Contributing to Lowest Life Cycle Cost of High Speed. 15 th February 2011

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1 Contributing to Lowest Life Cycle Cost of High Speed 15 th February 2011

2 From a design, build and maintain perspective. Gottard Base Tunnel Railway Innotrack Project Emerging knowledge from HS1 and Channel Tunnel Experiences on UK mainline 2

3 Life Cycle Cost High Value Locations Initial Cost Design for Construction Tunnel and Elevated Sections Track Longitudinal Construction and Support Aerodynamic/Tunnel Bore Dimensions Construction Logistics Plant and Just in Time Concrete Placement and Finishing Slipforming Ongoing Costs Key Assets Reliability Whole Life Cost - Design Rationale Ballasted Sections 3

4 Slab track construction in the Gotthard Base Tunnel Initial Cost Reduction and Logistical Challenge 4

5 The Gotthard Base Tunnel Longest Tunnel in the world North freight train loads up to 4000 tons/train 300 trains per day in each direction reduction of traveling time Zürich (CH) to Milano (I) less than 3 hours high speed trains up to 250 kmph Single tube bore tunnels for each track Tunnel length 57 km per tube Construction access only at North and South portals 5 5

6 Logistical conditions for the permanent way construction The finalized permanent track is the transport route Climatic conditions: up to 40 Celsius Multi work fronts in linear construction reduces material transport windows Transport windows only during change of shifts and in the night Materials to be moved for slab track construction: m rails = pieces of 120 m long rails flash butt welds pieces of LVT sleeper blocks m3 Concrete 6

7 Logistical solutions for the permanent way construction (1) Highly mechanised and Standardised construction method to enable constant production quality and high work safety Special developed machineries : Rail laying and flash butt welding Sleeper transport wagons and sleeper distribution Special purpose machineries for the assembly of track panel (rail lifting, sleeper assembly, inclination assurance) Special developed support system for track fixation easy handling, light system, very high accuracy in track alignment Rail bounded mixing plant (The Concrete Train) Special concrete shuttle for transport in the tunnel Special concrete pouring machine and working platform 7

8 Construction Engineering Construction of a temporary track: Rail overlay of 100 m Length of ramp ca. 40 m Tunnel surface Rail pulling and flash butt welding 8

9 Construction Engineering Sleeper delivery and laying Driving direction of the sleeper train Construction of track panel 9

10 Track Assembly 10

11 11 11

12 Construction Engineering = The concreting process Working plattform Concrete paver Concrete shuttle Construction direction The machineries are moving electro hydraulically and are driving on rubber tyres 12

13 Achieved ongoing Performance Repetitive construction interval of 2160 m in a 20 day cycle (single access tunnel) Production capacity 220 m linear slab track in15h Exceptional Track Quality 13

14 Life Cycle Cost Non Ballasted Trackforms (Slabtrack) Experience to date initial cost 30% to 60% more expensive for slabtrack initial cost compared to ballasted. Production rates relatively slow (aligning in wet concrete or precast units). Ongoing maintenance costs less than ballast ( high loads static/dynamic). Improved LCC. Allows fixed relationship with Overhead Line (less adjustment and maintenance) 14

15 Opportunity Beyond Gotthard Specify trackform idealised for tunnel/elevated sections Access Constraints /Critical Path for Project adds Value Opportunities to be exploited; Automation of construction High Output Tunnel and Elevated Section Aerodynamic Interaction Reduced Depth of Construction Component Life Extended 15

16 Initial Cost Reduction High Productivity (low manpower technique) Slipforming 400metres/day Laser controlled alignment Separation of wet concrete from the final alignment process Continuous production cycle 4 man operation - 70% reduction Material costs (continuous support) Reduced loading 10% -15% Increase in space - Smaller tunnel or Reduced Aerodynamic Blockage Ratio 16

17 Whole Life Cost Reduced Increased Rail Life by up to 100% Lower cyclic loading due to continuous support. Use of harder rail to reduce wear ( BHN) Vehicle interaction optimised with fully variable geometry and range of stiffness. Continuous support ease of automated inspection 17

18 2 nd Generation Slabtrack increasing value with tonnage 18 18

19 Ongoing Operational Saving with Comparable Initial Cost 19

20 High Speed Tunnel Discrete Loading Track laid in wet concrete Space lost in critical area Limit to productivity 20

21 Longitudinal Trackform designed for Tunnel/Elevated Sections High Productivity Mechanised Concrete Increased Free Space Designed interaction with Structure/Vehicle Emergency Access Included X X X 21

22 2 nd Generation Trackform for Tunnel / Elevated Track Form Longitudinal Construction/Optimised Logistics High productivity construction Integral Derailment protection Low construction depth Continuous Support Increase Rail Hardness Minimise Dead Load Aerodynamic / Blockage Ratio Smaller Tunnel? 22

23 Opportunity of a 2 nd Generation Trackform for Tunnels/Elevated Sections Initial cost reduction of per metre compared to traditional top down construction per metre saving on tunnel or aerodynamic benefit (10% plus free space) Whole life cost 25% better than ballasted track plus availability Value of whole life benefit increases with load/speed/access constraints. 23

24 Maximising the Opportunity for lower LCC of Ballasted Sections Design Principles and Rationale Whole Life Cost Models New materials and technology 24

25 Whole Life Costs Key Assets Ballasted Trackform Switches and Crossings High Value - Reliability Access Requirements Dynamic Forces Transitions Bridges/Structures Track Stiffness Dynamic Forces Rail Expansion Joints (facilitating optimised viaduct structure) Access constraints Curves and Geometry Transitions Ballast Migration OLE Interactions 25

26 Resolving Differences of Design Rational Structures 100 years Life 30 years without significant maintenance and inspection Current Performance Key Track Assets on Ballast 25 years life? Ongoing interventions from 7 years or less Intense Inspection regimes Repeated Access to Track Compromise of Track Component Design 26

27 High Value Locations Performance Criticality, Reliability and Maintenance Cost Tunnels Elevated Sections Transitions to Structures S&C High Speed Curves Define as Key Asset Structures!! 27

28 Enhanced Key Asset Design Rational Design life 40 years plus for ballast structure Sleeper / Ballast / Bearer Support tuned to reduce dynamic loads i.e. managed stiffness Zero intervention below sleeper / bearer for up to 20 years Reduce then eliminate tamping (currently as high as annually) 28

29 Why the difference from current practice? Adequate performance but reaching limit. New technology not proven over time. Improvements in current maintenance equipment. Requires LCC model to be accepted/proven over time. Elimination of cause of degradation not fully researched Good at managing the ongoing failure cycle of ballast 29

30 What is required? Eliminate differential settlement of bearer / sleeper support Minimise Ballast Attrition Tuned vertical track stiffness through the key locations Ballast Mobility controlled. 30

31 Possible Tools of the New Design Approach Sleeper / Bearer Pads Top Ballast Attrition Vertical Stiffness Ballast Polyurethane Injection Differential Settlement Bottom / Top Ballast Attrition Vertical Stiffness 31

32 How using proven technology? Bearer Pads Variable Properties and thickness Extensive development Polyurethane Injection Flexible layer to minimise differential settlement Varied depth and polyurethane properties Designed transition stiffness 32

33 Polyurethane Ballast Reinforcement It penetrates to a depth controlled by how quickly it reacts Curing time is very quick takes only seconds Ballast remains free draining as it doesn t fill all the voids Ballast is robustly locked in a cage of polymer 33 33

34 Adopting Proven Technology Polyurethane (PU) Other Infrastructure Fit and Forget Confidence in new materials and design. 34

35 Tamp Free S&C Phase 1 Bottom Ballast Polyurethane Enhanced Top ballast free Adjust/ Stone blow/tamp Bearer Pads reduce attrition of Top ballast 35

36 Tamp Free S&C Phase 2 Bottom Ballast Polyurethane Enhanced Top ballast - Treated All adjustment above the bearer 36

37 LCC cost Benefit from Initial Installation DB AG assessment of Treatment in ICE lines. Crossing only treatment initial cost 24,000 break even on a Discounted Cash Flow basis within ten years with significant operational benefit. Complete Switch and Crossing including transition 72,000 If designed into construction significantly less achieved for multiple sites. Benefit to other components and reliability not included. Consistent with HS1 experience 37

38 Definition of new design rationale for Key Assets. Whole Life cost of asset maintenance. Operational benefit of reliability. Operational benefit of reduced access. Decrease in track/vehicle forces and alignment tolerances benefit. Consider change to Three Tier design principles making use of emerging technology. Structures - 100years life Key Asset Ballast Structures -40years life General Ballasted Track 38

39 For UK to Secure a Leading Position Integrated Slabtrack Railway System Design for Tunnels with fully developed production cycle. Early involvement of contractor to realise benefits of Design for Construction and LCC improvements Ballasted Track new design standards for key assets consistent with automated inspection and low maintenance. 39

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