The Spread of Roman Power

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1 The Spread of the Roman Republic

2 The Spread of Roman Power Roman legions fight to expand the empire Controlled central Italy by 390 BC Were defeated an had Rome destroyed by the Gauls They rebuilt and later controlled all of Italy by 265 BC Rome keeps control with deals to people Areas close to Rome allowed to Became full citizens of Rome Have the same rights and could vote Further areas given rights, couldn t vote Also couldn t make treaties w/ others

3 Trade Leads to War Rome had great access to trade routes Made merchants rich by selling products Other cities were interfering with the money Rome could be making Carthage- trade city of the Phoeicians Both cities fought for control of the Mediterranean Sea With it came incredible riches Control meant all trade thru their city

4 The Punic Wars BC Carthage and Rome fight for Mediterranean Total of 3 wars fought 1 st Punic War- won by Rome they take Sicily 2 nd Punic War- Hannibal destroys most of Rome 3 rd Punic War- Carthage is completely destroyed Rome wins due to better army & mistakes Effects of the war on both groups Rome wins, controls trade, wealth grows Carthage no longer a major city

5 Hannibal vs. Scipio Hannibal- Carthaginian military leader Brilliant military strategist, used elephants as weapons Planned a surprise attack on Rome, to avenge a loss Trip took them thru Spain and France to get to Italy Greatest victory came at Cannae in 216 BC Scipio- Roman military leader Saves Rome by attacking Carthage Forces Hannibal to return to defend Romans defeat Hannibal at Zama (202 BC)

6

7 Expansion After the Punic Wars Rome expanded east after the Punic Wars Took Macedonia, Greece and Anatolia Also controlled Spain, parts of France Empire now stretched from Spain to Asia Benefits of Expansion New citizens (partial and full) More tax revenue and people for army Also created many problems in Rome Problems lead to the end of the republic

8 Expansion Creates Major Issues Growing empire led to the following problems Increasing gap between rich and poor Rich gained more land from war, poor did not Rich also gained slaves- conquered people from war Poor farmers could not compete against slave labor Soldiers and small farmers lose their jobs Came home to no job, or couldn t compete Moved to the cities to look for work Many were homeless and hated the rich Inflation hits- devaluation of money Money will not buy what it used to with the increased wealth, prices go up

9 The Republic Collapses The republic slowly began to fall apart Tiberius and Gaius try to save the republic Tried to reform the land issues to fix problem Both were killed for their ideas against the rich Civil war breaks out b/w rich and poor Political leaders build armies to gain power Hired jobless soldiers to fight for them Soldiers no longer fight for Rome Rivalries b/w generals led to many battles for control of Rome

10 The First Triumvirate Triumvirate- group of three leaders 3 Leaders come to power together Crassus, Pompey, and Julius Caesar Caesar gained power by taking Gaul (France) Caesar told to disband army by senators He refuses adding another problem to republic Civil war begins again over right v. wrong Caesar then turned his armies on Rome Attacks Pompey s armies, defeats them Pompey flees Rome, Caesar becomes ruler Named dictator for life by Senate- an absolute ruler Gets new title in 44 BC

11 Julius Caesar s Rule of Rome Makes many changes to Rome Granted Roman citizenship to people of conquered areas Expanding the Senate Added his friends and other supporters Created jobs for the poor Built new buildings in Rome Started communities were people with no land could own land Increased pay for soldiers on the Army Senators did not like his popularity Felt they would lose their influence w/ people Assassinated J. Caesar on March 15, 44 BC The Ides of March - prophecy of his death

12 Ancient Rome After Caesar

13 Life After Julius Caesar Rome falls into civil war again A new triumvirate comes to power Octavian, Marc Antony and Lepidus Three don t share power long, Lepidus is forced to retire Marc Antony falls in love with Cleopatra

14 Octavian Takes Control Octavian accuses Marc Antony of trying to rule Rome from Egypt Rome breaks out in civil war again Octavian defeats Antony at Battle of Actium Marc Antony and Cleopatra commit suicide Octavian takes full power- becomes Augustus Takes the name Augutus- means exalted one Also took name imperator- means emperor

15 Pax Romana- time of peace in Rome Starts about the time of Augustus reign (27BC) Lasts for over 200 years Population between this time is mil. Empire covers most of Europe and Africa The Pax Romana

16 Economy of the Pax Romana Economy was based on Agriculture Many people farmed Traded at sea, used Roman navy for protection Traded along roads connected to the Silk Roads Created a coin monetary system Made of silver- called a denarius Made trade easier because there was a common way to trade all over the empire

17 Government and Emperors Army had to protect all the lands Allowed people to join; gave citizenship to them Augustus set up a civil service Paid people to run the government, like today Augustus dies, son Tiberius takes over 14AD Good Emperors of Pax Romana (96-180AD) Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antonius Pius, Aurelius Bad Emperors of Pax Romana (37-96AD) Caligula, Nero, Domitian- 2 thought to be crazy

18 Trajan

19 Life in Imperial Rome People did not live in the cities; lived in the countrysides- did business in cities Society based around the family Women close to equals to men; no voting Boys favored over girls, girls don t get names Women married between Slaves played a major role in Roman society Made about 1/3 of population

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