Regents Earth Science Unit 10: Minerals and Rocks Minerals

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1 A mineral is any: Regents Earth Science Unit 10: Minerals and Rocks Minerals 1. naturally occurring 2. inorganic 3. solid, with a 4. definite chemical composition, and a 5. crystal structure Minerals are classified into different groups based on their composition/structure: Examples: groups include: native elements, oxides, carbonates, halides, sulfides, and silicates ex.: native elements = silver, gold, graphite (C) oxides = hematite, magnetite carbonates = calcite, dolomite halides = halite, flourite sulfides = pyrite, galena silicates = quartz, feldspar, olivene Types of Silicate Minerals: Silicate minerals (largest group) are made from a structure called a Silicon Tetrahedron: 1. naturally occurring: quartz, pyrite cement is not a mineral - man made 2. inorganic: not formed from living things coal is not a mineral - comes from plants 3. solid: have definite size/volume and shape oil is not a mineral - liquid 4. chemical composition: ex.: quartz = SiO 2 5. crystal structure: atoms in geometric patterns ex.: quartz - silicon tetrahedron

2 1. isolated tetrahedron - show fracture Minerals 2. chain tetrahedron - cleavage, splinter 3. sheet tetrahedron - cleave in flat sheets 4. network tetrahedron - concoidal fracture Formation of Minerals: 1. from cooling lava/magma 2. precipitate from solution water saturated with dissolved minerals evaporates - minerals are left behind)

3 Minerals are identified on their physical and/or chemical properties: Physical Properties: 1. Color 2. Streak 3. Luster 4. Hardness 5. Breakage (Cleavage/Fracture) 6. Density (Specific Gravity) Mineral Identification Physical Properties 1. Color - not dependable for identifying most minerals most minerals can have many colors ex. hematite - black, gray, silver, brown, red very few common minerals have only one color ex. sulfur - yellow many minerals are the same color ex. black - magnetite, hematite, mica, hornblende sulfur hematite 2. Streak - color of the powder when a mineral is rubbed on a streak plate very reliable for identification streak for a mineral is always the same color (no matter the color of the mineral) ex.: hematite - reddish-brown streak 3. Luster - the way a mineral shines/reflects light a. Metallic - shines like a metal - galena, pyrite b. Non-metallic - does not look like a metal: pearly - mica glassy - quartz, halite dull/earthy - hematite (red ochre) waxy - talc brilliant - diamond

4 4. Hardness - how easily a mineral is scratched Physical Properties Moh's Hardness Scale use fingernail and glass plate: fingernail has a hardness of 2.5 glass has a hardness of Breakage Cleavage - mineral breaks along smooth, flat surfaces (due to internal structure of atoms) the atomic structure of minerals gives minerals a characteristic crystal shape six basic crystal structures are: Galena, Halite Chalcopyrite Olivene Mica, Gypsum Feldspar Quartz, Calcite Fracture - mineral breaks unevenly, irregularly, or in jagged surfaces

5 Physical Properties 6. Density (Specific Gravity) - how heavy a mineral of a given volume is compared to water heavy - galena, gold medium - quartz, feldspar light - mica, sulfur "heft" 1. Chemical - calcite will react with HCl - bubbles or "fizzes" 2. Magnetic - magnetite is naturally magnetic 3. Double Refraction - calcite 4. Radioactivity - pitchblende - contains uranium 5. Fluorescence - some minerals glow in UV light 6. Taste - halite tastes salty 7. Smell - sulfur smells like rotten eggs Other Properties Uses of Minerals Ore - a mineral that contains metals and non-metals that can be mined in useable amounts for a profit metals - conduct heat and electricity alloys - a mixture of 2 or more metals and non-metals (ex.: bronze, brass, steel) Non-metals - poor conductors of heat and electricity Gems - hard(>7), rare, high luster and clarity

6 Rocks are composed of 1 or more minerals: Monomineralic - made from just one mineral Polymineralic - made from 2 or more minerals There are only a few common rock-forming minerals: Rocks quartz potassium feldspar plagioclase feldspar pyroxene amphibole mica olivine ex.: granite Rocks are classified on the basis of their formation (origin) Three Classes of Rocks: 1. Igneous - from molten magma or lava 2. Sedimentary - from sediments 3. Metamorphic - from heat/pressure/chemicals changing the minerals in a pre-existing rock Igneous Rocks Igneous Rocks - form from the cooling and solidification (crystallization) of molten lava and magma Types of Igneous Rocks are based on: 1. Environment of Formation Extrusive Intrusive 2. Mineral Composition felsic mafic Reference Tables p.6

7 Environment of Formation: Igneous Rocks 1. Extrusive Igneous Rocks (Volcanic) - form from the fast cooling of lava at/near Earth's surface small/no crystals fine/smooth texture 2. Intrusive Igneous Rocks (Plutonic) - forms from the slow cooling of magma deep within the Earth large, visible crystals ("salt and pepper" look) coarse, rough texture

8 As the rate of cooling increases, crystal size decreases Igneous Rocks crystal size rate of cooling Note: time and rate are opposites - as time of cooling increases, cooling rate increases Mineral Composition - felsic or mafic 1. Felsic - rich in aluminum light in color low in density 2. Mafic - rich in magnesium and iron dark in color high in density All igneous rocks have a few, common characteristics which make them easy to identify: 1. scattered inter-grown crystals - gives some igneous rocks a "salt and pepper" look 2. glassy texture 3. vesicular (contains air/gas pockets)

9 Igneous Rocks crystallized from molten minerals Igneous Rocks-Tree Diagram Intrusive cools slowly inside earth Felsic Mafic (Al) (Mg, Fe) Extrusive cools quickly near or at surface Felsic (Al) Mafic (Mg, Fe) Environment of Formation Mineral Composition Classifying Characteristics granite gabbro rhyolite basalt obsidian scoria Examples of each class of rock pumice Scattered Intergrown Glassy,Vesicular, Fine Grained Crystals Texture Cooled Slowly Cooled Quickly Identifying Characteristics

10 Sedimentary Rocks Sedimentary Rocks - form in horizontal layers from the accumulation of sediments, organic matter, or chemical precipitates process is called lithification Types of Sedimentary Rocks: 1. Clastic 2. Crystalline 3. Bioclastic Reference Tables p.7 1. Clastic- form from physically weathered particles that are compressed and cemented together classified by particle size particles often visible have a "dirt" look to them 2. Crystalline - form from chemically weathered (dissolved) minerals that precipitate out when water evaporates or changes temperature classified by composition evidence of former evaporating seas very fine grained, soft crystallized precipitates 3. Bioclastic (Organic) - form from the accumulation of plant/animal matter formation of coal:

11 Characteristics for identification: Sedimentary Rocks composed of visible fragments/particles that have been cemented together layered appearance - throughout sample contains fossils make up about 5% of the Earth's Crust make up about 80% of the rocks at the Earth's surface Sedimentary Rocks - Tree Diagram Sedimentary from cemented sediments Clastic physically weathered Crystalline chemically weathered precipitates Biological organic sediments Conglomerate Limestone Fossiliferous Limestone Classified by Size of Particles Breccia Sandstone Classified by Composition Rock Gypsum Rock Salt Coquina Bituminous Coal Classified by Composition Siltstone Shale cemented fragments soft,tiny crystals fossils LAYERING

12 Metamorphic Rocks Metamorphic Rocks - form from other preexisting rock (igneous, metamorphic, sedimentary) that have been changed by: 1. Heat 2. Pressure 3. Chemical Activity these conditions are associated with the deep burial and pressure that result from mountain building Note: no melting involved!! Recrystallization - the growth of new mineral crystals without melting occurs under conditions of high temperatures and/or pressures Reference Tables p.7

13 Changes in a Rock due to Metamorphism: Metamorphic Rocks 1. increased density - rock is squeezed under pressure 2. new minerals - due to recrystallization 3. banding - layered arrangement of intergrown crystals - due to directional pressure 4. flattened minerals - due to directional pressure 5. distorted structure - curving/folding of layers due to pressures exerted from different directions Types of Metamorphic Rocks: 1. Foliated - mineral crystals arranged in bands 2. Non-foliated - no banding

14 Metamorphic Rocks - Tree Diagram Metamorphic Rocks recrystallized from heat and/or pressure Foliated show mineral alignment/banding NonFoliated Classified by Degree of Metamorphism and Grain Size slate phyllite schist gneiss hornfels quartzite marble metaconglomerate Rock Cycle Classified by Composition Rock Cycle - any class of rock can change and form into another class of rock Sedimentary Rocks form from the compaction/cementation of sediments Igneous Rocks form the solidification of molten rock Metamorphic Rocks form from re-crystallization due to heat/pressure Reference Tables p.6

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