Flexural Strength of Concrete (The Modulus of Rupture Test)

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1 Revised , WKS Datasheet No. 7.6a & 7.6b MOHAWK COLLEGE OF APPLIED ARTS AND TECHNOLOGY BUILDING AND CONSTRUCTION SCIENCES DEPARTMENT Flexural Strength of Concrete (The Modulus of Rupture Test) INTRODUCTION Concrete pavement carries load as a simple, plain, (non-reinforced) concrete beam. The strength of the concrete in flexure is the most important requirement. In previous labs then primary interest has been the compressive strength of concrete. This strength is used in the structural design of reinforced concrete, where tension, in which concrete is very weak, is assumed to be taken entirely by the reinforcing steel. The rebars in concrete pavement are not important from the point of view of bending stresses. There are dowel bars at joints and possibly shrinkage control bars. As the correlation between it and compressive strength is only approximate, it is usually measured directly and many specifications for concrete pavement specify only the flexural strength of the concrete, and not the compressive. The flexural strength is referred to as the modulus of rupture of the concrete. Fibre reinforcement of concrete mixes has been in use for over 0 years mainly to provide added resistance to crack propagation and improve its resistance to failure in tension. In this lab, half the class will cast and test concrete beams in in flexure while the other half does the same, only with polypropylene fibres added to the mix. This will enable the class to determine whether or not the addition of fibre reinforcement had a significant effect on the flexural strength of the mix. PROCEDURE A. Mixing and Casting 1. Each group will cast one 15.4 mm x 15.4 mm (6" x 6") x mm (36") beam and two mm x 03. mm mini cylinders. 1

2 . The mix proportions are shown in Table 1. Calculate the quantity required for the beams and cylinders. An extra 15% should be allowed for waste and also as a margin for possible error in the assumed density of the concrete. The volume of the air test container is m 3. If a density of 350 kg/m 3 is assumed, this calculation can be done in advance to save time in the laboratory. 3. After making the moisture determinations on the aggregates and correcting for them, each group will mix a batch. Groups 1 to 4 will add 5 grams of polypropylene fibres to their batch. The laboratory mixers being used must first be dampened, spraying the insides of the mixer with water from the hose and making sure that all sides of the paddles are moistened then finally turning the mixer to the drain position for at least three minutes. 4. The slump, fresh density and air content of the concrete should be measured and then the beam and cylinders should be cast by rodding or vibrating depending on the slump. 5. The procedure for casting the beams is as follows: Vibration (Slump less than 80 mm): One layer is used and the mold is over-filled so that after consolidation the top of the concrete will be slightly above the edge of the mold. Vibrate the concrete along the centre line of the mold at not less than 150 mm intervals. Be careful not to touch the sides or bottom of the mold with the vibrator. Remove the vibrator slowly after each insertion to eliminate voids. After vibrating, tap the sides of the mold gently to dislodge any air bubbles. Rodding (Slump greater than 80 mm): Two equal layers will be used. The number of roddings per layer is specified as one for each 14 cm of surface area of the beam. After rodding each layer spade around the sides of the beam with a trowel. Table 1 Mix Design Proportions Design SSD Masses (kg) Cement Water 9.94 CA FA SSD Mass for Required 1 m 3 (kg) SSD Mass for Required Volume (kg) Total

3 6. The tops of the cylinders should be finished in the normal manner. The beams are to be struck off level, finished with a sponge float and covered with plastic. 7. The following working day each group must strip and tag their beams and cylinders and place them in the curing tanks, unless otherwise instructed. B. Flexural Testing of the Beams (After one week of curing) 1. The beam will be tested on its side relative to the position in which it was cast.. The span should be 457. mm (3 times the depth). The load should be applied to the specimen at the third points as illustrated in Figure 1 (15.4 mm from each support). 3. The specimen should not be removed from the curing tank until just before testing. Even a small amount of drying can adversely affect the results. Two tests will be made on each beam. Therefore, for the first test, position the beam with one end about 30 mm from the support. 4. The points of support and loading should be marked on the beam. 5. The test should be carried out at a rate of loading indicated by the instructor. 6. After the load test, the average depth and width of the specimen at the failure section must be measured to the nearest mm. Figure 1 Third-Point Loading Proportion Requirements for PCC Flexural Strength Test 3

4 C: Testing of Cylinders 1. After determining the hardened density of the cylinders, they should be capped and tested in compression in the usual manner. CALCULATIONS 1. The modulus of rupture is calculated as follows: CASE I where fracture occurs within the middle third of the span: where P L R = b d R = modulus of rupture in kpa P = maximum load in kn L = span length (457. mm) in metres b = average width in metres d = average depth in metres CASE II where fracture occurs outside the middle third of the span as measured along the beam bottom by no more than 5% of the span length ( grace zone ): where 3 P a R = b d a = distance in metres of the fracture from the nearest support measured along the bottom centre line of the beam if left support is closest, record as positive, if right support is closest, record as negative CASE III where fracture occurs more than 5% outside the middle third, the results of the test are discarded (i.e. the test is indeterminate).. The constant k, which is sometimes used in converting compressive strength to modulus of rupture is calculated as follows: R 1000 k f c 4

5 where f'c = compressive strength in MPa R = modulus of rupture in kpa REPORT 1. Visit the website for the Ontario Provincial Standards: and select Online Standards or click on the OPS link on the instructor s homepage. Using the standards indicated on the Report Forms, fill in the required information for the report. The National Research Council website should also be examined as it relates to fibre reinforcement in concrete mixes ( The diagram in Datasheet 7.6b must be dimensioned and the fracture lines accurately drawn thereon and their distance to the nearest support dimensioned. The appearance of the specimens after stripping should also be reported, indicating whether there was any honeycombing, large air bubbles, etc. 3. The average Modulus of Rupture value obtained by your group should be evaluated in the report against the OPS criterion. 4. A tabular summary of the class results (posted on the instructor s website) should also be presented in the report with the non-reinforced data grouped separately from the fibre reinforced data. 5. Finally, a non-paired statistical comparison should be made (instructions and examples posted on the instructor s website) on the Modulus of Rupture data to determine whether or not the fibre reinforcement had a statistically significant effect. 5

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