The Albigensian or Cathcar Crusade

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1 The Albigensian or Cathcar Crusade Occurred in Southern France ( ) Effort by Roman Catholic Church to eliminate Heresy Papal Diplomat murdered by Cathcar Count Pope Innocent III declared Holy Crusade against Cathcars Successful Military Campaigns by the Church until 1216 Revolts against the Church reverse gains ( ) Saint Dominic s followers create the Dominican Order King Louis VIII led new Crusade ( ) This 15th century artwork depicts a story of Saint Dominic and the Albigensians, in which the texts of each were cast into a fire, but only Saint Dominic's proved miraculously resistant to the flames. King Louis success followed by Medieval Inquisitions Between 200,000 and 1,000,000 massacred

2 The Waldensian Persecutions Occurred in Southern France & Italy ( ) Based on teachings of Peter Waldo (a wealthy Merchant) Excommunicated by Pope Alexander III in 1190 Granted protection in Northern Italy by the Count of Savoy Pope Innocent VIII declared Holy Crusade in 1487 They joined the German & Swiss Protestants in 1532 Duke of Savoy orders elimination of Waldensians in 1655 Thousands of Old men, women, and children died Illustrations depicting Waldensians as Witches in Le champion des dames, by Martin Le France, 1451.

3 The Babylonian Captivity of Avignon Popes Occurred in Avignon, France ( ) Conflict between Pope & Holy Roman Emperor over who was the legitimate leader of Christendom Decline of Papal power due to failed Crusades Failed attempt by the Papacy to excommunicate Frederick II Conflict erupted between King Philip IV of France and Pope Boniface VIII ( ) King Philip IV ordered Pope Boniface VIII arrested French Pope is selected when Pope Boniface dies in 1303 Pope Gregory XI returned Papacy to Rome in 1376 A medieval map of Rome from a manuscript of the period shows Rome personified as widow grieving the loss of the papacy. Disputes over Papacy caused period of Three Popes

4 Moral Opposition to Church Practices John Wycliffe ( ) an English Priest & Professor Claimed that the Pope was not Christ s representative on earth, but an anti-christ Claimed that Christians could determined God s teachings by simply reading the Bible for themselves Died & Buried in 1384 His bones dug up by church and burned in th Century Portrait of Jon Hus being burned at the Stake John Hus ( ) a Czech Philosopher & Professor Continued the teachings of John Wycliffe Influenced Bohemian King Wenceslaus to appose the Papal Schism between Rome and Avignon Hus condemned Church use of Indulgences Arrested, Excommunicated, & Burned at the stake

5 Moral Opposition to Church Practices Desiderius Erasmus ( ) a Dutch Humanist Published a New Greek Testament in honor of Pope Leo X in 1514 Mutual admiration & conflict occurred with Martin Luther He supported Freedom of Will and questioned some of the Sacraments of the Church Desiderius Erasmus in 1523 as depicted by Hans Holbein (the Younger) Simon Fish (c ) an English Reformer Published The Supplication for the Beggars charging the Roman Catholic Church with avarice, murder, and treason He contended that Purgatory was never mentioned in the Bible He condemned the practice of Indulgences by the Roman Catholic Church

6 Church Leaders start Questionable Practices Pope Leo X ( ) an Italian from Florence, Italy Born as Giovanni de Medici (Son of Lorenzo de Medici) Last non-priest to be elected Pope Initiated the sell of indulgences to build St. Peter s Basilica Challenged the Protestant Reformation Johann Tetzel ( ) German Dominican Preacher Portrait of Pope Leo X By Raphael He was appointed as an Inquisitor in 1509 Pope Leo X commissioned him to sell indulgences throughout the German states Remembered for the statement As soon as a coin in the coffer rings, the soul from purgatory springs. Accused of numerous frauds and embezzlements Shunned by both the church and public by 1519

7 Martin Luther ( ) German Monk and Professor in Wittenburg Oppose the sale of Indulgences by Johann Tetzel Wrote the 95 Thesis to expose violations of the Roman Catholic Church to the people Johann Gutenberg s Printing Press helped spread Luther s words throughout Europe Pope Leo X issued Papal Bull ordering Luther to re-cant his words and answer church charges of Blasphemy & Heresy Portrait of Martin Luther in 1529 by Lucas Cranach Luther appears before the Pope & Holy Roman Emperor at the Diet of Worms in 1521

8 The Selling of Church Indulgences The sale of indulgences shown in A Question to a Mintmaker, woodcut by Jorg Breu the Elder of Augsburg, circa This printed receipt of indulgence was issued in December 1521 and delivered to two brothers at Einsiedeln by a Benedictine monk

9 Martin Luther s 95 Thesis against the Roman Catholic Church Luther appears before The Pope & Holy Roman Emperor at the Diet of Worms in 1521

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