What will you learn?

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2 What will you learn? Cell Membrane and Transport PLO B9 B10 It is expected that students will analyse the structure and function of the cell membrane explain why cells divide when they reach a particular surface area-to-volume ratio

3 Functions of the cell membrane: Separates cell from outside environment Provides structure (strength & shape) & protection Regulates substances entering and leaving cell (gatekeeper)

4 Fluid-mosaic Model a mosaic of protein molecules bobbing in a fluid bilayer of phospholipids p. 68

5 Membrane Structure Glycerol/Phosphate Head Fatty Acid Tails

6 Phospholipid bilayer in water M E M B R A N E Outside Cell Inside Cell Hydrophilic (water-loving) Hydrophobic Region (water-hating) Hydrophilic

7 PROTEINS: determine membrane function (glycoprotein); transmit chemical signals into the cell (channel or receptor proteins); act as carriers for specified substances

8 Proteins in the bilayer p. 70/69

9 Proteins in the bilayer p. 70/69

10 Proteins in the bilayer p. 70/69

11 Proteins in the bilayer p. 70/69

12 Proteins in the bilayer p. 70/69

13 CARBOHYDRATES: Attached to outside & allows cell to recognize as self (e.g. ABO blood typing & possible immune system rejection)

14 GLYCOLIPIDS : phospholipids with covalently bonded carbohydrate chains GLYCOPROTEINS: proteins with covalently bonded protein chains

15 CHOLESTEROL: Reduces membrane fluidity by reducing phospholipid movement. Also stops the membrane from becoming solid at room temperatures.

16 SELECTIVELY PERMEABLE: Controls what comes in and out of the cell. Does not let large, charged or polar things through without help.

17 The phospholipids and proteins move, thus allowing small non-polar molecules to slip through.

18 Everything that is transported across the cell membrane takes place by one of two fundamental processes: 1. Passive transport moves molecules from a [high] to [low] in order to establish equilibrium. Does not require ATP (energy)

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20 2. Active transport moves molecules from [low] to [high], AGAINST the concentration gradient and this process requires ATP.

21 Passive Transport youtube clip 1. Diffusion 2. Osmosis 3. Facilitated Transport

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23 -passive process (no energy required). The molecules move from an area of [high] to [low] until they are evenly distributed (equilibrium) EXAMPLES of molecules: oxygen, carbon dioxide, alcohols, fatty acids, glycerol, and urea.

24 Fatty Acids, Glycerol, Alcohol & Urea

25 The rate of diffusion will be affected by: 1. Concentration: The greater the difference in concentration, the faster the diffusion. 2. Molecular size: smaller substances diffuse more quickly. 3. Temperature of the Medium: the lower the temperature, the more slowly molecules can move through it.

26 4. Solubility: lipid - soluble molecules will dissolve through the phospholipid bilayer easily, as will gases like CO 2 and O charge: charged molecules do not pass through the membrane easily

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28 Osmosis is the diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane driven by a difference in the concentration of solutes across the membrane. So it is the WATER THAT MOVES to create equilibrium!!!

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31 Osmosis p. 74/72 OSMOSIS ANIMATION

32 The tonicity is the solute concentration of a solution & it will affect the size & shape of cells: ISOTONIC SOLUTION: the solution concentration is equal on both sides of the membrane. Water moves back and forth, but there is no net gain or loss of water.

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34 HYPERTONIC SOLUTION: solution outside the cell is more concentrated than inside. water will move out of the cell. causes the cell to shrink *Memory Trick... Hyper people get skinny!

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36 HYPOTONIC SOLUTION: concentration inside the cell is more concentrated than outside. water will move into the cell. cause the cell to swell. *Memory Trick... Hippos are FAT!

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38 Osmosis Hypotonic: Less Solute 10% NaCl 90% H 2 O 2% NaCl 98% H 2 O Hypertonic Solution: More Solute

39 Osmosis Isotonic Solutions: Equal Solute Concentration 6% NaCl 94% H 2 O 6% NaCl 94% H 2 O

40

41 In Biology we usually talk about the SOLUTION S tonicity, NOT the cells!

42 Water flows from a hypotonic solution to a hypertonic solution ie: tap water hypertonic to distilled water but hypotonic to sea water

43 Which side is hyper/hypo? Which way will water move?

44 Using p /72-73 of your text, Crenation define the following: RBC shrinks and shrivels up Hemolysis RBC swells and may burst Plasmolysis plant cell membrane shrinks and pulls away from the cell wall Turgor pressure plant cell membrane swells and organelles are crushed against the cell wall

45 plasmolysis and crenation of cells happens if a cell is put in a hypertonic solution hemolysis and turgor pressure happen if a cell is put in a hypotonic solution

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48 When we speak of plants, we speak of TURGOR PRESSURE. Which of these cells is in a hypertonic solution? Hypotonic?

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50 Some molecules are not normally able to pass through the lipid membrane, they need channel or carrier proteins to help them move across. does not require energy

51 If molecules are POLAR, CHARGED, or TOO LARGE they need a protein the help them across the membrane EXAMPLES: sugars, amino acids, ions, nucleotides.

52 Each protein channel or protein carrier will allow only ONE TYPE OF MOLECULE to pass through it.

53 Many channels contain a gate which control the channel's permeability. When the gate is open, the channel transports, and when the gate is closed, the channel is closed. These gates are extremely important in the nerve cells.

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55 Active Transport: the movement of polar, large, and charged molecules moving against the [ ] gradient (uphill). Requires ATP (energy) EXAMPLES: ions (like Na+ and K+ in cells, and iodine) and sugars, amino acids, nucleotides...

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60 1. Sodium potassium (Na/K) pump (mostly in nerve membranes). Na + attaches to protein carrier, moves across membranes and released outside pump (protein) changes shapes so Na + can t re-enter K + attaches, moves across & release inside Pump changes back to Na + accepting shape

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62 Na/K Pump p. 77/75

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66 Endocytosis: ( Endo means in ). the taking in of molecules or particles by invagination of the cell membrane forming a vesicle. requires energy. ENDOCYTOSIS ANIMATION

67 There are two types of endocytosis: 1. pinocytosis (cell drinking): small molecules are ingested and vesicle is formed 2. phagocytosis (cell eating): large particles are invaginated into the cell (ie: white blood cells eat bacteria).

68 Pinocytosis p. 78/77

69 Phagocytosis PHAGOCYTOSIS ANIMATION p. 78/77

70

71 Exocytosis: ( Exo means out.) reverse of endocytosis. a cell releases the contents of a vesicle out of the cell. requires energy. Example: vesicles from the Golgi fuse with the plasma membrane and the proteins are released outside of the cell A balance needs to exist between endocytosis & exocytosis. Why?

72 Exocytosis p. 78/77

73 So, where are we? PLO B9 B10 It is expected that students will analyse the structure and function of the cell membrane explain why cells divide when they reach a particular surface area-tovolume ratio

74 Cells size is a very important factor for cell survival. Cells are the size they are because that is the size they have to be in order to function effectively.

75 4 factors regulate cell size: 1. Surface Area (SA) to Volume Ratio: As a cell grows, it suffers the possibility of the volume increasing faster than the surface area. If the cell gets too big, there will not be enough room on the plasma membrane for things to get in and out quickly. Why? Its surface area has not kept up to its volume size. When the volume of a cell increases, the amount of surface area does not increase in the same proportion.

76 To accommodate, cells can get thinner, become folded or elongated, become irregular or convoluted ie. Intestinal villi, mitochondria, surface of brain This increases SA without changing the volume brings cell contents closer to membrane for more efficient exchange As a cell grows, its SA/Volume ratio decreases because SA increases but so does the volume

77 2. Metabolic Rate: Cells have high metabolic rate produces heat energy so must remain small enough to release heat 3. Nuclear Control: if cell gets too big, nucleus loses control over its activities and reproduction e.g. large, one celled organisms (Paramecium & Amoeba) have 2 nuclei, each with different jobs

78 2. Support: a large cell would collapse under its own weight Rule: smaller is better or having a funny shape is better

79 *When you see questions regarding surface area to volume ratio, think of a water balloon. (ie: when you squish a water balloon, it has the same volume, but the surface area is increased!)

80 End of B9 & B10

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