DAYC-2 Developmental Assessment of Young Children 2 nd Edition. Holli Ford, M. Ed., BCBA al.us

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1 DAYC-2 Developmental Assessment of Young Children 2 nd Edition Holli Ford, M. Ed., BCBA al.us

2 New Edition in 2012 The DAYC-2 is a comprehensive tool for infants and young children. The 2 nd Edition was published in October Developed by Judith K. Voress, PhD and Taddy Maddox, PhD Norm-Referenced / Provides Standard Scores Cost is approximately $350 dollars for the initial kit with 25 scoring sheets for each domain. Additional scoring sheets can be ordered. Materials and toys must be assembled by the examiner these cannot be ordered as a supplement to the kit.

3 Assessment Kit The Assessment Kit includes the following: Examiners Manual Examiner Summary Sheets Adaptive Behavior Domain Scoring Forms Cognitive Domain Scoring Forms Communication Domain Scoring Forms Physical Development Domain Scoring Forms Social-Emotional Domain Scoring Forms Mini-Poster of Early Child Development Chart for parents, teachers and caregivers

4 Five Developmental Domains Allows for assessment of the five domains of development mandated for assessment and intervention by IDEA Cognitive Social-Emotional Adaptive Behavior Communication Subdomain scores are provided for receptive language and expressive language Physical Development Subdomain scores are provided for gross motor and fine motor

5 Administration Ages: Birth through 5 years 11 months Testing time: 10 to 20 minutes for each domain May be administered as part of an individual assessment by a single examiner, by an assessment team or as part of an arena assessment. Individual disciplines can assess the domains independently as needed for example, if the SLP is only assessing Communication or if the OT/PT only need additional scores for physical development.

6 Administration Each domain can be assessed individually and independently by the examiner. Scores can be reported for each individual domain. If all five domains are tested, an additional score for overall general development can also be obtained. Best Practice for early childhood providers is that all five domains are assessed, as delays in one area of development may have impacted development in another area of development. It is always better to assess and determine there is no delay than to assume the child has no delays in a specific domain that was not the primary area of concern.

7 Administration The format allows multiple ways for examiners to obtain information during the assessment including: Direct assessment ( Can you tell me your name?) Observation of the child in the natural environment Interview of parents, caregivers and teachers As there are no specific requirements for any items to be completed by direct assessment, if a child does not get credit on an item during direct assessment, credit can be given at a later time in the assessment process if the child is observed demonstrating the skill during another activity. For example: If the child does not stack 8 blocks on request for the examiner, but is later observed to stack 10 blocks in the play center or the teacher reports that the child is consistently able to stack 8 to 10 blocks as part of the preschool activities; then the examiner should go back and give credit for the test item.

8 Scoring Scoring results include the following: Standard scores for each of the five domains (required for eligibility under the Alabama Code for Special Education Services) Percentile ranks for each of the five domains (5 th percentile) Age equivalents for each of the five domains (18 months) An overall General Development Index score can also be obtained if the standard scores for all five domains have been calculated. This can also be displayed as a standard score and a percentile rank. Remember: Age equivalents are estimates only and are the least reliable of the scores. While standard scores are not always required for Early Intervention, they are the most reliable and should be calculated and considered when making decisions as an IFSP team. This additional information also allows for providers to monitor progress more consistently once the child transitions to the LEA.

9 Chronological Age To obtain accurate results, the examiner must determine the child s age to the month. (45 months) This is necessary for scoring the assessment AND for establishing a starting point for administering the DAYC-2. This can be calculated by hand or by using an online application such as the one noted below. Once you have the years and the months, ignore the remaining days. Do not round up to the next month if the days are over 15 days.

10 Calculating Age Screening date: 11/17/2013 Child s date of birth: 2/12/2010 Chronological age: 3 years and 9 months (drop the days) Chronological age in months: 45 months

11 Calculating Age Screening date: 11/17/2013 Child s date of birth: 12/20/2010 Chronological age: 2 years and 10 months (drop the days) Chronological age in months: 34 months This example requires borrowing from the month and the year columns: When the day of a child s birth is greater than the screening date day, subtract one month from the date of the screening date month and add 30 days to the screening date day This example would look like: = 47 then = 27 days. The Month now changes from 11 to 10. When the child s birth date month is greater than the number of the screening date month, subtract one year from the screening date year and add 12 months to the screening date month This example would look like: (Remember that 11 changed to 10 when you borrowed for the days) So, = 22 then = 10 months. The Year now changes from 2013 to ( = 2 years)

12 Scoring Passed = Mastered Skill = 1 point Not Passed = Skill Not Mastered = 0 There is no credit given for emerging skills if skills are still emerging but not mastered, the item should be marked as 0 and a notation made that the child has emerging skills or partial skills in this area. The goal is to determine if an ability is sufficiently mastered so that continued instruction on this skill level is not necessary if a student still requires additional work on this skill it is not mastered. If a child can only do a skill with one person, in one location and with one set of materials, consider not marking the skill as mastered if the team feels the child will require significant instruction on the specific skill to generalize the skills to other settings, materials and/or people. If a child has not had the opportunity to develop a skill (i.e.- has never had the opportunity to use scissors or drink from an open top cup), then the child cannot demonstrate the skill and a 0 is awarded.

13 Starting Points Starting Point where do you start the assessment? The entry point for each domain is determined by the child s chronological age and will be different from domain to domain. Entry points are shown at the top of each scoring form. Locate the child s age in months within the listed starting points and begin with that item.

14 Starting Points

15 Basal You will need to find the Basal and Ceiling in order to calculate the Raw Scores. The Raw Scores are transferred to the front of the scoring form at the end of the assessment of each domain. Begin administering the assessment at the designated starting point. If the child receives a 0 for any of the first 3 items administered the examiner should then test backward until the child scores a 1 on three items in a row. The BASAL is established when the child receives a score of 1 on three items in a row. All questions below the BASAL (the questions that come BEFORE the three 1 s on the form are each scored as a 1, even if the child would have scored a 0 if the items was administered.

16 Ceiling CEILING: Where a child is no longer able to perform skills with mastery within a certain age range demonstrated by three 0 s in row. This is the stopping point. Occasionally, you will have some items above or past the ceiling (past the three 0 s) that the child would have received a 1 on if the item has been administered. Or the child may have already received a 1 on the item past the ceiling if the evaluator has administered the items. These items are STILL counted as 0 s if they are past the ceiling. There can be several basals and ceilings. Always pick the basal and the ceiling that are closest together when computing the raw score.

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18 Basal and Ceiling Table 2.2 in the Examiner s Manual Basal and Ceiling Examples Page 9

19 Materials The DAYC-2 can be used with observation and direct assessment in the child s natural environment or in a assessment area. You do not have to go item by item through the test. Multiple raters can use multiple scoring forms at one time in a group or arena assessment. Make sure have access to all the materials you will need for the assessment prior to beginning the test either in the child s environment or provided by you. As the assessment does not come with specific testing materials that can be purchased, you will need to prepare your own kit. Familiar items from the child s natural environment can also be used such as toys, a favorite cup, or special crayons. You will need to incorporate opportunities for the child to demonstrate specific skills in play and during observations. Additionally, you may need to schedule time for some direct assessment. Parents and caregivers may join the assessment and assist in presenting the materials to the child that are necessary to assess specific skills.

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21 Adaptive Sample questions: Purposely pulls off own socks (#14) Drinks from open cup or glass held by adult not a sippy cup (#19) Opens door by using handle or knob (#25) Sits on toilet for at least 1 minute supervised (#29) Q: What if the child cannot reach any door handles or knobs within his natural environments of home and school? Should you hold him up to see if he can turn the handle? A: Consider that this is a question about adaptive skills and not motor skills (turning an object). If the child cannot turn the door handles to enter and leave rooms independently, or cannot use a stool independently to reach the knob and open the door then I would score a 0.

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25 Cognitive Most of these items are appropriate to administer using observation and direct assessment. This domain requires the use of toys and materials. It may be helpful to spend some time in free play and developing a rapport with the child, prior to using direct assessment for these items.

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27 Social Emotional Sample questions include: Smiles at or pats own image in the mirror (#13) Imitates facial expressions, actions, and sounds (#19) Enjoys simple make believe play (e.g. pretends he or she is the parent, is an animal, doll is a baby) (#27) Sings familiar songs with adult (#30) Avoids common dangers (e.g. sharp knives, fire, hot stove) (#36)

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29 Communication Initial scores will be calculated in the subdomain s of Receptive Language and Expressive Language. These are then calculated into a Total Communication Score using the chart in Appendix D of the Examiner s Manual on page 121. This domain uses objects and pictures as part of the administration. Many pictures and objects can be used for a variety of questions. For example, the same pictures used for identification can also be used for wh questions.

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31 Physical Development (Motor) A ball, access to playground equipment, and access to stairs is helpful in completing this part of the assessment. Initial scores will be calculated in the subdomains of Gross Motor and Fine Motor. These are then calculated into a Total Physical Development Score using the chart in Appendix D of the Examiner s Manual on page 121.

32 Scoring Appendix A: Converting Raw Scores to Age Equivalents Appendix B: Converting Raw Scores to Standard Scores Appendix C: Converting Standard Scores to Percentile Ranks

33 Scoring Appendix D: Converting Sums of Subdomain Standard Scores to Domain Standard Scores (Receptive and Expressive Language to Total Language & Gross and Fine Motor to Total Physical Development) Appendix E: Converting Sums of Domain Standard Scores to General Development Index

34 Scoring Convert raw scores into age equivalents, percentiles, and standard scores. Record raw scores on the front of the scoring sheet for each domain. You determine the child s Standard Scores on the DAYC-2 in relation to his or her chronological age. Be sure that you are using the correct conversion table for the subtest you are scoring. It is very easy to look at the wrong chart or column!

35 Sample of Communication Domain Scoring Form

36 Calculating Raw Scores When calculating raw score points, use the item # at the end of the basal (the third item that was given 1 point) as your starting score, even if there are 0 s recorded in items before the basal. (So if your 3 rd 1 was on item # 28 then you start counting at 28 as ALL items prior to that now get a score of 1) Once you are past the basal, only the 1 s are counted until you get to the ceiling (the first three 0 s after the basal). The 0 s remain 0 s between the basal and the ceiling. Stop adding the raw score points once you get to the ceiling, even if there are 1 s after the ceiling. Ignore all 1 s after the first set of three 0 s

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38 Raw Scores to Standard Scores To convert Raw Scores to Standard Scores Go to Appendix B in the Examiner s Manual on Page 63. Each table in Appendix B will have the Age in Months across the top of the table. You must make sure you are on the correct page using the correct table. Ex: The chart for infants age 4 months is on page 68. The chart for children age months is on page 96. Using the table based on your child s chronological age find the appropriate domain across the top of the graph and find the raw score in the outer columns to the right and to the left of the chart. Where those intersect on the chart is the Standard Score for the domain.

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40 Standard Scores to Percentiles Convert Standard Scores to Percentile Ranks using the table in Appendix C in the Examiner s Manual on page 115 and 117. Locate the Standard Score for each domain in the column labeled Standard Score. To the right of the Standard Score is the column for the Percentile Rank. The same chart is used for all domains.

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42 Converting Raw Scores to Age Equivalents Convert Raw Scores to Age Equivalents using Appendix A beginning on page 59 of the Examiner s Manual. The charts are on pages 60 to 62. Locate the correct domain at the top of the chart (horizontal axis). Locate the Age Equivalent in Months along the columns to the right and the left of the chart (vertical axis). Where those intersect on the chart in the Age Equivalent in months. This should be noted on the front of the scoring form under the heading Age Equivalent.

43 Raw Scores to Age Equivalents

44 Summary Sheet Transfer all scores from each Scoring Form from each of the 5 domains to the Examiner Summary Sheet. Total the Sum of the all the Standard Scores from each domain and note it on the line under the heading Sum of Standard Scores. Convert the Sum of Standard Scores to the General Development Index Standard Score using the table in Appendix E on page 123 and 125 of the Examiner s Manual. Find the # from the Sum of Standard Scores under the column labeled Sum of COG+COM+SE+PD+AB. The Standard Score representing the General Development Index is to the right of the sum in the column labeled General Development Index.

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47 Eligibility for Early Intervention The evaluation/assessment process should include an evaluation of all five developmental areas. To be eligible for services, the child must have at least a 25 percent delay in one developmental area or have a diagnosed condition that will result in developmental delay. The DAYC-2 is an accepted evaluation tool. If this assessment is used in Early Intervention to assess children ages 2.5 to 3 transitioning to the LEA, these same scores can be used by the LEA to determine eligibility.

48 Eligibility for Special Education Services The DAYC-2 meets the assessment requirements for the special education eligibility category of Developmental Delay under the Alabama Code. Alabama Code Developmental Delay means a delay that adversely affects daily life and/or educational performance in one or more of the following developmental areas: Adaptive, Cognitive, Communication, Social or emotional, and/or, Physical AND results in the need for special education and related services. Eligibility category of Developmental Delay: The standard score in one developmental domain must be at least two standard deviations below the mean (70 or below) on a standardized, norm-referenced instrument; or the standard scores on two or more developmental domains must be at least one and a half standard deviations below the mean (77 or below) on a standardized, norm-referenced instrument. Other eligibility categories that allow for the use of developmental testing: Autism, Deaf-Blindness, Orthopedic Impairment, Other Health Impairment, Speech or Language Impairment, and Traumatic Brain Injury.

49 Bell Curve

50 IFSP and IEP Information on the child s strengths and needs can be obtained from information gathered from the administration of the DAYC-2. Present levels of performance and goals can be developed using the information for each domain. Age equivalents allow the team to consider other items and skills not listed on the DAYC-2. If the assessment results indicate the child s skills are at an approximate level of 12 months, the team can also consider other developmental skills within the 12 to 18 th month level as potential goals.

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