Section One: Classical Conditioning

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1 Operational Definitions Learning Learning Page 1 of 8 o A relatively change in behavior (or behavior potential) due to Behaviorism experience o Research on learning has been influenced by this approach to psychology that Conditioning emphasizes the study of observable behavior and the role of the as a determinant of behavior o The association between environmental stimuli and the organisms responses Section One: Classical Conditioning S R Learning Classical conditioning o The most basic form of learning; one stimulus comes to serve as a for the occurrence of a second stimulus (the response) Stimulus o A physical event capable of affecting behavior Very common type of learning, may play a role in everything from fears to racial prejudice Pavlov & Classical Conditioning Ivan Petrovich Pavlov o Russian physiologist and Nobel Prize winner o Decided to be a scientist after reading the works of Charles Darwin Most famous for his work on the digestion of the dog, which included the first work on classical conditioning

2 The Experiment Pavlov was researching the digestive process in dogs, when he came upon an interesting phenomenon Page 2 of 8 He would ring a bell at the same time as he was serving the dogs food; eventually, the dogs began to drool at just the One stimulus became paired with another, one signaling the coming of the other New Reflexes from Old Unconditioned stimulus (US) o Elicits a response in the absence of learning Unconditioned response (UR) o The reflexive response to a stimulus in the absence of learning New Reflexes from Old o A neutral stimulus is then regularly paired with an unconditioned stimulus Conditioned stimulus (CS) o An initially neutral stimulus that comes to elicit a conditioned response after being paired with an unconditioned stimulus Conditioned response (CR) o Response to the CS The Principles Acquisition is the process by which a CS acquires the ability to elicit a CR o Happens through repeated of US with CS o Affected by the number of US-CS pairings, the timing of those pairings, the intensity of the US or CS, and familiarity of the stimuli Extinction o Process by which a CS the ability to elicit CR because it is no longer followed by the US o Not a perfect process, events such as reconditioning and spontaneous recovery hinder the extinction of CR

3 Page 3 of 8 Higher-Order Conditioning A neutral stimulus becomes a CS by being paired with an CS Can be implicated in learning prejudices o Negative label applied to some group o Label people at UCA Conwayians o Then, pair Conwayians with retards or hicks o Pretty soon, anyone from UCA is a retard or hick Stimulus generalization the tendency of stimuli similar to a CS to evoke CR o Have one awesome bald, bearded teacher, so you seek out other bald, bearded teachers Stimulus discrimination the process by which we learn to respond to certain stimuli but not to others o You learn that not all bald, bearded teachers are awesome Section Two: Classical Conditioning in Real Life Learning to Like Why are pretty things paired with things people want to sell you? Learning to Fear You can condition fears just as easily as likes Counterconditioning o Pairing a CS with a stimulus that elicits a response that is incompatible with an unwanted conditioned response

4 Operational Definition Section Three: Operant Conditioning Page 4 of 8 Operant conditioning process where you learn to repeat behaviors that yield positive outcomes or permit them to avoid or escape negative outcomes In other words, the chance that a behavior will occur depends on the that follow These chances can be increased by reinforcement or decreased by punishment B.F. Skinner Followed up on Watson and Thorndike s work on behavior Next to Freud, probably the most influential psychologist Consequences A neutral consequence increases or decreases the probability that the response will recur Reinforcement the response or makes it more likely to recur Punishment a response or makes it less likely to recur Increasing Behavior Reinforcement o Applying or removing a stimulus to increase the strength of a specific behavior Positive reinforcers o Stimuli that strengthen responses that precede them o There are primary (food, water) and secondary reinforcers (money, praise) Negative reinforcers o Stimuli that strengthen responses that cause avoidance of those stimuli Decreasing Behavior Punishment

5 Page 5 of 8 o Applying or removing a stimulus decreases the strength of a behavior Positive punishment o Occurs when behaviors are followed by stimuli called punishers Negative punishment o Occurs when behaviors are linked to loss of potential reinforcers Increasing behavior examples Positive reinforcer you get candy when you answer questions, so you answer more questions Negative reinforcer you lose points when you don t come to class, so you show up more often Negative vs. Positive Reinforcement Positive punishment you sleep in class and get yelled at by the mean teacher Negative punishment since you didn t go to class, you missed out on drinking from the fountain of knowledge that is Caleb The Principles Shaping o Closer and closer to desired behavior are required for positive reinforcement to be given Chaining o A sequence of responses must be followed to gain a reward Stimulus generalization o Stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus are more likely to a response Stimulus discrimination o The tendency of a response to occur in the presence of one stimulus but not another

6 The Schedules There are different schedules of reinforcement used in operant conditioning These schedules are rules determining and reinforcements will be delivered Continuous reinforcement o occurrence of a behavior is reinforced o Useful for strengthening new behavior Fixed-interval Every time you raise your hand in class, you get some candy o A specific interval of must elapse before a response will yield reinforcement Variable-interval Such as a studying schedule Page 6 of 8 o A variable amount of time must elapse before a response will be reinforced Fixed-ratio Surprise inspections at workplace o Reinforcement occurs only after a fixed number of have occurred Variable-ratio Being paid for each license plate you stamp o Reinforcement occurs only after a variable number of responses have been performed Slot machines and other games of chance Superstitious Learning The subjective experience of learning is compelling, but the between actions and outcomes are misindentified Any sports players out there have lucky hats, underwear, socks? Any other examples you can think of?

7 Biological Constraints Page 7 of 8 Principles of operant and classical conditioning operate are limited by an animal s genetic predispositions and physical characteristics o You can t train a fish to climb a ladder! Section Four: Operant Conditioning in Real Life Conditioning in Life Behavior modification o The application of operant conditioning techniques to Teach new responses Reduce or eliminate maladaptive or problematic behavior o Also called applied behavior analysis Used in hospitals, classrooms, athletics, prisons, factories, offices, and more! When Punishment Works punishing a self-destructive behavior eliminates it Milder punishments appear to work as well as harsh ones Consistency is important When Punishment Fails People often administer punishment inappropriately The recipient responds with anxiety, fear, or rage The effectiveness is often Most misbehavior is hard to punish immediately Punishment conveys little information An action intended to punish may instead be reinforcing Misuse of Rewards Rewards must be tied to the behavior you want to

8 o Don t praise mediocre work! Good rewarders have to understand types of reinforcers Page 8 of 8 External & Internal Reinforcers External reinforcers o Reinforcers that are not related to the activity being reinforced Internal reinforcers o Reinforcers that are inherently related to the activity being reinforced External reinforcers may undermine internal reinforcers Section Five: Social-Cognitive Learning Theories Operational Definition Social cognitive theories emphasize how behavior is learned and maintained through: o Observation and imitation of others o Positive consequences o processes such as plans, expectations, and beliefs Learning from Others Observational learning o The acquisition of new behavior, information, or concepts through exposure to others and the consequences they experience Can occur from parent to child, amongst peers, or from viewing media Depends on multiple factors S-C Theories and Violence The following intervene in the relationship between what we see, what we learn, and how we respond: o Perceptions o Interpretations o Personality dispositions (aggressiveness, sociability)

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