# SPSS Workbook 2 - Descriptive Statistics

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

1 TEESSIDE UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF HEALTH & SOCIAL CARE SPSS Workbook 2 - Descriptive Statistics Includes: Recoding variables Cronbachs Alpha Module Leader:Sylvia Storey Phone:

2 Accuracy of data input SPSS Workbook 2 Descriptive Statistics Once you have entered your data into SPSS, you need to clean-up the data. This involves ensuring that data has been correctly entered. A good starting point for this is to run a frequency distribution for each of the variables eg: If you consider the variable Gender (1=male, 2=female) then any other values entered would not fall into these categories eg 11, 12, 22. This is one of the most common mistakes when entering data into SPSS. To check frequencies for all the variables: Select Analyse Descriptive Statistics Frequencies Move variables from the left hand column to the right hand column by highlighting the variable name and then clicking on the arrow to move the variable. Click on OK to finish. 2

3 When you have done this the frequencies will be displayed in a new output window. Look down the frequency tables and make a note of any variables that fall outside of the expected range: Q1. Would this identify all mistakes? If not what other mistakes may be present? Descriptive Statistics Mean and Standard deviation The following variables are interval/ratio level data Age, Years of experience We are now going to obtain the following descriptive statistics: Mean (measure of central tendency) and Standard deviation (SD = measure of dispersion) This can be done in a number of ways but we will do this by selecting : Analyse Descriptive Statistics Descriptives Move the 2 variables into the right hand column and click on Options. Ensure that the following are selected Mean, Standard deviation, Maximum, Minimum. Now click Continue and then OK to finish. 3

4 Record the descriptive statistics for each variable: Table 1 Descriptive Statistics Age Mean SD Min Max Length of Experience So far we have looked at variables individually. This is often referred to to univariate analysis. We are now going to look at some bivariate analysis ie looking at the interactions between 2 variables (remember we are still looking at descriptive statistics so we are not yet looking at cause and effect). Crosstabulation nominal data We want to know if there is a relationship between Profession and the following statement PT/OT should be responsible for own literature searches. As both variables are categorical (what does this mean?) we will carry out a Crosstabulation by: Selecting Analyse Descriptives Crosstabs. 4

5 Now move the variable Profession into the Rows box, and the variable Q10 (PT/OT should be responsible for own literature searches) into the columns box. Next click on Cells As there are unequal number of OTs and PTs in the group we can ask SPSS to calculate percentages of OTs/PTs that agree/disagree etc. We do this by ticking the Row in the Percentages box. Click Continue then OK. 5

6 Now complete the table below: Table 2 : Crosstabulation Profession: EBP does not take into account patient preferences Profession OT PT EBP does not take into account patient preferences Strongly disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree Q2. What do the results suggest? The Crosstabulation we have just carried out looked at the relationship between 2 categorical variables (one nominal and one ordinal). Summarising the results of multiple Dependent Variables. On the questionnaire variables Q1 Q9 looked at the attitudes towards EBP whilst Q10-Q12 asked participants about whether they thought certain activities were their own responsibility. We will now summarise the results of Q1-Q9 within a table (we are not separating this by profession we are simply summarising the responses of the participants). We could provide a table that summarises the category responses of all these variables (and I have included an example in the answers section) however, as these variables are ORDINAL level data then the appropriate summary statistic is the MEDIAN. You should additionally include information about the range of the responses. Select Analyse, Descriptive Statistics, Frequencies 6

7 Highlight the variables relating to question Q1-Q9 and move then to the variables box by clicking on the arrow. Click on Statistics Change the choice of statistic from Mean to Median by selecting the relevant boxes. Click on Continue and OK. 7

8 Now complete the following table: Table 3 Summary of Q1-Q9 Question Median Min Max Application of EBP is necessary Literature and research findings useful in daily practice Need to increase use of evidence in daily practice Adoption of EBP places unreasonable demand on PT/OT Am interested in learning skills to incorporate EBP in practice EBP improves quality of patient care EBP helps me make decisions about patient care EBP does not take into account patient preferences Definite divide between research and practice Q3. What do the data above show? Positive and negative statements Remember when we discussed questionnaire design we stated that questions could be positively or negatively worded and that negative statements were often used to ensure that participants were answering questions accurately. From the statements in the table above (Table 3) identify the statements as follows: + indicates a positive attitude towards EBP -indicates a negative attitude towards EBP Was it easy to do this? Which statement /statements (if any) were difficult for you to determine?

9 We need to Re-code negative statements ie if a HIGH SCORE represents a POSITIVE ATTITUDE towards EBP then we need to change the coding for these variable ie Q4, Q8 and Q9. (Participants who had a positive attitude towards EBP would have ticked 1 or 2 for these items. If we want to total all of these scores together (eg 9 questions maximum score 45) then we need to change these scores. Before we go ahead with this next stage save your file and then Save Data as Recoded data as any actions you carry out at this stage cannot be undone by saving your file you keep the original data intact. To re-code the variables select, Transform then Recode into Same Variable. 9

10 Move questions 4, 8 and 9 the Numeric Variables box by highlighting them in the left and clicking on the arrow. You will need to move each variable separately. Then click on Old and New Values. We are going to reverse the scores for each category so type in 5 in the Old Value and 1 in the New Value box. Then click on Add then Continue 10

11 Repeat this process until you have entered the following: Old value 4 = New value 2 Old value 3= New value 3 (you can leave this out as it stays the same) Old value 2 = New value 4 Old value 1 New value 5 Don t forget to click on Add after each one. These will now show in the box below. Check that all your values are correct before proceeding. If they are correct click on Continue. Now that we have reverse code these items we are going to run a reliability check for these 9 questions of the questionnaire. 11

12 Cronbachs alpha To see if the questions are being answered correctly we can carry out a test that will identy any problematic questions. Click on Analyse, Scale, Reliability Analysis Highlight variable Q1 Q9 and move these to the Items box by clicking on the arrow, then select Statistics. 12

13 Now select the following, Item, Scale, Scale if item deleted as shown below. Click Continue and then OK The data from the Cronbachs alpha is quite detailed but this is what you need to know: Cronbachs alpha is which represents 9 questions. Reliability Statistics Cronbach's Alpha N of Items Now we know from class that the alpha co-efficient (which ranges from 0-1) should be more than 0.7 for the internal consistency to be good (Remember this?) So at do you think this is good? 13

14 The table below shows each statement (ie Q1 to Q9) and in the right hand column shows what the new Cronbachs alpha will be if the item is removed. In other words it identified statements that are not being answered in line with the other questions. We can see that 2 statements if removed individually would increase the alpha coefficient to tem-total Statistics Corrected Item- Cronbach's Scale Mean if Scale Variance Total Alpha if Item Item Deleted if Item Deleted Correlation Deleted Application of EBP is necessary Literature and research findings useful in daily practice Need to increase use of evidence in daily practice Adoption of EBP places unreasonable demand on PT/OT Am interested in learning skills to incorporate EBP in practice EBP improves quality of patient care EBP helps me make decisions about patient care EBP does not take into account patient preferences Definite divide between research and practice If both of these items are removed we would expect the alpha coefficient to increase to more than possible even to more than 0.7. Can you think of an explanation for why these questions/statements are different to the remainder of the statements?

15 To remove these items select Transform, Scale, Reliability Analysis as before. Highlight question 4 and click on the arrow in the centre to move it back to the left hand box. Repeat the same for question 9 and then re-do the Cronbachs alpha test. The new alpha coefficient should now be from 7 questions Reliability Statistics Cronbach's Alpha N of Items (The table on the following page shows that there are now no further questions causing a problem with the data.) 15

16 Item-Total Statistics Corrected Item- Cronbach's Scale Mean if Scale Variance Total Alpha if Item Item Deleted if Item Deleted Correlation Deleted Application of EBP is necessary Literature and research findings useful in daily practice Need to increase use of evidence in daily practice Am interested in learning skills to incorporate EBP in practice EBP improves quality of patient care EBP helps me make decisions about patient care EBP does not take into account patient preferences

18 Appendix 1 Answers & Completed tables. Q1. No this would only identify mistakes where the input value falls outside of the expected range. If you entered someone s data as male instead of female (ie 1 instead of 2 in the case of our data-file) then you would not know you had done this unless you checked all data carefully. Table 1 : Descriptive Statistics This is the output from SSPSS: Descriptive Statistics N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation age YrsExperience Valid N (listwise) 19 You should NEVER include these tables in your written work (eg your dissertation) you should extract the date you need and then include this in a table as shown below: Mean SD Min Max Age Length of Experience Table 2 Gender vs EBP does not take into account patient preferences This is the output from SPSS as you can see none of the respondents disagreed or strongly disagreed with this statement and therefore these values are not represented in the SPSS table. Profession * PT/OTs should be responsible for own literature reviews to address their clinical questions PT/OTs should be responsible for own literature reviews to address their clinical questions neutral agree strongly agree Total Profession PT Count % within Profession 28.6% 42.9% 28.6% 100.0% OT Count % within Profession.0% 80.0% 20.0% 100.0% Total Count % within Profession 21.1% 52.6% 26.3% 100.0% 18

19 Table 2 : Crosstabulation - Gender: OT/PT should be responsible for own literature searches EBP does not take into account patient preferences Strongly disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree Prefession PT (28.6) 6 (42.9) 4 (28.6%) OT (80%) 1(20%) Q2. In terms of Table 2 the data suggests that with the exception of 4 participants who were unsure, all participants agreed/strongly agreed that the OT/PT should be responsible for carrying out their own literature searches. ** PLEASE TAKE CARE to note that the sample size for this study is very small and therefore any results should be treated with caution. Summarising the results of multiple questions. The following table summarises the main findings of the result and should be used if the study you are undertaking is a descriptive study as it provides the full breakdown of responses (you could then express these as percentages) Question Strongly disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree Application of EBP is necessary Literature and research findings useful in daily practice Need to increase use of evidence in daily practice Adoption of EBP places unreasonable demand on PT/OT Am interested in learning skills to incorporate EBP in practice EBP improves quality of patient care EBP helps me make decisions about patient care EBP does not take into account patient preferences Definite divide between research and practice The table on the following page shows the median value for each question (remember a response of 1=strongly disagree whilst 5 = strongly agree): 19

20 Question Median Min Max Application of EBP is necessary Literature and research findings useful in daily practice Need to increase use of evidence in daily practice Adoption of EBP places unreasonable demand on PT/OT Am interested in learning skills to incorporate EBP in practice EBP improves quality of patient care EBP helps me make decisions about patient care EBP does not take into account patient preferences Definite divide between research and practice Q3. What do the data above show? For most questions the responses are high (ie 4/5) which indicates that participants strongly agree/ agree with the statement, however for Q8 the median response is 2. This reflects the fact that for Q8 (and also Q4 and Q9) the wording is negatively stated compared to the remainder of the statements which reflect a positive attitude to EBP. Cronbachs alpha Regarding the 2 questions/statements that were removed from the questionnaire. If we examine them we can see that it is possible to have a positive attitude towards EBP whilst still feeling that: The demands in terms of work are high AND that there is a divide between practice and research. 20

21 21

### SPSS Workbook 1 Data Entry : Questionnaire Data

TEESSIDE UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF HEALTH & SOCIAL CARE SPSS Workbook 1 Data Entry : Questionnaire Data Prepared by: Sylvia Storey s.storey@tees.ac.uk SPSS data entry 1 This workbook is designed to introduce

### SOME NOTES ON STATISTICAL INTERPRETATION. Below I provide some basic notes on statistical interpretation for some selected procedures.

1 SOME NOTES ON STATISTICAL INTERPRETATION Below I provide some basic notes on statistical interpretation for some selected procedures. The information provided here is not exhaustive. There is more to

### Chapter Four: Univariate Statistics

Chapter Four: Univariate Statistics Univariate analysis, looking at single variables, is typically the first procedure one does when examining data for the first time. There are a number of reasons why

### What to do now that you have your completed surveys??

What to do now that you have your completed surveys?? 1. Provide each survey a unique identification number. Put a number on the top of each survey This makes it easy to find a survey at any time during

### Data exploration with Microsoft Excel: analysing more than one variable

Data exploration with Microsoft Excel: analysing more than one variable Contents 1 Introduction... 1 2 Comparing different groups or different variables... 2 3 Exploring the association between categorical

### SPSS Workbook 4 T-tests

TEESSIDE UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF HEALTH & SOCIAL CARE SPSS Workbook 4 T-tests Research, Audit and data RMH 2023-N Module Leader:Sylvia Storey Phone:016420384969 s.storey@tees.ac.uk SPSS Workbook 4 Differences

### Introduction to SPSS. BEFORE YOU BEGIN, PLEASE ENSURE YOU HAVE DOWNLOADED THE SAMPLE DATA FILE USED IN THIS GUIDE: SPSSsampledata.

Introduction to SPSS This document will guide you through a general introduction to the SPSS interface as well as some of the basic functions and commands you would be likely to perform in SPSS. BEFORE

### Data analysis process

Data analysis process Data collection and preparation Collect data Prepare codebook Set up structure of data Enter data Screen data for errors Exploration of data Descriptive Statistics Graphs Analysis

### SPSS Bivariate Statistics

SPSS Bivariate Statistics Social Science Research Lab American University, Washington, D.C. Web. www.american.edu/provost/ctrl/pclabs.cfm Tel. x3862 Email. SSRL@American.edu Course Objectives In this tutorial

### Statistics and research

Statistics and research Usaneya Perngparn Chitlada Areesantichai Drug Dependence Research Center (WHOCC for Research and Training in Drug Dependence) College of Public Health Sciences Chulolongkorn University,

### 4. Descriptive Statistics: Measures of Variability and Central Tendency

4. Descriptive Statistics: Measures of Variability and Central Tendency Objectives Calculate descriptive for continuous and categorical data Edit output tables Although measures of central tendency and

### Module 9: Nonparametric Tests. The Applied Research Center

Module 9: Nonparametric Tests The Applied Research Center Module 9 Overview } Nonparametric Tests } Parametric vs. Nonparametric Tests } Restrictions of Nonparametric Tests } One-Sample Chi-Square Test

### General Guidelines about SPSS. Steps needed to enter the data in the SPSS

General Guidelines about SPSS The entered data has to be numbers and not letters. For example, in the Gender section, we can not write Male and Female in the answers, however, we must give them a code.

### Reliability Analysis

Measures of Reliability Reliability Analysis Reliability: the fact that a scale should consistently reflect the construct it is measuring. One way to think of reliability is that other things being equal,

### SPSS Tests for Versions 9 to 13

SPSS Tests for Versions 9 to 13 Chapter 2 Descriptive Statistic (including median) Choose Analyze Descriptive statistics Frequencies... Click on variable(s) then press to move to into Variable(s): list

### S P S S Statistical Package for the Social Sciences

S P S S Statistical Package for the Social Sciences Data Entry Data Management Basic Descriptive Statistics Jamie Lynn Marincic Leanne Hicks Survey, Statistics, and Psychometrics Core Facility (SSP) July

### SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences)

SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) What is SPSS? SPSS stands for Statistical Package for the Social Sciences The SPSS home-page is: www.spss.com 2 What can you do with SPSS? Run Frequencies

### January 26, 2009 The Faculty Center for Teaching and Learning

THE BASICS OF DATA MANAGEMENT AND ANALYSIS A USER GUIDE January 26, 2009 The Faculty Center for Teaching and Learning THE BASICS OF DATA MANAGEMENT AND ANALYSIS Table of Contents Table of Contents... i

### Module 10: Data Analysis and Interpretation

IPDET Module 10: Data Analysis and Interpretation Intervention or Policy Subevaluations Qualitative vs. Quantitative Qualitative Quantitative Introduction Data Analysis Strategy Analyzing Qualitative Data

### Using SPSS 20: Handout 2. Descriptive statistics:

Research Skills One: Using SPSS 20, Handout 2: Descriptive Statistics: Page 1: Using SPSS 20: Handout 2. Descriptive statistics: An essential preliminary to any statistical analysis is to obtain some descriptive

### An introduction to IBM SPSS Statistics

An introduction to IBM SPSS Statistics Contents 1 Introduction... 1 2 Entering your data... 2 3 Preparing your data for analysis... 10 4 Exploring your data: univariate analysis... 14 5 Generating descriptive

### Simple Linear Regression One Binary Categorical Independent Variable

Simple Linear Regression Does sex influence mean GCSE score? In order to answer the question posed above, we want to run a linear regression of sgcseptsnew against sgender, which is a binary categorical

### IBM SPSS Statistics for Beginners for Windows

ISS, NEWCASTLE UNIVERSITY IBM SPSS Statistics for Beginners for Windows A Training Manual for Beginners Dr. S. T. Kometa A Training Manual for Beginners Contents 1 Aims and Objectives... 3 1.1 Learning

### A Guide for a Selection of SPSS Functions

A Guide for a Selection of SPSS Functions IBM SPSS Statistics 19 Compiled by Beth Gaedy, Math Specialist, Viterbo University - 2012 Using documents prepared by Drs. Sheldon Lee, Marcus Saegrove, Jennifer

### An introduction to using Microsoft Excel for quantitative data analysis

Contents An introduction to using Microsoft Excel for quantitative data analysis 1 Introduction... 1 2 Why use Excel?... 2 3 Quantitative data analysis tools in Excel... 3 4 Entering your data... 6 5 Preparing

### Using SPSS, Chapter 2: Descriptive Statistics

1 Using SPSS, Chapter 2: Descriptive Statistics Chapters 2.1 & 2.2 Descriptive Statistics 2 Mean, Standard Deviation, Variance, Range, Minimum, Maximum 2 Mean, Median, Mode, Standard Deviation, Variance,

### The Dummy s Guide to Data Analysis Using SPSS

The Dummy s Guide to Data Analysis Using SPSS Mathematics 57 Scripps College Amy Gamble April, 2001 Amy Gamble 4/30/01 All Rights Rerserved TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE Helpful Hints for All Tests...1 Tests

### SPSS for Exploratory Data Analysis Data used in this guide: studentp.sav (http://people.ysu.edu/~gchang/stat/studentp.sav)

Data used in this guide: studentp.sav (http://people.ysu.edu/~gchang/stat/studentp.sav) Organize and Display One Quantitative Variable (Descriptive Statistics, Boxplot & Histogram) 1. Move the mouse pointer

### SPSS Guide How-to, Tips, Tricks & Statistical Techniques

SPSS Guide How-to, Tips, Tricks & Statistical Techniques Support for the course Research Methodology for IB Also useful for your BSc or MSc thesis March 2014 Dr. Marijke Leliveld Jacob Wiebenga, MSc CONTENT

### Nonparametric Tests. Chi-Square Test for Independence

DDBA 8438: Nonparametric Statistics: The Chi-Square Test Video Podcast Transcript JENNIFER ANN MORROW: Welcome to "Nonparametric Statistics: The Chi-Square Test." My name is Dr. Jennifer Ann Morrow. In

### Measurement Error 2: Scale Construction (Very Brief Overview) Page 1

Measurement Error 2: Scale Construction (Very Brief Overview) Richard Williams, University of Notre Dame, http://www3.nd.edu/~rwilliam/ Last revised January 22, 2015 This handout draws heavily from Marija

### Should the voting age be lowered to 16? Example using the Citizenship Survey,

Should the voting age be lowered to 16? Example using the Citizenship Survey, 2010-2011 Open IBM SPSS 20 and open the data file. Do this by going to: File> Open > Data from SPSS once it is open and selecting

### How to get more value from your survey data

IBM SPSS Statistics How to get more value from your survey data Discover four advanced analysis techniques that make survey research more effective Contents: 1 Introduction 2 Descriptive survey research

### Chapter 2: Descriptive Statistics

Chapter 2: Descriptive Statistics **This chapter corresponds to chapters 2 ( Means to an End ) and 3 ( Vive la Difference ) of your book. What it is: Descriptive statistics are values that describe the

Basic Data Analysis Using JMP in Windows Table of Contents: I. Getting Started with JMP II. Entering Data in JMP III. Saving JMP Data file IV. Opening an Existing Data File V. Transforming and Manipulating

### SPSS for Survey Analysis

STC: SPSS for Survey Analysis 1 SPSS for Survey Analysis STC: SPSS for Survey Analysis 2 Background Information IBM SPSS Statistics is a software package used for statistical analysis, data management,

### Working with SPSS. A Step-by-Step Guide For Prof PJ s ComS 171 students

Working with SPSS A Step-by-Step Guide For Prof PJ s ComS 171 students Contents Prep the Excel file for SPSS... 2 Prep the Excel file for the online survey:... 2 Make a master file... 2 Clean the data

### Variables and Data A variable contains data about anything we measure. For example; age or gender of the participants or their score on a test.

The Analysis of Research Data The design of any project will determine what sort of statistical tests you should perform on your data and how successful the data analysis will be. For example if you decide

### Introduction to Quantitative Methods

Introduction to Quantitative Methods October 15, 2009 Contents 1 Definition of Key Terms 2 2 Descriptive Statistics 3 2.1 Frequency Tables......................... 4 2.2 Measures of Central Tendencies.................

### SPSS Tutorial, Feb. 7, 2003 Prof. Scott Allard

p. 1 SPSS Tutorial, Feb. 7, 2003 Prof. Scott Allard The following tutorial is a guide to some basic procedures in SPSS that will be useful as you complete your data assignments for PPA 722. The purpose

### Chi Square Test. PASSS Research Question 4: Chi Square Test

Chi Square Test Is there a statistically significant relationship between a student s Year 11 truancy and his or her enrolment in full time education after secondary school? A chi-square test is a statistical

### 5. Correlation. Open HeightWeight.sav. Take a moment to review the data file.

5. Correlation Objectives Calculate correlations Calculate correlations for subgroups using split file Create scatterplots with lines of best fit for subgroups and multiple correlations Correlation The

### The general form of the PROC MEANS statement is

Describing Your Data Using PROC MEANS PROC MEANS can be used to compute various univariate descriptive statistics for specified variables including the number of observations, mean, standard deviation,

### Fall 2010 Practice Exam 1 Without Essay

Class: Date: Fall 2010 Practice Exam 1 Without Essay Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. A researcher wants to visually display the U.S. divorce

### SPSS: Descriptive and Inferential Statistics. For Windows

For Windows August 2012 Table of Contents Section 1: Summarizing Data...3 1.1 Descriptive Statistics...3 Section 2: Inferential Statistics... 10 2.1 Chi-Square Test... 10 2.2 T tests... 11 2.3 Correlation...

### Statistical Analysis Using SPSS for Windows Getting Started (Ver. 2014/11/6) The numbers of figures in the SPSS_screenshot.pptx are shown in red.

Statistical Analysis Using SPSS for Windows Getting Started (Ver. 2014/11/6) The numbers of figures in the SPSS_screenshot.pptx are shown in red. 1. How to display English messages from IBM SPSS Statistics

### Instructions for carrying out statistical procedures and tests using SPSS

Instructions for carrying out statistical procedures and tests using SPSS These instructions are closely linked to the author s book: Essential Statistics for the Pharmaceutical Sciences John Wiley & Sons

### SPSS for Simple Analysis

STC: SPSS for Simple Analysis1 SPSS for Simple Analysis STC: SPSS for Simple Analysis2 Background Information IBM SPSS Statistics is a software package used for statistical analysis, data management, and

### SPSS Resources. 1. See website (readings) for SPSS tutorial & Stats handout

Analyzing Data SPSS Resources 1. See website (readings) for SPSS tutorial & Stats handout Don t have your own copy of SPSS? 1. Use the libraries to analyze your data 2. Download a trial version of SPSS

### SPSS and AM statistical software example.

A detailed example of statistical analysis using the NELS:88 data file and ECB, to perform a longitudinal analysis of 1988 8 th graders in the year 2000: SPSS and AM statistical software example. Overall

### Chi-Square Test (χ 2 )

Chi Square Tests Chi-Square Test (χ 2 ) Nonparametric test for nominal independent variables These variables, also called "attribute variables" or "categorical variables," classify observations into a

### Multiple Regression and Mediation Analyses Using SPSS

Psychology 305 p. 1 Multiple Regression and Mediation Analyses Using SPSS Overview For this computer assignment, you will conduct a series of multiple regression analyses to examine your proposed theoretical

### A Basic Guide to Analyzing Individual Scores Data with SPSS

A Basic Guide to Analyzing Individual Scores Data with SPSS Step 1. Clean the data file Open the Excel file with your data. You may get the following message: If you get this message, click yes. Delete

### LEARNING OBJECTIVES SCALES OF MEASUREMENT: A REVIEW SCALES OF MEASUREMENT: A REVIEW DESCRIBING RESULTS DESCRIBING RESULTS 8/14/2016

UNDERSTANDING RESEARCH RESULTS: DESCRIPTION AND CORRELATION LEARNING OBJECTIVES Contrast three ways of describing results: Comparing group percentages Correlating scores Comparing group means Describe

### The Chi-Square Test. STAT E-50 Introduction to Statistics

STAT -50 Introduction to Statistics The Chi-Square Test The Chi-square test is a nonparametric test that is used to compare experimental results with theoretical models. That is, we will be comparing observed

### Psyc 250 Statistics & Experimental Design. Correlation Exercise

Psyc 250 Statistics & Experimental Design Correlation Exercise Preparation: Log onto Woodle and download the Class Data February 09 dataset and the associated Syntax to create scale scores Class Syntax

### Excel Charts & Graphs

MAX 201 Spring 2008 Assignment #6: Charts & Graphs; Modifying Data Due at the beginning of class on March 18 th Introduction This assignment introduces the charting and graphing capabilities of SPSS and

### Simple Linear Regression, Scatterplots, and Bivariate Correlation

1 Simple Linear Regression, Scatterplots, and Bivariate Correlation This section covers procedures for testing the association between two continuous variables using the SPSS Regression and Correlate analyses.

### SPSS Explore procedure

SPSS Explore procedure One useful function in SPSS is the Explore procedure, which will produce histograms, boxplots, stem-and-leaf plots and extensive descriptive statistics. To run the Explore procedure,

### Association Between Variables

Contents 11 Association Between Variables 767 11.1 Introduction............................ 767 11.1.1 Measure of Association................. 768 11.1.2 Chapter Summary.................... 769 11.2 Chi

### II. DISTRIBUTIONS distribution normal distribution. standard scores

Appendix D Basic Measurement And Statistics The following information was developed by Steven Rothke, PhD, Department of Psychology, Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago (RIC) and expanded by Mary F. Schmidt,

### Introduction Course in SPSS - Evening 1

ETH Zürich Seminar für Statistik Introduction Course in SPSS - Evening 1 Seminar für Statistik, ETH Zürich All data used during the course can be downloaded from the following ftp server: ftp://stat.ethz.ch/u/sfs/spsskurs/

### Main Effects and Interactions

Main Effects & Interactions page 1 Main Effects and Interactions So far, we ve talked about studies in which there is just one independent variable, such as violence of television program. You might randomly

### Introduction to SPSS (version 16) for Windows

Introduction to SPSS (version 16) for Windows Practical workbook Aims and Learning Objectives By the end of this course you will be able to: create and run SPSS programs to do simple statistical data analysis.

### 3: Graphing Data. Objectives

3: Graphing Data Objectives Create histograms, box plots, stem-and-leaf plots, pie charts, bar graphs, scatterplots, and line graphs Edit graphs using the Chart Editor Use chart templates SPSS has the

### Chapter 15 Multiple Choice Questions (The answers are provided after the last question.)

Chapter 15 Multiple Choice Questions (The answers are provided after the last question.) 1. What is the median of the following set of scores? 18, 6, 12, 10, 14? a. 10 b. 14 c. 18 d. 12 2. Approximately

### HYPOTHESIS TESTING: CONFIDENCE INTERVALS, T-TESTS, ANOVAS, AND REGRESSION

HYPOTHESIS TESTING: CONFIDENCE INTERVALS, T-TESTS, ANOVAS, AND REGRESSION HOD 2990 10 November 2010 Lecture Background This is a lightning speed summary of introductory statistical methods for senior undergraduate

### Binary Logistic Regression

Binary Logistic Regression Main Effects Model Logistic regression will accept quantitative, binary or categorical predictors and will code the latter two in various ways. Here s a simple model including

### Introduction to SPSS (version 16) for Windows

Introduction to SPSS (version 16) for Windows Practical workbook Aims and Learning Objectives By the end of this course you will be able to: get data ready for SPSS create and run SPSS programs to do simple

### 11 Correlations and Chi square test

11 Correlations and Chi square test We are now approaching the final statistical tests that you will learn in this course, Correlations and the Chi square test. Correlations Correlations are used to look

### Chapter Seven. Multiple regression An introduction to multiple regression Performing a multiple regression on SPSS

Chapter Seven Multiple regression An introduction to multiple regression Performing a multiple regression on SPSS Section : An introduction to multiple regression WHAT IS MULTIPLE REGRESSION? Multiple

### Frequency distributions, central tendency & variability. Displaying data

Frequency distributions, central tendency & variability Displaying data Software SPSS Excel/Numbers/Google sheets Social Science Statistics website (socscistatistics.com) Creating and SPSS file Open the

### In This Issue: Excel Sorting with Text and Numbers

In This Issue: Sorting with Text and Numbers Microsoft allows you to manipulate the data you have in your spreadsheet by using the sort and filter feature. Sorting is performed on a list that contains

### CHAPTER 14 ORDINAL MEASURES OF CORRELATION: SPEARMAN'S RHO AND GAMMA

CHAPTER 14 ORDINAL MEASURES OF CORRELATION: SPEARMAN'S RHO AND GAMMA Chapter 13 introduced the concept of correlation statistics and explained the use of Pearson's Correlation Coefficient when working

### A Quick Guide to Constructing an SPSS Code Book Prepared by Amina Jabbar, Centre for Research on Inner City Health

A Quick Guide to Constructing an SPSS Code Book Prepared by Amina Jabbar, Centre for Research on Inner City Health 1. To begin, double click on SPSS icon. The icon will probably look something like this

### PUMFs and Pivot Tables: Using Excel to Create Cross-Tabulations from Public User Microdata Files

PUMFs and Pivot Tables: Using Excel to Create Cross-Tabulations from Public User Microdata Files Excel pivot tables are an excellent tool for summarizing categorical and ordinal data. A pivot table is

### Data Management & Analysis Introduction to PASW Statistics

Data Management & Analysis Introduction to PASW Statistics 1 P A S W S T A T I S T I C S V 1 7. 0 ( S P S S F O R W I N D O W S ) 1. Getting Started with SPSS 2 T H E D A T A E D I T O R T H E V A R I

### SPSS Guide: Tests of Differences

SPSS Guide: Tests of Differences I put this together to give you a step-by-step guide for replicating what we did in the computer lab. It should help you run the tests we covered. The best way to get familiar

### Describe what is meant by a placebo Contrast the double-blind procedure with the single-blind procedure Review the structure for organizing a memo

Readings: Ha and Ha Textbook - Chapters 1 8 Appendix D & E (online) Plous - Chapters 10, 11, 12 and 14 Chapter 10: The Representativeness Heuristic Chapter 11: The Availability Heuristic Chapter 12: Probability

### Independent t- Test (Comparing Two Means)

Independent t- Test (Comparing Two Means) The objectives of this lesson are to learn: the definition/purpose of independent t-test when to use the independent t-test the use of SPSS to complete an independent

### Directions for Chi-Square for One and for Two Variables Datasets: One_way_chi_square.sav and Two_way_Chi_square.sav. One-way Chi-square

Directions for Chi-Square for One and for Two Variables Datasets: One_way_chi_square.sav and Two_way_Chi_square.sav One-way Chi-square 1. Open the dataset containing the already grouped frequency of student

### Using SPSS 20, Handout 3: Producing graphs:

Research Skills 1: Using SPSS 20: Handout 3, Producing graphs: Page 1: Using SPSS 20, Handout 3: Producing graphs: In this handout I'm going to show you how to use SPSS to produce various types of graph.

### When to use Excel. When NOT to use Excel 9/24/2014

Analyzing Quantitative Assessment Data with Excel October 2, 2014 Jeremy Penn, Ph.D. Director When to use Excel You want to quickly summarize or analyze your assessment data You want to create basic visual

### Chapter 5 Analysis of variance SPSS Analysis of variance

Chapter 5 Analysis of variance SPSS Analysis of variance Data file used: gss.sav How to get there: Analyze Compare Means One-way ANOVA To test the null hypothesis that several population means are equal,

### Data exploration with Microsoft Excel: univariate analysis

Data exploration with Microsoft Excel: univariate analysis Contents 1 Introduction... 1 2 Exploring a variable s frequency distribution... 2 3 Calculating measures of central tendency... 16 4 Calculating

### This chapter reviews the general issues involving data analysis and introduces

Research Skills for Psychology Majors: Everything You Need to Know to Get Started Data Preparation With SPSS This chapter reviews the general issues involving data analysis and introduces SPSS, the Statistical

### Survey Research Data Analysis

Survey Research Data Analysis Overview Once survey data are collected from respondents, the next step is to input the data on the computer, do appropriate statistical analyses, interpret the data, and

### Descriptive Statistics: Measures of Central Tendency and Crosstabulation. 789mct_dispersion_asmp.pdf

789mct_dispersion_asmp.pdf Michael Hallstone, Ph.D. hallston@hawaii.edu Lectures 7-9: Measures of Central Tendency, Dispersion, and Assumptions Lecture 7: Descriptive Statistics: Measures of Central Tendency

### Statistics. Measurement. Scales of Measurement 7/18/2012

Statistics Measurement Measurement is defined as a set of rules for assigning numbers to represent objects, traits, attributes, or behaviors A variableis something that varies (eye color), a constant does

### Using MS Excel to Analyze Data: A Tutorial

Using MS Excel to Analyze Data: A Tutorial Various data analysis tools are available and some of them are free. Because using data to improve assessment and instruction primarily involves descriptive and

### SCHOOL OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SCIENCES DON T FORGET TO RECODE YOUR MISSING VALUES

SCHOOL OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SCIENCES Using SPSS Topics addressed today: 1. Differences between groups 2. Graphing Use the s4data.sav file for the first part of this session. DON T FORGET TO RECODE YOUR

### PASS Sample Size Software

Chapter 250 Introduction The Chi-square test is often used to test whether sets of frequencies or proportions follow certain patterns. The two most common instances are tests of goodness of fit using multinomial