# MAST ACADEMY OUTREACH. WOW (Weather on Wheels)

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1 MAST ACADEMY OUTREACH MIDDLE SCHOOL PROGRAM Adventures Aboard WOW (Weather on Wheels) Highlights Teacher Instructions / Answer Keys MAST Academy Maritime and Science Technology High School Miami-Dade County Public Schools Miami, Florida 9

2 MAST ACADEMY OUTREACH WEATHER ON WHEELS MIDDLE SCHOOL PROGRAM ON-SITE HIGHLIGHTS TEACHER INSTRUCTIONS/ANSWER KEYS TABLE OF CONTENTS Teacher Instructions i Weather Stations: 1. Relative Humidity 1 2. Air Pressure 2 3. Wind 3 4. Every Picture Tells a Story 4 5. Climate 5 6. Weather Monitor 6 7

5 WEATHER STATION 2 AIR PRESSURE 15 total points: 1 for each question,8 for map Air (barometric) pressure is the force exerted by the weight of the air above us. This weight creates a force on you much like the weight or force on a diver at the bottom of the ocean. The barometer is an instrument that measures changes in air pressure. Read the directions on the poster for reading the aneroid ("without liquid") barometer. Look at the aneroid barometer on the table, and answer question 1 below. 1. What is the current barometric pressure in millibars (mb)? Answers will vary. Hurricanes are areas of very low pressure (below 1000mb.) The lower the air pressure the more intense the hurricane. Look at the graph called Air Pressure During Hurricane Katrina and answer the following questions. 2. On what day was the air pressure the highest? 8/24/ What was the air pressure on that day? approximately 1007 mb 4. Hurricane Katrina hit New Orleans on August 29 th. Was Katrina more or less intense the day before it hit New Orleans? (circle one) More Less L 5. Explain your answer to #4. The air pressure was lower so the hurricane was more intense. 6. If Katrina had hit New Orleans on August 28th, do you think it would have caused (circle one ) more or less damage? 7. Explain your answer to #6. Because is was more intense it would have done more damage. Look at the sample weather map on the table. The thick black lines are called isobars. These lines connect locations of equal barometric pressure and form sets of curves that do not cross each other. On the map to the right (a different map than the sample map), use the yellow highlighters to draw in the isobars by connecting numbers of equal pressure. The first isobar is drawn for you. Isobars can be used to identify Highs and Lows. The pressure in a high is greater than the surrounding air and usually brings clear, sunny weather. The pressure in a low is lower than the surrounding air and usually means cloudy or rainy weather. On the map above, label with an H the center of a high pressure area, and label with an L the center of a low pressure area. 2

6 WEATHER STATION 3 WIND 17 total points: 7 for the table, 2 for each question Wind is air in motion. It is caused by the unequal heating of the earth's land and water surfaces, which causes differences of pressure in the atmosphere. Follow the directions on the table for using the TurboMeter to record the wind speed in miles per hour. The wind speed is constantly changing so choose the highest wind speed you see in 30 seconds. 1. Wind Speed (MPH) Answers will vary A hurricane is a powerful tropical cyclone (rotating storm) with winds over 74 miles per hour. Using the hurricane plotting chart, follow the track of Hurricane Katrina in Record in the chart below Katrina s coordinates in latitude and longitude for each of the dates shown (a key to latitude and longitude is above the map). DAT(11:00 PM) LATITUDE LONGITUDE Aug. 23, Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug Hurricanes are classified according to both the intensity of the winds and the damage produced by the storm. The method used to measure the intensity and damage caused by a hurricane is called the Saffir-Simpson Scale which is shown below. This system categorizes storm intensity on a scale of one to five. 9. What category hurricane has winds of MPH? Category What category has a central pressure of <920 millibars? Category Hurricane Hugo in 1989 was a Category 4 hurricane. What type of damage did it cause? Extreme 12. Hurricane Camille in 1969 and the Florida Keys Hurricane of 1935 are the only two Category 5 hurricanes to strike the United States. What was the storm surge? > 18 feet 3

8 WEATHER STATION 5 CLIMATE 11 total points: 6 for the data table, 1 for each question How does one distinguish weather from climate? One simple way to think of it is that climate is what we expect; weather is what we get. To describe climate, researchers look at the average weather over a number of years in a particular region during a particular season. In this activity, you will be comparing the subtropical climate in Miami to a desert climate in Phoenix, Arizona by using temperature, precipitation and relative humidity as your data. 1. Click on the book with the title U.S. Climate Data. 2. Click on the bar at the bottom right that says List All Cites. 3. Scroll down and click on Miami, FL. (Cities are listed alphabetically by state.) 4. Click on the bar that says City Information. There is a yellow arrow pointing to the month of January indicating that the information listed is for that month. 5. Record the high temperature, precipitation (rain) and relative humidity in the box for January in the data table below. 6. Click on March and record the data. Repeat for May, July, September, and November. Miami January March May July September November High Temperature Precipitation (rain) in Miami (inches) Relative Humidity Click on the small square above the word Miami. 8. Scroll up to Phoenix, AZ and click on this city. Click on City Information. 9. Find and record the high temperature, precipitation (rain) and relative humidity for each month. Phoenix January March May July September November High Temperature Precipitation (rain) in Phoenix (inches) Relative Humidity Using the data above, answer the following questions. 1. What city has the highest temperature for any month? (circle one) MIAMI PHOENIX 2. What city has the highest rainfall for any month? (circle one) MIAMI PHOENIX 3. What city has the highest humidity for any month? (circle one) MIAMI PHOENIX 4. Describe the climate in Miami? (circle all that apply) HOT RAINY HUMID DRY 5. Describe the climate in Phoenix? (circle all that apply) HOT RAINY HUMID DRY How would your use of water be affected if the climate in Miami changed to that of Phoenix? to conserve water year round You may need Click on the Home button to return to the main screen. 5

9 WEATHER STATION 6 THE WEATHER MONITOR 14 total points: 8 for data chart, 1 for each question The Weather Monitor collects information about the weather from the Weather Station set up outside. Using the poster on the wall to help you find the information on the computer screen, fill in the data table below. Answers will vary Time Date Moon Phase Outside Temperature 0 F Inside Temperature 0 F Outside Humidity % Inside Humidity % Dew Point 0 F Heat Index 0 F Wind Chill 0 F Wind Speed mph CURRENT Rainfall Day in CURRENT Rain Rate in Barometer mb Sunrise Sunset AM PM Forecast (Circle one) Scattered Showers Wind Direction (draw an arrow) At the top of the screen, click on the 5 th icon from the left. (The icon with 2 small graphs.) If the graph is not showing the current time on the horizontal axis, then click on the arrow at the bottom right of the scroll bar to move the graph to the current time. One click moves the graph forward one hour. 1. What does the red line represent? outside temperature 2. What does the blue line represent? dew point Dew point is the temperature at which the atmosphere becomes 100% saturated (filled) with water. If the outside temperature falls to the dew point temperature, water vapor in the air will condense, and dew will form on the windows or grass. The dew evaporates once the outside temperature rises above the dew point. 3. On the graph shown on the computer screen, the outside temperature is higher than the dewpoint temperature. Under these conditions, would dew be able to form? Yes X No 4. Why or why not? Because the outside temperature is higher than the dewpoint temperature. 5. If both the dew point and the outside temperature were the same, what would happen to the water vapor in the air? Water vapor in the air would condense to form dew. 6. If there was dew on the bus window early this morning but it is now gone, what happened to it? It evaporated as the outside temperature increased. At the top of the screen, click on the 3 rd icon from the left to go back to the first screen. 6

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### Experiment E-5 Measuring Dew Point

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### 2. What continually moves air around in the atmosphere? 3. Which of the following weather systems is associated with clear, sunny skies?

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