# Sunlight. and space travel

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1 Sunlight and space travel

2 Distances If you drive on a motorway at 70 miles per hour in one hour you may get to Stafford. Steady speed! If you keep on driving after 3 hours you would reach London. Steady speed - no stops! 2

3 If we could keep on and on - - If you could drive to the Moon at 70 miles per hour, 230,000 miles or about 400,000 km it would take you 3400 hours, or 140 days. 3

4 Light and heat comes from the Sun It is a long way away! 146 million km or 93 million miles If you could drive to the Sun at 70 miles per hour it would take over days. = 150 years longer than we live! 4

5 Light travels very, very fast! Guess how long it takes for light to come from the SUN to the Earth. 8 years 8 days 8 hours 8 minutes 5

6 It takes 8 minutes for light to reach us from the Sun! Light travels kilometres through space every second! 6

7 Shadows Light travels in a straight line. If something gets in its path the light is blocked. A shadow is formed. 7

8 Shadows Sun How do they form? 8

9 We can make shadows! - by blocking out the light. Changing positions varies the size of the shadow. If you are close to the lamp, the shadow is large. If you are close to the screen, the shadow is smaller. 9

10 Day and Night A day + a night = 24 hours 365 of these makes 1 year. The Earth takes 1 year to orbit the Sun. (What does orbit mean?) 10

11 The Earth is a ball (or sphere) The Sun cannot shine on both sides of the Earth at the same time Some of the Earth is bright - day Some is dark night The Earth spins so each part has day and night. 11

12 Day and night Daylight in the UK Dusk in India Dark in China Light from the Sun Light Dark 12

13 At midday here It is dawn in the USA It is dusk in India 13

14 As the Earth spins the position of the Sun varies. Morning the sun rises - it is light. The Sun gets higher in the sky. Then the Sun sinks and sets. 14

15 Shadows move during the day Watch the shadow of the stick to tell the time like a sundial. stick 6.00 pm 6.00 am noon 15

16 The Sun appears to move as it moves shadows move. across the sky A stick in the ground has a shadow. A sun dial uses this. The solar pyramid is like a huge stick. Its shadow moves to show the time. 16

17 The Solar Pyramid will act as a sundial 17

18 The seasons: the Sun provides light and heat but - winter is cold summer is warmer What causes this? 18

19 Summer and winter In winter the Sun stays low in the sky. In summer the Sun rises higher in the sky. Summer Winter The horizon 19

20 Summer and winter The earth is tipped as it spins Light and heat reach the Earth at different angles in summer and winter In winter the light and heat from the Sun is more spread out than during the Summer. It feels colder We can try an experiment. Earth Sun Beam of light Earth Summer Winter 20

21 The Moon 21

22 The Moon The Moon is not a source of light. Light from the Sun shines on the Moon. Some light is scattered so we see it on Earth. Light from the Sun MOON The Moon takes about 28 days to move round the Earth. It always shows Earth the same side. The shape we see changes during the 28 days- a lunar month. EARTH 22

23 The Moon travels round the Earth new Moon half MOON or first quarter Sunlight no Moon is seen Earth full Moon last quarter 23

24 Bad astronomy in films What is wrong with the Moon looking the same for 3 or 4 nights? lots of stars visible at full Moon? showing lots of stars out of the window of a brightly lit room? the shadow line at Sun-rise looking sharp? 24

25 The Moon The Moon is very much smaller than the Sun. But the Moon is very much closer than the Sun. They both look the same size in the sky. eye Moon Sun 25

26 Sometimes the Sun does not shine during the day. Even when it is not cloudy! NASA Let us play a game. Shut one eye Hold the Moon card so that you cannot see the Sun. 26

27 Sun 27

28 An eclipse of the Sun When the Moon stops the light from the Sun reaching the Earth We call it an eclipse. During an eclipse, it goes dark in the middle of the day. An eclipse of the Sun is rare and happens at a new Moon. Sun Moon Earth Moon 28

29 A partial eclipse is when the Moon does not cover all of the Sun. Sun This happens much more often than a total eclipse. 29

30 An Eclipse of the Moon Full Moon: the Earth is between the Moon and the Sun. Light gets to the Moon because they are not in line. 1 2 sunlight Earth s shadow 3 4 The Earth sometimes blocks out the sunlight from reaching the Moon. Then we cannot see the Moon (in position 3). This is an eclipse of the Moon. 30

31 What have we learned? (Sunlight takes 8 minutes to reach the Earth.) Shadows form when light is blocked out. Night is when no sunlight reaches us. We can tell the time by shadows. In winter the Sun is low in the sky. The moon reflects light to the Earth. Its shape changes because of shadows. Eclipses happen when light is blocked out. - all shadows! 31

32 Space exploration Solar transit of the International Space Station and Space Shuttle Atlantis (50 minutes after undocking from the ISS, before return to Earth) 32

33 Larger! Space station Space shuttle 33

34 The girl who named Pluto In 1930, Pluto was discovered. Venetia Burney, aged 11, named it Pluto. She was born in 1919 and, is the only person in the World who named a planetalthough it is not classified as a planet now. On 17 January 2006, NASA launched New Horizons, the first space mission to Pluto. It will reach Pluto in July 2015 NASA 34

35 New Horizons at Pluto (simulation) It travels past Jupiter at a speed of 21 km each second NASA 35

36 Keep asking questions! There is lots to find out! 36

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