Welcome to History 43 The Mexican-American in the History of the United States I Prof. Valadez

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1 Welcome to History 43 The Mexican-American in the History of the United States I Prof. Valadez 1

2 Today s Topics Review: Texas Revolution 1830s What were the causes of the Mexican- American War ? Define Manifest Destiny and assess its ethnic and racial implications for Mexicans- Americans in the 19 th century. (Writing assignment Wed)

3 California Hide-Tallow Trade Mexican Economy New Mexico Santa Fe Trade U.S. Economy MA/MO/LA Texas Austin Colony 3

4 Texas Moses Austin Stephen Austin 300 Families Cotton Plantations

5 Cotton Agriculture and Slave Population

6 Tejanos Cultural brokers

7

8 Issues between Americans and Mexican government 1824 Coahuila y Texas joined 1829 Anti-Slavery legislation 1830 Immigration Ban Change to a centralist government, which did away with the 1824 Constitution (Mexico s Civil War)

9 Major Battles in the Texas Revolution,

10 San Jacinto Juan Seguin 160 Tejanos

11 The Treaty of Velasco Highly controversial treaty due to: Establishes the Republic of Texas Boundary line at the Rio Grande Mexico s refusal to ratify the agreement

12 Questions for Discussions Who wrote the article? When was it written? Who is the intended audience? Juan Seguin

13 The Texas Republic Lone Star Republic Admitted as a state of the United States in 1845 as a slave state Rio Grande as border 13

14 Martin Van Buren Dutch & English Oppose expansion of slavery Blocked Texas Annexation

15 Antonio de Padua María Severino López de Santa Anna y Pérez de Lebrón General Santa Anna's Wooden Leg (Illinois State Military Museum) 15

16 16

17 American Progress 1872 The Removal of the Native Americans to the West,

18 What is Manifest Destiny? 1845 What is John L. O Sullivan idea of Manifest Destiny? Who is at fault for the loss of Texas? What is his prediction? 1837 What is this account s description of the Texas Revolution? What is Jose Maria Tomel s prediction?

19 Indian Removal Act 1830 Trail of Tears Andrew Jackson - 9of10 e=relmfu

20 Topics Mexican-American War

21 California Hide-Tallow Trade Mexican Economy U.S. Economy New Mexico Santa Fe Trade Texas Austin Colony 21

22 Causes of Mexican-American War Texas border dispute Annexation of Texas U.S. Expansionist policy Thornton Affair (immediate cause) 22

23 Events leading to the war with Mexico 1844 Election of James Polk 1845 November Slidell Mission 1845 December Texas enters the Union Thornton Affair 1846 May Polk informs Congress that Mexico has shed American blood on American soil. Congress declares war 23

24 Mexican-American War

25 Battle of Old Woman s Gun (Oct. 1846) Capitulation of Cahuenga January 13,

26 26

27 Saint Patrick s Battalion in Mexican Army John O Reilly Made up of Irish and other Europeans m/watch?v=n5kh6vb8 dfi 27

28 Battle of Los Niños Heroes Juan Escutia Story is popularized in the early 20 th Century Chapultepec 28

29 General Winfield Scott's entrance into Mexico City, September 14, 1847, is depicted in this print by Carl Nebel 29

30 Mexican War Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo (1848) U.S. annexation of California, Nevada, most of New Mexico & Arizona, parts of Colorado, Wyoming United States pays citizens' claims against Mexico and pays Mexico $15 million for acquired territories. U.S. citizenship and protection of property for the 100,000 Mexicans in the Southwest 30

31 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo Mexicans under the legal jurisdiction of the U.S. Article VIII granted U.S. citizenship to Mexicans and stipulated that property of every kind shall be respected. Article IX guaranteed Mexicans the free enjoyment of property, Liberty, and freedom of religion. 31

32 From Ranchero to Peon Proletarianization: the social process where one moves from being an employer to an employee. This process explains the experience of Mexican-Americans in the Southwest. The lost of land in American courts led to their loss of status: from landowner to a wage laborer. 32

33 Race and Manifest Destiny A region that for centuries had been united was suddenly split in two, dividing families and severing trade routes. Free White Male citizens were guaranteed American rights. Indians were described as savage tribes. 33

34 We Didn t Cross the Border 34

35 Writing Assignment 2 (3-5 paragraphs) Define Manifest Destiny. What were the causes of the Texas Revolution and the Mexican-American War? Explain how race played an important role in the aforementioned events and in the concept of Manifest Destiny.

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