Earth Science SOL Review Sheet #2: Minerals & Rocks

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1 Earth Science SOL Review Sheet #2: Minerals & Rocks Standards ES 4 The student will investigate and understand how to identify major rock-forming and ore minerals based on physical and chemical properties. Key concepts include hardness, color and streak, luster, cleavage, fracture, and unique properties; and uses of minerals. ES.5 The student will investigate and understand the rock cycle as it relates to the origin and transformation of rock types and how to identify common rock types based on mineral composition and textures. Key concepts include a) igneous rocks; b) sedimentary rocks; and c) metamorphic rocks. Essential Understandings: There is a difference between rocks and minerals. Most rocks are made of one or more minerals. mineral is a naturally occurring, inorganic, solid substance with a definite chemical composition and structure and can be identified based on specific chemical and physical properties. The major elements found in Earth s crust are oxygen, silicon, aluminum, and iron. The most abundant group of minerals is the silicates, which contain silicon and oxygen. Some common silicates include feldspar and quartz. The carbonate group of minerals is composed of the carbonate compound O3. Some common carbonates are calcite and dolomite. The oxide group of minerals is composed of oxygen and a metal. Some common oxides include hematite and magnetite. Minerals are important to human wealth and welfare. Rocks can be identified on the basis of mineral content and texture. The processes by which rocks are formed define the three major groups of rocks. The rock cycle is the process by which all rocks are formed and how basic Earth materials are recycled through time. Igneous rock forms from molten rock that cools and hardens either below or on Earth s surface. Extrusive igneous rocks have small or no crystals, resulting in finegrained or glassy textures and include pumice, obsidian, and basalt. Intrusive igneous rocks have larger crystals and a coarser texture and include granite. Sedimentary rocks may be formed either by rock fragments or organic matter being bound together or by chemical precipitation. lastic sedimentary rocks are made up of fragments of other rocks and include sandstone, conglomerate, and shale. Non-clastic sedimentary rocks include limestone and rock salt. Metamorphic rocks form when any rock is changed by the effects of heat, pressure, or chemical action. oliated metamorphic rocks have bands of different minerals and include slate, schist, and gneiss. Unfoliated metamorphic rocks have little or no banding and are relatively homogenous throughout and include marble and quartzite. Essential Knowledge and Skills In order to meet this standard, it is expected that students will analyze why certain common metallic elements (iron, aluminum, silicon) are rarely, if ever, found in the native state. analyze the distribution and persistence of minerals at or near Earth s surface in terms of Earth s general structure, plate tectonics, and chemical and physical weathering. analyze the relationship between the qualities of cleavage, fracture, and hardness and the molecular structure and chemistry of silicates, carbonates, and oxides. identify minerals by their physical properties, such as hardness, color, luster, and streak. recognize some major rock-forming minerals such as quartz, feldspar, calcite, and mica. recognize ore minerals including pyrite, magnetite, hematite, galena, graphite, and sulfur. In order to meet this standard, it is expected that students will comprehend and identify various igneous rock textural features and mineral components with a hand sample or by description, and analyze the significance of these features in terms of mode of origin and history. analyze and identify various sedimentary rocks in terms of mode of origin and history, using sedimentary features (grain size, texture, and composition). analyze the major groups of metamorphic rocks for mineral composition and textural features and determine the potential parent rock and in terms of the rock cycle. analyze a sequence of rocks in terms of types, textures, composition, fossils, structural, and weathering features in order to infer the history of the sequence over time. integrate the rock cycle with Plate Tectonics Theory and determine how this is reflected in the geology of Virginia s five physiographic provinces. classify the following rock types as igneous, metamorphic, or sedimentary: pumice, obsidian, basalt, granite, sandstone, conglomerate, shale, limestone, slate, schist, gneiss, marble, and quartzite. differentiate between clastic and non-clastic sedimentary rocks. compare and contrast distinguishing characteristics of the crystal structure and textures of extrusive and intrusive igneous rocks. describe the structure of foliated and unfoliated metamorphic rocks.

2 Important Words You Need to Know: cleavage - tendency of a mineral to break along smooth, flat, definite surfaces diamond - the hardest known mineral element - a material made up of one kind of atom fracture - break or crack in rock; in minerals, the way a mineral that does not cleave breaks along a rough or jagged surface hardness - ability of a mineral to resist being scratched luster - the way in which a mineral reflects light from its surface major elements of Earth s crust - the elements found in the largest amounts in Earth s crust: oxygen, silicon, aluminum, and iron Moh's Scale - ten common minerals with increasing hardness from talc to diamond that is used to rate the hardness of all other minerals ore mineral a mineral from which useful metals or nonmetals can be profitably removed (pyrite, magnetite, hematite, galena, graphite, and sulfur) pyrite - fool s gold, chemical formula is es2 rock-forming minerals - common minerals that make up most of the rocks in Earth s crust: quartz, feldspar, calcite, and mica silicates - the most common mineral group; those minerals containing silicon and oxygen streak - color of the powder left by a mineral when it is rubbed against a hard, rough surface (streak plate) foliated metamorphic rock whose minerals are arranged in parallel layers Igneous rocks: rock formed from the cooling and hardening of magma or lava Extrusive igneous rocks: formed from lava; they cool fast, so they have small or no crystals examples include: basalt, pumice, obsidian Intrusive igneous rocks: formed from magma; they cool slow so they have visible mineral crystals and coarse texture. Example: granite magma: molten rock beneath the earth s surface Metamorphic rocks: rock that has undergone physical and chemical changes due to extreme heat or pressure oliated rock: metamorphic rock that shows parallel banding Example: gneiss and schist Nonfoliated rock: metamorphic rock that has been recrystalized; does not show banding Sedimentary rocks: rock formed by rock fragments or organic matter being bound together or by chemical precipitation lastic rocks: sedimentary rocks made from fragments of other rocks. Example: sandstone Non-clastic rocks: sedimentary rocks made from chemical processes. Example: limestone Texture: how large the mineral crystals are Rock cycle - a diagram showing how the formation of igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks are interrelated These are the facts you should know mineral is found in nature, inorganic, solid, with a definite chemical composition and structure. Mineral properties depend on their atomic structure. Minerals may be identified by their physical properties such as hardness, color, luster, and streak. Most rocks are made of one or more minerals. Some major rock-forming minerals are quartz, feldspar, calcite, and mica. Ore minerals include pyrite, magnetite, hematite, galena, graphite, and sulfur. The major elements found in Earth s crust are oxygen, silicon, aluminum, and iron. The most abundant group of minerals is the silicates, which contain silicon and oxygen. Igneous rocks are classified by composition and texture. Igneous Rocks are produced by the cooling of magma (cooled below Earth s surface) or lava (cooled above Earth s surface). ast cooling = Extrusive - Texture includes small, finegrained mineral grains, glassy, air holes present. (pumice, basalt, obsidian) Slow cooling = Intrusive- Texture includes coarse or large mineral grains. (granite) Metamorphic formed by heat and pressure or chemical action. Metamorphic include foliated (banded) and non-foliated. oliated rocks have bands of different minerals. Examples are slate, schist, gneiss. Non-foliated rocks have little or no banding and are relatively homogenous throughout and include marble and quartzite. Limestone morphs into marble. Sandstone morphs into quartzite. Sedimentary rocks form from rock fragments, organic material, or chemical precipitation. Sedimentary are found in flat layers or strata. ossils are found in these layers. Sedimentary subclasses include clastic, organic, and chemical. Limestone is formed both chemically and organically. lastic rocks are made of fragments- conglomerate, sandstone, and shale. Non-clastic sedimentary rocks include limestone and rock salt. oal formation from softest to hardest- Peat, Lignite, ituminous, nthracite. Non-renewable resources are renewed very slowly or not at all. Non-renewable resources include coal, oil, and minerals. In Virginia, major rock and mineral resources include coal for energy, gravel and crushed stone for road construction, and limestone for making concrete. Nearly all fossils are found in sedimentary rocks. Interpret the rock cycle diagram. lassify the following rock types as igneous, metamorphic, or sedimentary: pumice, obsidian, basalt, granite, sandstone, conglomerate, shale, limestone, slate, schist, gneiss, marble, and quartzite.

3 When finished with this unit, you should be able to : etermine if a substance is a mineral based upon the given characteristics. Identify the following minerals based on their specific chemical and physical properties (color, hardness, streak, color, luster, and breakage): quartz, feldspar, mica, calcite, bauxite, hematite, galena, halite, graphite, pyrite, sulfur, diamond and talc and know their commercial use(s). List ways that minerals are important to human wealth and welfare. lassify rocks into the three major groups by the processes that formed them. Explain the rock cycle diagram and identify the processes by which all rocks are formed and how materials are recycled through time. Identify the following rocks on the basis of mineral content and texture: Igneous pumice, obsidian, basalt, granite; Sedimentary sandstone, conglomerate, shale, limestone, gypsum; Metamorphic slate, schist, gneiss, marble, quartzite. istinguish between a rock and a mineral. iscuss why minerals and rocks are nonrenewable resources and are limited. Observe evidence of ancient, often extinct life preserved in sedimentary rock.

4 ES 4 & 5 Skills Practice 1. What is the hardness and composition of quartz? 2. What is the luster and form of breakage of halite? 3. What makes quartz different from halite? 4. What mineral has a metallic luster, hardness of 6.5 and is a brassy yellow color? 5. What mineral has a non-metallic luster, has cleavage and bubbles with acid? 6. What mineral has a greasy feel and is used in ceramics? 1. Which rocks above are clastic? 2. Which rock is organic? 3. Which rock is a chemical rock? 4. What are the 2 ways a chemical rock can form? 5. escribe the process for the formation of a clastic rock? 6. What is the particle size for a sandstone rock? 7. What is the difference between a conglomerate and breccia rock? 8. Which rock had particles that traveled further...conglomerate or breccia? 9. Which rock is made of particles with a diameter of cm? 10. Which bioclastic rock is made from dead plants? 11. What is the composition of rock gypsum? 12. ow are clastic sedimentary rocks classified? 13. ow are chemical rocks classified?

5 1. What rock is shown in the picture above? 2. What 2 processes produce a metamorphic rock? 3. What does foliation mean? 4. What type of foliation does neiss show? 5. What are the 2 types of metamorphism? 6. What sedimentary rock forms into nthracite oal? 7. What sedimentary rock forms into Quartzite? 8. What sedimentary rock forms into Marble? 9. What metamorphic rock shows the lowest grade of metamorphism? 10. What metamorphic rock shows the highest grade of metamorphism? 11. ow are nonfoliated rocks classified? 12. What metamorphic rock is made of platy mica crystals? 13. What metamorphic rock can be made from various other rocks through the contact of magma? 14. What metamorphic rock is made from shale? 1. What 2 processes produce an igneous rock? 2. Rocks that form inside the earth are...intrusive or extrusive? 3. Rocks that form at or near the surface are...intrusive or extrusive? 4. Igneous rocks are classified how? 5. Very coarse rocks are created where? 6. What is the color, density and composition of ranite? 7. What is the color, density and composition of asalt? 8. Name a coarse grained rock that contains the mineral pyroxene? 9. Name a vesicular rock that is glassy and floats in water? 10. Name an igneous rock that contains a lot of quartz? 11. Rocks that have large crystals formed...quickly or slowly? 12. Rocks that have very small crystals formed...quickly or slowly? 13. ow are the crystals described with igneous rocks?

6 ES 4 & 5 SOL Practice 4. The color left behind when a mineral is rubbed against a rough surface is called its imprint residual color trace streak 5. What is a method of identification that involves only visual observations of the mineral? 1. The above figure is testing the mineral's streak and magnetism luster and density hardness and color cleavage and fracture Luster ardness Melting point ensity 2. In the gold rush of 1849, prospectors found a yellow mineral that appeared to be gold, but was harder and more brittle than gold. What is this mineral that came to be called fool s gold? Sulfur alcite Pyrite opper 6. ccording to Mohs ardness Scale and Key above, which tool would be most effective in distinguishing between quartz and orthoclase? Steel file lass plate ommon nail Penny 7. Which of these is most important in determining how a rock was formed? 3. ominic conducted a mineral identification experiment with an unknown mineral. e found the following information. Size and weight Luster and hardness omposition and texture olor and shape What is the unknown mineral? 8. alite is the mineral form of table salt. It is colorless and has cleavage in three directions. What special property distinguishes this mineral from other similar looking minerals? Magnetite iotite ornite ematite Taste Weight olor Source ore

7 9. When rubbed against a ceramic plate, hematite leaves a red streak. This test is useful because 16. Rocks are generally classified into three groups according to their minerals may have unique streak colors some minerals ignite rather than leave a streak minerals contain iron the color of the streak matches the color of the mineral origin size color mineral content 10. gem is a naturally occurring, crystalline, inorganic solid. It is a clear mineral gaseous mineral common mineral valuable mineral 11. mineral that tends to break into flat sheets when stressed is silver iron sulfur mica 12. naturally occurring, inorganic solid substance with a definite chemical composition and structure is called a mineral a rock an inorganic matrix a building block of crystals 17. Rock layers numbered 1, 2, and 3 can only be classified as 13. The most abundant group of minerals found in the Earth s crust are the organics inorganics silicates non-silicates silicate rock sedimentary rock metamorphic rock igneous rock 14. lass is chemically related to what mineral? alite Quartz Pyrite luorite 15. raw sample of a mineral may be called an ore if 18. The shown rock is classified as what type of rock? it is pure and also rare it contains valuable minerals that can be extracted it is made up of less than 20% of a valuable mineral it is pure but is buried inside a mountain or deep underground lastic metamorphic rock Unfoliated metamorphic rock oliated metamorphic rock Organic metamorphic rock

8 19. The rock type most likely being formed in Iceland as shown in the diagram is intrusive sedimentary igneous metamorphic 20. Igneous rocks are classified as either 23. ox number 5 represents Igneous Rock Molten Rock Sedimentary Rock Metamorphic Rock a or pahoehoe foliated or non-foliated intrusive or extrusive clastic or organic 21. The rock cycle is the collective processes by which one type of rock can be changed into another form of rock the tectonic plates shift and slide around the surface of the Earth all types of fossils have been transformed into a form of rock the mineral and chemical compositions of different forms of rock are identified 22. Which of the following best describes an igneous rock? Rock formed by the cooling and solidification of magma or lava Rock formed by the deposition and compression of small pieces of matter and debris in layers over time Rock formed by the chemical reaction and breakdown of other forms of rock in deep caves and caverns Rock that has been subjected to intense heat and pressure that causes it to modify from its original form 24. ecause granite cools below the surface of the Earth, it is a sedimentary rock an igneous extrusive rock a metamorphic rock an igneous intrusive rock 25. What best describes a sedimentary rock? Rock formed by the chemical reaction and breakdown of other forms of rock in deep caves and caverns. Rock that has been subjected to intense heat and pressure that causes it to modify from its original form. Rock formed by the deposition and compression of small pieces of matter and debris in layers over time. Rock formed by the cooling and solidification of magma or lava as a results of volcanic activity. 26. chemical sedimentary rock used in the food industry is limestone sucrose halite gypsum

9 30. oal, an important energy resource, is actually an intrusive igneous rock a clastic sedimentary rock an extrusive igneous rock an organic sedimentary rock 31. n example of an organic sedimentary rock is conglomerate limestone sandstone quartzite 27. ccording to the diagram, when clay deposits are buried to a depth of 21 km, which type of metamorphic rock is formed 32. sample of rock shows a parallel banding pattern. Which rock type could NOT be in the sample? lastic sedimentary rock hemical sedimentary rock oliated metamorphic rock Nonfoliated metamorphic rock Slate neiss Schist Phyllite 28. Sedimentary rocks are classified according to chemistry the process that formed the particles color organic material present 33. The shown rock is classified as what type of rock? Organic metamorphic rock oliated metamorphic rock lastic metamorphic rock Unfoliated metamorphic rock 29. In the diagram, the only layers that could possibly be sedimentary rock layers are layers Y and X layers W and Z layers W and X layers Z and Y

10 34. Which diagram is correctly matched with its rock type? 39. onglomerate is a type of sedimentary rock formed from cementation of smaller rocks a metamorphic rock with unusually large crystal regions a type of igneous rock formed with may trapped gases not considered a true rock because it is man-made 40. Sedimentary rock layers are always deposited horizontally parallel to the parent rock dependent on the local topography vertically 35. What characteristic do all metamorphic rocks share? They have the same patterns of fracture and cleavage. They are organic in origin. They began as sedimentary rocks. They contain minerals. 36. In which of the following fossils can no organic remains of the original organism be found? Petrified animal bones a human mummy frozen woolly mammoth n insect trapped in amber 37. Oceanic fossils are found in rock formation on the side of a road. The rock is probably granite metamorphic igneous sedimentary 38. Metamorphic rocks always contain a part of the fossil record may contain fossils, but the fossils may be distorted or stretched may contain fossils if they are formed by contact metamorphism, but may not if they were formed by regional metamorphism never contain fossils

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