Reactions in Aqueous Solutions

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1 Chem 101 Reactions in Aqueous Solutions Lectures 15 and 16

2 Predicting Whether a Reaction Will Occur Forces that drive a reaction Formation of a solid Formation of water Transfer of electrons Formation of a gas When chemicals (dissolved in water) are mixed and one of these 4 things can occur, the reaction will generally happen.

3 Precipitation Reactions In all precipitation reactions, the ions of one substance are exchanged with the ions of another substance when their aqueous solutions are mixed. At least one of the products formed is insoluble in water. KCl(aq) + AgNO 3 (aq) KNO 3 (aq) + AgCl s K + Ag + K + Ag Cl Cl - NO 3 - NO 3 -

4 Dissociation Ionic compounds Metal + nonmetal (Type I & II) Metal + polyatomic anion Polyatomic cation + anion Dissociation: when ionic compounds dissolve in water the anions and cations are separated from each other We know that ionic compounds dissociate when they dissolve in water because the solution conducts electricity.

5 Dissociation (cont.) Potassium chloride dissociates in water into potassium cations and chloride anions. KCl(aq) = K + (aq) + Cl - (aq) K Cl K + Cl - Copper(II) sulfate dissociates in water into copper(ii) cations and sulfate anions. CuSO 4 (aq) = Cu +2 (aq) + SO 4 2- (aq) Cu SO 4 Cu +2 SO 4 2-

6 Dissociation (cont.) Potassium sulfate dissociates in water into potassium cations and sulfate anions. K 2 SO 4 (aq) = 2 K + (aq) + SO 4 2- (aq) K SO 4 K K + SO 4 2- K +

7 Process for Predicting the Products of a Precipitation Reaction Determine what ions each aqueous reactant has Exchange ions (+) ion from one reactant with (-) ion from other Balance charges of combined ions to get formula of each product Balance the equation Count atoms Determine solubility of each product in water Solubility rules If product is insoluble or slightly soluble, it will precipitate.

8

9 Figure 7.3: Solubilities of common compounds.

10 Practice Solubility Worksheet Ionic substance Formula Water Soluble? Aluminum nitrate Magnesium chloride Nickel (II) hydroxide Potassium fluoride Calcium carbonate Silver phosphate Calcium nitrate Phosphoric acid Barium sulfate Sodium hydroxide

11 Ionic Equations Molecular equations: equations that describe the chemicals put into the water and the product molecules KCl(aq) + AgNO 3 (aq) KNO 3 (aq) + AgCl(s) Ionic equations: equations that describe the actual ions and molecules in the solutions, as well as the molecules of solid, liquid, and gas not dissolved K + (aq) + Cl - (aq) + Ag + (aq) + NO 3 - (aq) K + (aq) + NO 3 - (aq) + AgCl (s)

12 Ionic Equations (cont.) Spectator ions: ions that are both reactants and products K + (aq) + Cl - (aq) + Ag + (aq) + NO 3 - (aq) K + (aq) + NO 3 - (aq) + AgCl (s) Net ionic equation: an ionic equation in which the spectator ions are dropped Cl - (aq) + Ag + (aq) AgCl (s)

13 The precipitation reaction that occurs when yellow potassium chromate, K 2 CrO 4 (aq), is mixed with a colorless barium nitrate solution, Ba(No 3 ) 2 (aq) Hmco Photo File

14 When ionic solids are dissolved, their ions separate in the solution.

15 An example of a precipitation reaction: the formation of BaCrO 4

16 When ionic substances dissolve in water, their ions separate.

17 What are the possible solid products of this solution?

18 Precipitation of silver chloride occurs when solutions of silver nitrate and potassium chloride are mixed. Hmco Photo File

19 Formation of solid AgCl through a precipitation reaction.

20 All the dissolved ions remain in solution. No reaction takes place. That is, no chemical change takes place.

21 Formation of solid PbSO 4 through precipitation.

22 Formation of solid Fe(OH) 3 through precipitation.

23 When gaseous HCl is dissolved in water, each molecule dissociates to form H + and Cl - ions. That is, HCl behaves as a strong electrolyte.

24 Molecular to Total Ionic Equation Molecular Equation: HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq) NaCl(aq) + H 2 O(l) Strong acids, strong bases, and soluble ionic compounds can be written as ions: H + (aq) + Cl - (aq) + Na + (aq) + OH - (aq) Na + (aq) + Cl - (aq) + H 2 O(l) This is the Total Ionic Equation. Each species is written as it predominantly exists in solution.

25 Total Ionic Equation: Total Ionic to Net Ionic Equation H + (aq) + Cl - (aq) + Na + (aq) + OH - (aq) Na + (aq) + Cl - (aq) + H 2 O(l) Na + and Cl - appear on both sides of the equation. They are spectator ions. Spectator ions are in the solution, but do not participate in the overall reaction. H + (aq) + Cl - (aq) + Na + (aq) + OH - (aq) Na + (aq) + Cl - (aq) + H 2 O(l) Cancel out the spectator ions to get the net ionic equation. The Net Ionic Equation is: H + (aq) + OH - (aq) H 2 O(l)

26 Write the total ionic and net ionic equations 2 K 3 PO 4(aq) + 3 Zn(NO 3 ) 2(aq) 6 KNO 3(aq) + Zn(PO 4 ) 2(s)

27 Write the molecular, total ionic and net ionic equations Barium chloride and sodium sulfate

28 Review Complete and balance the molecular chemical equation. Convert the molecular equation into the total ionic equation. a) Write aqueous solutions in the ionized form. b) Write solids, liquids, and gases in the non-ionized form. Cancel all the spectator ions to obtain the net ionic equation. If all species are eliminated, there is no reaction.

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