Minerals and Rocks C) D)

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1 Minerals and Rocks Name 1. Base your answer to the following question on the map and cross section below. The shaded areas on the map represent regions of the United States that have evaporite rock layers (layers of rock formed from the evaporation of seawater) under the surface bedrock. The cross section shows the generalized structure of the area in which the evaporite layers are found in New York State. These evaporite deposits could be composed of which minerals? A) garnet and pyroxene B) mica and feldspar C) hornblende and olivine D) halite and gypsum 2. In which set are the rock drawings labeled with their correct rock types? A) B) C) D) 3. Which mineral has a metallic luster, a black streak, and is an ore of iron? A) galena B) magnetite C) pyroxene D) graphite 4. Which common mineral fizzes when dilute hydrochloric acid (HCl) is placed on it? A) calcite B) feldspar C) quartz D) talc

2 5. The diagrams below represent fractured samples of four minerals. Which mineral property is best illustrated by the samples? A) hardness B) streak C) cleavage D) density 6. Which object is the best model of the shape of a silicon-oxygen structural unit? A) B) C) D) 7. Base your answer to the following question on the diagram below, which shows the results of three different physical tests, A, B, and C, that were performed on a mineral. The luster of this mineral could be determined by A) using an electronic balance B) using a graduated cylinder C) observing how light reflects from the surface of the mineral D) observing what happens when acid is placed on the mineral

3 8. The diagram below shows the results of one test for mineral identification. Which mineral property is being tested? A) density B) fracture C) streak D) luster 9. Which type of rock is most likely to contain fossils? A) granite B) gneiss C) shale D) metaconglomerate 10. Which diagram best shows the grain size of some common sedimentary rocks? A) B) C) D)

4 11. The diagrams below show the crystal shapes of two minerals. Quartz and halite have different crystal shapes primarily because A) light reflects from crystal surfaces B) energy is released during crystallization C) of impurities that produce surface variations D) of the internal arrangement of the atoms 12. Base your answer to the following question on the drawings of six sedimentary rocks labeled A through F. Most of the rocks shown were formed by A) volcanic eruptions and crystallization B) compaction and/or cementation C) heat and pressure D) melting and/or solidification

5 13. The diagram below shows the index minerals of Mohs hardness scale compared with the hardness of some common objects. Which statement is best supported by the diagram? A) A fingernail will scratch calcite but not gypsum. B) Calcite will be scratched by a copper penny. C) The mineral apatite will scratch topaz. D) A steel file has a hardness of about 7.5.

6 14. The elements contained in four minerals are given in the table below. The basic structural unit of one of the minerals is also shown. The atom of element 1 is surrounded by four atoms of element 2. In which mineral are the atoms arranged as shown in the basic structural unit? A) fluorite B) halite C) quartz D) galena 15. Which characteristic would best indicate that a rock was formed from sediments deposited in shallow water near shore rather than in deep water? A) hardness B) a dark color C) a large grain size D) a large amount of cement

7 Base your answers to questions 16 through 18 on the graph below, which shows the crustal temperature and pressure conditions under which three different minerals with the same chemical composition (Al2SiO5) crystallize. 16. Which mineral has a chemical composition most similar to andalusite, sillimanite, and kyanite? A) pyrite B) gypsum C) dolomite D) potassium feldspar 17. Under which crustal temperature and pressure conditions will andalusite form? A) 300 C and 6000 atmospheres B) 500 C and 2000 atmospheres C) 600 C and 4000 atmospheres D) 700 C and 8000 atmospheres 18. If bedrock at a collisional plate boundary contains andalusite crystals, these crystals are changed into sillimanite and/or kyanite as temperature and pressure conditions increase. What is this process called? A) weathering B) solidification C) metamorphism D) cementation 19. Large deposits of rock gypsum and rock salt usually form in areas of A) active volcanoes B) continental ice sheets C) fault zones in the crust D) shallow evaporating seas 20. Which rock was organically formed and sometimes contains fossilized plant impressions? A) rock gypsum B) phyllite C) breccia D) coal

8 21. What is the origin of fine-grained igneous rock? A) lava that cooled slowly on Earth s surface B) lava that cooled quickly on Earth s surface C) silt that settled slowly in ocean water D) silt that settled quickly in ocean water 22. In which part of the Earth are felsic rocks most likely to be found? A) continental crust B) oceanic crust C) plastic mantle D) rigid mantle Base your answers to questions 23 and 24 on the cross section below, which shows a typical bedrock structure where oil and natural gas deposits are found. 23. The natural gas, oil, and saltwater have formed layers at different levels in the same rock layer due to the A) principle of superposition B) principle of original horizontality C) differences in the density of the three materials D) differences in the geologic age of the three materials 24. According to the diagram, in which type of rock are these natural gas and oil deposits found? A) coarse-textured igneous rock B) foliated metamorphic rock C) porous clastic sedimentary rock D) intrusive crystalline sedimentary rock

9 25. The profile below shows the average diameter of sediment that was sorted and deposited in specific areas A, B, C, and D by a stream entering an ocean. As compaction and cementation of these sediments eventually occur, which area will become siltstone? A) A B) B C) C D) D 26. Which two processes result in the formation of igneous rocks? A) solidification and evaporation B) melting and solidification C) crystallization and cementation D) compression and precipitation 27. Which processes change sedimentary rocks into metamorphic rocks? A) erosion and deposition B) melting and solidification C) evaporation and condensation D) temperature and pressure changes 28. Base your answer to the following question on the cross sections below, which show widely separated outcrops at locations X, Y, and Z. Which rock layer was formed by the compaction and cementation of particles that were all less than centimeter in diameter? A) red sandstone B) green shale C) brown siltstone D) conglomerate

10 29. The diagram below shows some features in a cave. Which type of rock was chemically weathered by acidic groundwater to produce the cave and its features? A) siltstone B) basalt C) quartzite D) limestone 30. The fossil below was found in surface bedrock in the eastern United States. Which statement best describes the formation of the rock containing this fossil? A) The rock was formed by the metamorphism of sedimentary rock deposited in a terrestrial environment during the Cretaceous Period. B) The rock was formed by the compaction and cementation of sediments deposited in a terrestrial environment during the Triassic Period. C) The rock was formed by the compaction and cementation of sediments deposited in a marine environment during the Cambrian Period. D) The rock was formed from the solidification of magma in a marine environment during the Triassic Period.

11 31. Which granite sample most likely formed from magma that cooled and solidified at the slowest rate? A) B) C) D) 32. The four igneous rocks below are classified into two groups. What is the basis for this classification? A) density B) color C) crystal grain size D) mineral content Base your answers to questions 33 through 35 on the cross section below which shows the surface and subsurface rock formations near New York City. 33. Which rock formation was originally limestone? A) Palisades sill B) Fordham gneiss C) Inwood marble D) Manhattan schist 34. The portion of the Palisades sill that contains large crystals of plagioclase feldspar and pyroxene is considered to be similar in texture and composition to A) obsidian B) granite C) basalt glass D) gabbro 35. The rock types shown on the left side of this geologic cross section were mainly the result of A) heat and pressure exerted on previously existing rock B) melting and solidification of crustal rocks at great depths C) tectonic plate boundaries diverging at the mid-ocean ridge D) compaction and cementation of sediments under ocean waters

12 36. The diagram below shows a rock with deformed structure and intergrown crystals. The rock was probably formed by A) sediments that were deposited on the ocean floor B) heat and pressure that changed a preexisting rock C) volcanic lava that cooled on Earth's surface D) a meteor impact on Earth's surface 37. The diagram below shows four rock samples. Which sample best shows the physical properties normally associated with regional metamorphism? A) A B) B C) C D) D 38. Which diagram below shows an area in which fine-grained igneous rocks are most likely to be found? A) B) C) D) 39. The diagram below represents a layer of sandstone containing a vein of calcite and a crack labeled XY. Which is oldest? A) the calcite vein B) the crack labeled XY C) the sandstone layer D) the individual sand grains in the rock

13 40. Which statement about the formation of a rock is best supported by the rock cycle? A) Magma must be weathered before it can change to metamorphic rock. B) Sediment must be compacted and cemented before it can change to sedimentary rock. C) Sedimentary rock must melt before it can change to metamorphic rock. D) Metamorphic rock must melt before it can change to sedimentary rock. Base your answers to questions 41 through 43 on the flowchart below and on your knowledge of Earth science. The flowchart shows the formation of some igneous rocks. The bold letters A, B, C, and D indicate parts of the flowchart that have not been labeled. 41. Give the numerical grain-size range that should be placed in the flowchart at C. Units must be included in your answer. 42. Contrast the rate of cooling at A that forms intrusive igneous rock with a rate of cooling at B that forms extrusive igneous rock. 43. State one igneous rock that could be placed in the flowchart at D.

14 Base your answers to questions 44 and 45 on the rock cycle diagram below. 44. State the specific names of rocks A, B, and C in the diagram. Do not write the terms "sedimentary," "igneous," and "metamorphic." 45. State one condition or process that would cause the high-grade metamorphism of rock A.

15 Answer Key Rocks and Minerals Regents Review 1. D 2. D 3. B 4. A 5. C 6. B 7. C 8. C 9. C 10. B 11. D 12. B 13. B 14. C 15. C 16. D 17. B 18. C 19. D 20. D 21. B 22. A 23. C 24. C 25. C 26. B 27. D 28. B 29. D 30. C 31. D 32. C 33. C 34. D 35. A 36. B 37. A 38. C 39. D 40. B 41. 1mm to 10 mm 42. Responses include, but are not limited to: A is slower cooling than B; B is faster cooling than A ; Intrusive rock forms from molten rock that cools slowly; Extrusive rock forms from molten rock than cools rapidly. 43. Responses include, but are not limited to: obsidian; basaltic glass; pumice; vesicular basalt glass. 44. Rock A shale; Rock B gneiss; Rock C granite or diorite or pegmatite 45. examples: heat and/or pressure The rock is buried deep underground. plate collisions mountain building

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