration Synthesis: Figure 3: Hydrolysis Hydrolysis: II. Organic Macromolecules Class I: Carbohydrates: Monosaccharides Figure 3: Monosaccharrides Monosaccharides can be identified by a SINGLE RING structure. Monosaccharides: a) Glucose is the most abundant monosaccharide & is thus the major nutrient (energy source) for cells. 2

3 Testing for Monosaccharides Benedict s Solution is blue in color can be used to test for the presence of some monosaccharides which react with copper ions in the solution. A positive test for the presence of monosaccharides is a brick red by product when mixtures thought to contain simple sugars are heated. Cannot be used to identify more complex sugars. Carbohydrates: Disaccharides Figure 4: Disaccharides Disaccharides can be identified by a DOUBLE RING structure. Dissacharides: Carbohydrates: Polysaccharides Figure 5: Polysaccharides Polysaccharides can be identified by the presence of MULTIPLE RINGS. Polysaccharides: 3

4 Figure 6: Storage Polysaccharides (Starch) Amylose (20-30%) Amylopectin (70-80%) Used by plants to store excess glucose produced by photosynthesis. Can be quickly broken down (hydrolyzed) into glucose for energy when needed. Testing for Starch Lugol s Iodine (I) Solution is amber in color & is used to test for the presence of starch. In the presence of iodine, starch will produce a blue-black color. If not present, the iodine solution will remain yellow or amber in color. Figure 6.1: Storage Polysaccharides (Glycogen) Synthesized in liver cells from excess glucose following digestion. Stored in both liver & muscle cells until needed. More extensively branched & water soluble than starch. Storage Polysaccharide: 4

5 Figure 7: Structural Polysaccharides (Cellulose) Is a component of plant cell walls consisting of glucose subunits. Form fibers that strengthen cell walls. Not easily digested most organisms because of a lack of enzymes that hydrolyze the bonds between the glucose subunits. Figure 7.1: Structural Polysaccharides (Chitin) Found in arthropods (insect & crustacean exoskeletons) & fungi. Chitin forms tough structures because, like cellulose, its molecules it can be arranged into fibers. Structural Polysaccharide: 5

6 Identifying Characteristics of Carbohydrates: Contain only carbon, hydrogen, & oxygen in a ratio of 1:2:1 (ex. C 6 H 12 O 6 ) Usually exist in the form of rings (especially in water environments like the cell). Names of carbohydrates usually (but not always) end in the suffix -OSE Class II: Lipids: Fats Consist of a diverse array of molecules including fats, phospholipids, steroids, & waxes. Despite the differences among these types of lipids, they all share the characteristic of being nonpolar & insoluble in water. Lipid: Figure 8: Fat Structure Consist of 1 GLYCEROL MOLECULE & 3 FATTY ACIDS. At one end of each fatty acid is a head consisting of a carboxyl group (acidic) followed by a long carbon tail. The nonpolar C-H bonds in the fatty acid tails make fats HYDROPHOBIC. Produced via dehydration synthesis whereby the OH groups of glycerol react COVALENTLY with the carboxyl groups of fatty acids to release the equivalent of one water molecule (3total). Fats: 6

7 Figure 8.1: Saturated Fat Saturated Fat: Figure 8.2: Unsaturated Fat Unsaturated Fat: 7

8 Lipids: Phospholipids Figure 9: Phospholipid Have both hydrophobic (fatty acid tails) & hydrophilic (phosphate head) regions. Thus in water, phospholipids form droplets where the hydrophilic heads contact the water & the hydrophobic tails are restricted to the water-free interior. Due to this behavior, phospholipids are a major component of biological membranes. Phospholipids: Lipids: Steroids Figure 10: Steroids 8

9 Steroids: Testing for Lipids Lipids do not dissolve in water, but DO dissolve in ethanol. Shake some of the test sample with ethanol. Pour the liquid into a test tube of water, leaving any undissolved substances behind. If there are lipids dissolved in the ethanol, they will come out of solution in water, forming a cloudy white film. Identifying Characteristics of Lipids: Hydrophobic & insoluble in water. Function in energy storage (fats), membrane structure (phospholipids & steroids), & cell communication (steroids) Class III: Proteins Figure 11: Amino Acid All 20 amino acids consist of an amino group (-NH 2 ), carboxyl group (-COOH), & side chain attached to a central carbon. It is the functional unit attached to the side chain (R) that makes all amino acids unique. Proteins: Figure 11: Dipeptide Synthesis 9

10 When the COOH group of one amino acid is adjacent to the NH 2 group of another, an enzyme will join them via dehydration synthesis to form a Peptide Bond. The resulting molecule is known as a Dipeptide. As more amino acids are added, a long Polypeptide chain is formed. Figure 11.1: Polypeptide Synthesis Figure 12: Levels of Protein Structure 10

11 Levels of Protein Structure Primary Structure: the unique amino acid sequence exhibited by a polypeptide involve peptide bonds only. Secondary Structure: coiled or folded segments of the polypeptide chain established by H-bonds between amino & carboxyl groups. Tertiary Structure: the shape a polypeptide chain assume due to the following interactions between adjacent R groups: H-Bond, Covalent Bonds, Ionic Bonds, Hydrophobic Interactions. Some proteins can be fully functional at the tertiary level of organization. Quaternary Structure: two or more polypeptide chains of tertiary structure join to form a functional protein. The same types of interactions that produce secondary & tertiary structure also contribute to quaternary structure. Protein Specificity: Figure 13: Protein Denaturation Denaturation: a) Can be initiated by extreme heat (NOT cold!!), ph, physical stress, & salt concentrations. Identifying Characteristics of Proteins: Always contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, & nitrogen (remember the amino group of amino acids). All protein chains begin with an amino (-NH2) group at one end & a carboxyl (-COOH) group at the other. Names of most proteins end in the suffix IN. Class IV: Nucleic Acids Figure 14: Nucleotide 11

12 The units that comprise nucleic acids are called Nucleotides = 5-sided sugar, a phosphate group, & a nitrogenous base. DNA nucleotides lack an OH on the 2-carbon of the sugar (deoxyribose). In addition, DNA nucleotides may bear the bases A,C,G, or T on the 1-carbon whereas RNA nucleotides may bear A,C,G, or U. DNA is also double stranded & contains information for the production of proteins. RNA is single stranded & is involved in relaying genetic information from DNA to regions of the cell responsible for protein production. Figure 14: DNA vs RNA 12

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