# Thermochemistry is study of changes in energy (heat) associated with physical or chemical changes.

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1 Thermochem 1 Thermochemistry Thermochemistry and Energy and Temperature Thermochemistry is study of changes in energy (heat) associated with physical or chemical changes. Force = push F= m a (mass x acceleration) force units: N (newton) = kg m s -2 Work = force x distance W = F d energy units: J (joule) = kg m 2 s -2 Energy is the capacity to do work Forms of energy are electrical, mechanical, chemical, nuclear, etc. Conservation of energy means energy is never created or destroyed but always changed from one form to another Units and conversion factors joule (J) J = kgm 2 s -2 J and kj are SI (metric) units calorie (cal) 1 cal = J kilocalorie (kcal) kcal = 4184 J kilojoule (kj) kj = 1000 J diet calorie (Cal) Cal= 1000 cal = 4184J Values for water fp and bp below: Temperature Freezing Point Boiling Point o F Fahrenheit o C Celsius K Kelvin and scales to convert temperature are o F = 1.8(C) + 32 o C = ( o F 32)/1.8 K = o C T=273 K at 0 o C

2 Thermochem 2 For T in an equation always use K For T in an equation can use K or o C (will be the same T change) Example: if T=273K then T= 0 o C however if T=10K then T=10 o C Note on R and R Gas constant R can be written as R = L atm/mol K which is used to calc amounts such as P,V,or n from PV=nRT and R = 8.31 J/mol K which is used for to calc energy (J) from RT or nrt Make sure units work correctly in any calculation you do. Temperature and Heat Temperature is the degree of hotness Heat is the amount of energy associated with thermal motion Small metal foil at 100 o C has less heat energy than large block of metal at 100 o C even though temperatures are the same. Energy Potential Energy = position energy (chemical bonds) Kinetic Energy = motion energy (heat)

3 Thermochem 3 First Law of Thermodynamics First Law is conservation of energy. or Energy of universe is constant. Heat flow exothermic (heat out of system) (-) and endothermic (heat into system) (+) System is whatever we are studying or measuring. So universe is divided into system and surroundings. First Law of Thermodynamics says that total energy change is sum of changes of heat and work going into or out of system. ΔU = q + w or E = q + w different books use U or E for internal energy ΔU or E = change in internal energy q = heat (random motion) w = work (organized motion)

4 Thermochem 4 Heat changes First Law of Thermodynamics means (conservation of energy) or (energy of universe is constant) so notice below if heat leaves system tgoes to surroundings and therefore energy of universe is constant same true if heat goes into system from surroundings Exothermic Endothermic ( hermoho_f/thermoho.htm\) Signs: + into system system energy increases endothermic (energy in) out of system system energy decreases exothermic (energy out)

5 Thermochem 5 Work gas expansion (generally we are more interested in heat) Imagine a piston moving in a cylinder then to calculate work (w) of surroundings recall w = (force) (distance) = F(Δd) and can multiple by (A/A) where A= area of top of cylinder w = F(Δd) (A/A) and regroup terms w = (F/A) (A Δd) and recall that pressure is defined as force/area so P = F/A and the change in A d is same as change in volume V = A d so therefore the work of gas expansion is given by w = P(ΔV) and work of system (opposite sign than surroundings ) w = P( V) ( Units: atm = force/area, Pascal = N/m 2, Pa = 1 atm Work of expanding gas useful conversion 101 J = 1 L atm Pressure conversion: 1 atm = 1.01 x 10 5 Pa = 760 torr

6 Thermochem 6 Example What is the work of the gas that expands by 10.0L against an external pressure of exactly 5.5 atmosphere? w = P V P convert atm to N/m 2 P = 5.5atm ( 1.01 x 10 5 N/m 2 /atm) because pascal Pa = N/m 2 P = 5.56x10 5 N/m 2 V = 10.0L ( 1 m 3 /1000L) V = 1.0x10-2 m 3 because there are 1000 liters in 1 cubic meter so w = (5.56x10 5 N/m 2 ) (1.0x10-2 m 3 ) w = 5.56x10 3 Nm = 5.56x10 3 J or 5.56 kj since a (newton)(meter) = joule and 1000J = 1 kj or using conversion that 101 J = 1 atm L then w = P V w = (5.5 atm)(+10 L) ( 101 J/atmL) = 5.56x10 3 J (same result)

7 Thermochem 7 Calorimetry (measuring heat changes) q = C ΔΤ q = heat (J) C = heat capacity (J/ o C) ΔT = temp change ( o C) Heat capacity = heat required to raise temp by 1 o C Specific heat = heat capacity of 1g of substance (heat capacity) (mass) (specific heat, per gram or per mol) Symbol (C) (m) (s) Units (J/ o C) (g) (J/g o C) (J/K) (g) (J/ g K) or if per mole (J/K) mol (J/mol K) C = m s Water (liquid) specific heat is 1.00 cal/g o C or 4.18 J/g o C Or per mol specific heat = (18g/mol)(4.18 J/g o C) = 75.2 J/mol o C Combining equations q = C T and C = m s we get q = m s T heat = (mass)(specific heat) (change in temperature) or if done in moles then q = (mol) (s mol ) T heat = (moles) (heat per mol) (change in temperature) Change is always the difference of (final value initial value) Δ = final initial

8 Thermochem 8 Example How much heat is put into g of water to raise temperature from 25.0 to 75.0 degrees Celsius? The specific heat of water is J/ g o C g of Water with temp change o C q = m s (ΔT) = C (T 2 T 1 ) where C = m s q = ( g )( J/g o C )( 75.0 o C 25.0 o C ) q = J = 20.9 kj endothermic Heat goes into water (the system) Suppose same water cools o C then q = kj exothermic Heat leaves water (the system) to surroundings) Example using per mole How much heat is put into 100. g of water to raise temperature from 25 to 75 degrees Celsius? The molar heat capacity of water is J/mol o C moles = 100. g (mol/18.0 g) = mol q = m s (ΔT) = C (T 2 T 1 ) where C = m s q = (5.556 mol) (75.31 J/mol o C) (75.0 o C 25.0 o C) q = or 20.9kJ notice final answer in problems above should be 3 sig fig 2.09x10 4 J or 20.9kJ

9 Thermochem 9 Calorimeter device to measure changes in heat Bomb (metal chamber ) Calorimeter shown below ( Calorimeter is used to measure C and T and thus find q for a reaction q = C T A bomb calorimeter is one that uses a metal chamber to hold sample and oxygen and rapidly burn a sample in an oxygen atmosphere

10 Thermochem 10 Example: 3.00g of glucose was burned in an excess of oxygen in bomb calorimeter with metal holder ( bomb ) heat capacity of 2.21 kj/ o C. and 1.2kg of water where water has a specific heat capacity of kj/kg o C. The temp change upon combustion of glucose and oxygen was o C Question what is the heat evolved from the combustion of 1.00 mol of glucose? Total heat capacity C total = C cal + C H2O = (2.21 kj/ o C ) + ( 1.2 kg ) ( 4.18 kj/kg o C ) = (7.23 kj/ o C) Heat absorbed by calorimeter and water q = C total (ΔT) q = 7.23 kj/ o C ( o C ) q = kj absorbed by water calorimeter so therefore q= kj for heat released from combustion of glucose and per mole Heat evolved = ( kj / 3.00g glucose )( 180 g/mol) ΔU = x 10 3 kj/mol of glucose Reaction C 6 H 12 O 6 (s) + 6O 2 (g) 6CO 2 (g) + 6H 2 O (l) ΔU = x 10 3 kj/mol Next section will show that if the same amount of gas is on reactant and product side then U = H so for above H = x 10 3 kj/mol Remember ΔU or ΔE for is used for internal energy. Some books use U and some use E for change in internal energy

11 Thermochem 11 Connection between Internal Energy and Enthalpy Internal Energy (ΔE or ΔU) = q V constant volume heat change Enthalpy ΔH = q P constant pressure heat change Often ignore the difference because it is small However, if need to calculate exactly U = q + w and heat is q = H and work is w = - (PV) so U = H - (PV) ΔH = (ΔU) + Δ (PV) and it is the gas produced or used up that causes change in PV so Δ (PV) = Δ (nrt) = RT(Δn gas ) and therefore ΔH = ΔU + RT(Δn gas ) where Δn gas = Σn gas (prod) Σn gas (react) where n gas is moles of gas on product or reactant side of chemical equation For Example: If in a reaction among other things happening 4 mol gas 5 mol gas then Δn gas = Σn gas (prod) Σn gas (react) Δn gas = 5-4 Δn gas = + 1 mol and RT(Δn gas ) = ( 8.31 J/molK )(298 K )( + 1 mo ) = 2476 J = 2.5 kj so then H = U kj this could be a small difference if H is hundreds of kj Usually the difference between ΔH and ΔU is small ΔH = ΔU if only liquid and solid that is no gas among reactants or products or if same moles of gas on product and reactant sides so n gas = 0

12 Thermochem 12 Bomb Calorimetry ( in closed container) gives us U but Usually we are interested in enthalpy (ΔH) Reaction in a beaker open to room is at constant pressure but volume may change if gas produced or used up so in a beaker heat change is H so to repeat Internal Energy Enthalpy ΔU = q v (constant volume) heat change ΔH = q p (constant pressure) heat change ΔH = (ΔU) + Δ (PV) but if no increase or decrease in gas then (PV) = 0 and H = U Thermochemical Equations Enthalpy is the heat content (H) Enthalpy change is ΔH = H products - H reactants So H is the heat change for chemical reactions H = (-) is exothermic heat given off (feels hot) H = (+) is endothermic heat taken in (feels cool) Examples: For H 2 (g) + (1/2) O 2 (g) H 2 O (g) kj we say for reaction above ΔH = -286 kj since heat given off for the reverse or opposite reaction H 2 O (g) kj H 2 (g) + (1/2) O 2 (g) we say ΔH= +286 kj since heat was put into reaction Remember heat in (reactant side) H = (+) heat out (product side) H = ( )

13 Thermochem 13 Applications: Our society runs on exothermic reactions we burn coal, oil, natural gas (methane, CH 4 ), and gasoline (a mixture of different hydrocarbons) to heat our homes, run our cars, and produce electricity. Our society would collapse without exothermic reactions! We eat food that our body metabolizes to produce energy and our brain needs a constant regular supply of glucose sugar molecules that are used for energy production. We would die without exothermic reactions! H tells us what the energy change will be but not how fast it will happen. We will see later that: Thermodynamics tell us what is likely to happen (where is equilibrium) Kinetics tells us how fast it will happen (speed of reaction) Enthalpies depend on amounts given for reaction as written and can depend on pressure and temperature. If P = 1.00 atm and T = 25 o C then at standard state and can indicate by H o We will often just write H instead of H o even if at standard state. How do you calculate ΔH for reaction? 1. Law of Hess 2. Enthalpies of Formation 3. Bond Energies

14 Thermochem 14 Law of Hess Change in enthalpy for reaction may be broken down into several steps Different ways to get from reactants to products will give same overall H A B C will have same H as A C Example: If C (graphite) + (1/2) O 2 CO H= kj CO + (1/2) O 2 CO 2 H = kj added together gives C(graphite) + O 2 (g) CO 2 (g) and also H = kj Rules: ΔH is for reaction as written a) If reverse reaction, change sign of ΔH ( or can multiple value by 1) b) If multiply or divide reaction by constant, do the same to ΔH Example: If C + O 2 (g) CO 2 (g) and H = kJ then reverse and get CO 2 (g) C + O 2 (g) and H = kj multiple this by 3 and get 3CO 2 (g) 3C + 3O 2 (g) and H = kj or another example If A B then B A 3A 3B 2B 2A ΔH = +5 kj ΔH = -5 kj ΔH = +15 kj ΔH = -10 kj

15 Thermochem 15 Formal Procedure to get H: In Hess s Law approach we use reactions with known ΔH values to find unknown ΔH for a reaction that is combination of known ones Example: Given ΔH (a) 2CO 2C + O kj (b) CO + (1/2) O 2 CO kj Find C + O 2 CO 2 (a) 2C + O 2 2CO kj (a)/2 C + (1/2) O 2 CO kj (b) CO + (1/2) O 2 CO kj (a)/2 + (b) C + O 2 CO 2 so then H = H a /2 + H b = (+221.0)/2 + (-283.0) = kj Example combining reactions Given: (a) 4NH 3 + 3O 2 2N 2 + 6H 2 O (b) N 2 O + H 2 N 2 + H 2 O (c) H 2 + (1/2) O 2 H 2 O ΔH H a = kj H b = -367 kj H c = -286 kj Then Find H for the reaction: 2NH 3 + 3N 2 O 4N 2 + 3H 2 O ΔH =? Look for components found only in one reaction NH 3 only in (a) N 2 O only in (b) Try (a)/2 + 3(b) and combine to give: 2NH 3 + 3/2O 2 + 3N 2 O + 3H 2 N 2 + 3H 2 O + 3N 2 + 3H 2 O

16 Thermochem 16 but need to get rid of 3H 2 + (3/2) O 2 3H 2 O so -3(c) Therefore (a)/2 + 3(b) 3(c) gives the desired reaction and 2NH 3 + 3N 2 O 4N 2 + 3H 2 O ΔH = (-1531)/2 + 3(-367) 3(-286) = 1009 kj whatever you do to reactions do the same thing to the H values 2. Enthalpies of Formation Standard state of substance is 25 o C and 1.00 atm Standard enthalpy of formation ΔH f o is change in heat when 1 mol of substance is made from elements in their standard states at 25 o C at 1.00 atm ΔH f o for example to make water need to combine hydrogen and oxygen H 2 (g) + (1/2) O 2 (g) H 2 O (l) and find from experiment ΔH = kj or to make chloroform CHCl 3 C (s) + (1/2) H 2 (g) + 3/2Cl 2 CHCl 3 (l) and measure that ΔH = -132 kj ΔH f o for pure element always equals zero Can use ΔH f o values to calculate ΔH for any reaction using ΔH = ΣΔH f o (products) ΣΔH f o (reactants) where Σ means sum or add together all values ΔH f o values are found in thermodynamic table(s) in your textbook look up values for homework and values will be given for exam questions

17 Thermochem 17 Example Find H for reaction 2NH 3 (g) + 3Cl 2 (g) N 2 (g) + 6HCl (g) Find values in table 2NH 3 (g) + 3Cl 2 (g) N 2 (g) + 6HCl (g) kj/mol Then use ΔH = ΣΔH f o (products) ΣΔH f o (reactants) ΔH = [ 1 (0) + 6(-92.3)] [2( ) + 3(0)] kj = [-553.8] [ ] ΔH = kj Example calculate H (enthalpy change) and also E (internal energy change) for OF 2 (g) + H 2 O (g) O 2 (g) + 2HF (g) where o ΔH f kj/mol Find ΔH ΔH = [ 1(0) + 2(-269) ] [ 1(23) + 1 (-242) ] H = [-538] [ - 219] H = kj and to find ΔU recall that ΔH = ΔU + R T Δn gas Use this equation: ΔH = ΔU + R T Δn gas (-319 kj) = ΔU + (3 2 mol)(8.31 J/molK)(298 K)(kJ/ 1000J) (-319 kj) = ΔU kj kj = ΔU So H and U are less than 1% difference often we can ignore this small difference if H is a large value and not much gas is produced or used up.

18 Thermochem Bond Energies (not as accurate as above use to see what is happening in a reaction and get approximate answer) Bond dissociation energy is the energy required to break single bond or double bond or triple bond that holds two atoms together BE = Bond energy (energy to break bond) and ΔH = Σ BE (bond broken) + Σ BE(bonds formed) Energy In (+) Energy Out (-) Example given reaction H 2 + (1/2) O 2 H 2 O and BE values given H H 432 kj/mol O=O 495 kj/mol O H 467 kj/mol then for reaction H = 1(H H ) + (1/2) ( O=O ) + 2(O H ) ΔH = 1(+432) + (1/2) (+495) + 2 ( - 467) units are 2 mol( -467kJ/mol) H = (680) + (-934) kj H = -254 kj for reaction as written Chemical reactions break bonds and form bonds Put energy in to break bond (+) Get energy out when form bond ( -) and BE different for single, double, or triple because triple bond hardest to break Diatomic Nitrogen: Single bond ΒΕ= 159 kj/mol Double bond ΒΕ= 418 kj/mol Triple bond ΒΕ= 941 kj/mol

19 Thermochem 19 Tables shown below are available to find bond energy values

20 Thermochem 20 Example: Find H for reaction given 2NH Cl 2 N 2 + 6HCl and BE values N-H Cl-Cl N = N H-Cl and remember ΔH = Σ BE (bond broken) + Σ BE(bonds formed) Energy In (+) Energy Out (-) reactant reactant product product break 6 break 3 form 1 form 6 6 (389) 3 (243) 1 (-941) 6 (-431) Sum all values and Result is ΔH= -464 kj value is close but a little different than using heats of formation Note that the BE Tables are average bond energy values Consider H O H Bond energy to break the first bond is 501 kj/mol Bond energy to break the second is 425 kj/mol Average = 463 kj/mol Easier to break the second bond and we use just average values

21 Thermochem 21 Example of H application U.S. Military uses Meals Ready to Eat (MRE) Uses reaction of magnesium with water to heat food in meal. Calculate enthalpy change for reaction below with H f o (kj/mol) values given Mg (s) + 2H 2 O (l) Mg(OH) 2 (s) + H 2 (g) + heat ΔH f kj/mol so ΔH = [ 1(-924.5) + 1(0)] [1(0) + 2(-285.8)] = kj ΔH = kj for reaction as written. Another Example Given above how much magnesium is needed to heat 1.00L of water from 20.0 to 90.0 o C? If specific heat of water is 4.184J/g K and water density is d=1.0g/ml then 1.00L of water is same as 1000mL or 1000g and then the heat q required to raise temp is q = m s T q= (1000g ) ( 4.184J/g K ) ( o C) q= 2.93x10 5 J or 293kJ remember for o C or K the T is same [90-20] = 70 o C for K T would be [ ( ) - ( )] or [ ] = 70 K so 293kJ required as input but 353kJ given off by 1 mol of Mg so 0.0 kj = (293kJ) + ( kj / mol ) (X mol) (293kJ) /(353kJ/mol) = X mol (293kJ) /(353kJ/mol) = mol or 0.830mol (24.3g/mol Mg ) = 20.2g of Mg to raise temp of 1000 ml water by 70 o C

22 Thermochem 22 for more information on MRE see below from Marshall Brain. "How MREs Work". April 15, (January 21, 2007) Flameless Heaters Most human beings much prefer a warm meal to a cold one, especially if they're in cold or wet conditions. Eating cold spaghetti or cold beef stew is definitely no fun. A hot meal, on the other hand, can lift a soldier's spirits. Because of the importance of a hot meal, all military MREs come packaged with a flameless heater. The flameless heater uses a simple chemical reaction to provide sufficient heat to warm the food. Chemical heating is actually a pretty widespread natural phenomenon. Everyone has seen iron rust. Rust is a natural process in which iron atoms combine with oxygen atoms to create reddish, crumbly iron oxide. The process is normally very slow, but we all know that wet iron rusts faster. Iron exposed to salty ocean water rusts the fastest. When iron turns to rust, the oxidation process generates heat. But rust forms so slowly that the heat generated is unnoticeable. We are all familiar with much faster oxidation reactions as well. For example, when you "oxidize" the carbon atoms in a charcoal briquette, they get quite hot. We use the word burning to describe this high-speed sort of oxidation. The idea behind a flameless heater is to use the oxidation of a metal to generate heat. Magnesium metal works better than iron because it rusts much more quickly. To make a flameless heater, magnesium dust is mixed with salt and a little iron dust in a thin, flexible pad about the size of a playing card. To activate the heater, a soldier adds a little water. Within seconds the flameless heater reaches the boiling point (of water) and is bubbling and steaming. To heat the meal, the soldier simply inserts the heater and the MRE pouch back in the box that the pouch came in. Ten minutes later, dinner is served!

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