# Software Testing and Maintenance 1

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1 Input Space Partitioning Introduction Equivalence Partitioning Boundary-Value Analysis Summary Software Testing and Maintenance 1 The Test Selection Problem The input domain of a program consists of all possible inputs that could be taken by the program. Ideally, the test selection problem is to select a subset T of the input domain such that the execution of T will reveal all errors. In practice, the test selection problem is to select a subset of T within budget such that it reveals as many errors as possible. Software Testing and Maintenance 2 1

2 Example Consider a program that is designed to sort a sequence of integers into the ascending order. What is the input domain of this program? Software Testing and Maintenance 3 Main Idea Partition the input domain into a relatively small number of groups, and then select one representative from each group. Invalid 2 I1 1 3 V1 I2 4 V2 V3 Valid Software Testing and Maintenance 4 2

3 Major Steps Step 1: Identify the input domain Read the requirements carefully and identify all input and output variables, any conditions associated with their use. Step 2: Identify equivalence classes Partition the set of values of each variable into disjoint subsets, based on the expected behavior. Step 3: Combine equivalence classes Use some well-defined strategies to avoid potential explosion Step 4: Remove infeasible combinations of equivalence classes Software Testing and Maintenance 5 Input Space Partitioning Introduction Equivalence Partitioning Boundary-Value Analysis Summary Software Testing and Maintenance 6 3

4 Input Parameter Modeling Step 1: Identify testable components, which could be a method, a use case, or the entire system Step 2: Identify all of the parameters that can affect the behavior of a given testable component Input parameters, environment configurations, state variables. For example, insert(obj) typically behaves differently depending on whether the object is already in a list or not. Step 3: Identify characteristics, and create partitions for each characteristic Step 4: Select values from each partition, and combine them to create tests Software Testing and Maintenance 7 Partition A partition defines a set of equivalent classes, or blocks All the members in an equivalence class contribute to fault detection in the same way A partition must satisfy two properties: Completeness: A partition must cover the entire domain Disjoint: The blocks must not overlap A partition is usually based on certain characteristic e.g., whether a list of integer is sorted or not, whether a list allows duplicates or not Software Testing and Maintenance 8 4

5 Interface-Based IPM (1) The main idea is to identify parameters and values, typically in isolation, based on the interface of the component under test. Advantage: Relatively easy to identify characteristics Disadvantage: Not all information is reflected in the interface, and testing some functionality may require parameters in combination Software Testing and Maintenance 9 Interface-Based IPM (2) Range: one class with values inside the range, and two with values outside the range For example, let speed [ ]. Then, we generate three classes {{50}, {75}, {92}}. String: at least one containing all legal strings and one containing all illegal strings. For example, let fname: string be a variable to denote a first name. Then, we could generate the following classes: {{ε}, {Sue}, {Sue2}, {Too long a name}}. Software Testing and Maintenance 10 5

6 Interface-Based IPM (3) Enumeration: Each value in a separate class For example, consider auto_color {red, blue, green}. The following classes are generated, {{red}, {blue}, {green}} Array: One class containing all legal arrays, one containing only the empty array, and one containing arrays larger than the expected size For example, consider int[] aname = new int [3]. The following classes are generated: {{[]}, {[-10, 20]}, {[-9, 0, 12, 15]}. Software Testing and Maintenance 11 Functionality-Based IPM (1) The main idea is to identify characteristics that correspond to the intended functionality of the component under test Advantage: Includes more semantic information, and does not have to wait for the interface to be designed Disadvantage: Hard to identify characteristics, parameter values, and tests Software Testing and Maintenance 12 6

7 Functionality-Based IPM (2) Preconditions explicitly separate normal behavior from exceptional behavior For example, a method requires a parameter to be nonnull. Postconditions indicates what kind of outputs may be produced For example, if a method produces two types of outputs, then we want to select inputs so that both types of outputs are tested. Relationships between different parameters can also be used to identify characteristics For example, if a method takes two object parameters x and y, we may want to check what happens if x and y point to the same object or to logically equal objects Software Testing and Maintenance 13 Example (1) Consider a triangle classification program which inputs three integers representing the lengths of the three sides of a triangle, and outputs the type of the triangle. The possible types of a triangle include scalene, equilateral, isosceles, and invalid. int classify (int side1, int side2, int side3) 0: scalene, 1: equilateral, 2: isosceles; -1: invalid Software Testing and Maintenance 14 7

8 Example (2) Interface-based IPM: Consider the relation of the length of each side to some special value such as zero Partition b1 b2 b3 Relation of Side 1 to 0 Relation of Side 2 to 0 Relation of Side 3 to 0 > 0 = 0 < 0 > 0 = 0 < 0 > 0 = 0 < 0 Software Testing and Maintenance 15 Example (3) Functionality-based IPM: Consider the traditional geometric classification of triangles Partition b1 b2 b3 b4 Geometric classification Scalene Isoceles Equilateral Invalid Software Testing and Maintenance 16 8

9 Example (4) Partition b1 b2 b3 b4 Geometric classification Scalene Isoceles, not equilateral Equilateral Invalid Param b1 b2 b3 b4 Triangle (4, 5, 6) (3, 3, 4) (3, 3, 3) (3, 4, 8) Software Testing and Maintenance 17 GUI Design (1) Suppose that an application has a constraint on an input variable X such that it can only assume integer values in the range Without GUI, the application must check for outof-range values. With GUI, the user may be able to select a valid value from a list, or may be able to enter a value in a text field. Software Testing and Maintenance 18 9

10 GUI Design (2) Incorrect values 1 2 Correct values Correct values 2 Correct values Application GUI-A Core Application GUI-B Core Application Software Testing and Maintenance 19 Input Space Partitioning Introduction Equivalence Partitioning Boundary-Value Analysis Summary Software Testing and Maintenance 20 10

11 Motivation Programmers often make mistakes in processing values at and near the boundaries of equivalence classes. For example, a method M is supposed to compute a function f1 when condition x <= 0 and function f2 otherwise. However, M has an error such that it computes f1 for x < 0 and f2 otherwise. Software Testing and Maintenance 21 Boundary-Value Analysis A test selection technique that targets faults in applications at the boundaries of equivalence classes. Partition the input domain Identify the boundaries for each partition Select test data such that each boundary value occurs in at least one test input Software Testing and Maintenance 22 11

12 Example Consider a method findprices that takes two inputs, item code ( ) and quantity ( ). The method accesses a database to find and display the unit price, the description, and the total price, if the code and quantity are valid. Otherwise, the method displays an error message and return. Software Testing and Maintenance 23 Example (2) Equivalence classes for code: E1: Values less than 99 E2: Values in the range E3: Values greater than 999 Equivalence classes for quantity: E4: Values less than 1 E5: Values in the range E6: Values greater than 100 Software Testing and Maintenance 24 12

13 Example (3) E E2 E E E5 E6 Software Testing and Maintenance 25 Example (4) Tests are selected to include, for each variable, values at and around the boundary An example test set is T = { t1: (code = 98, qty = 0), t2: (code = 99, qty = 1), t3: (code = 100, qty = 2), t4: (code = 998, qty = 99), t5: (code = 999, qty = 100), t6: (code = 1000, qty = 101) } Software Testing and Maintenance 26 13

14 Example (5) public void findprice (int code, int qty) { if (code < 99 or code > 999) { display_error ( Invalid code ); return; } // begin processing } Software Testing and Maintenance 27 Example (6) One way to fix the problem is to replace t1 and t6 with the following four tests: t7 = (code = 98, qty = 45), t8 = (code = 1000, qty = 45), t9 = (code = 250, qty = 0), t10 = (code = 250, qty = 101). Software Testing and Maintenance 28 14

15 Input Space Partitioning Introduction Equivalence Partitioning Boundary-Value Analysis Summary Software Testing and Maintenance 29 Summary Test selection is about sampling the input space in a cost-effective manner. The notions of equivalence partitioning and boundary analysis are so common that sometimes we apply them without realizing it. Interface-based IPM is easier to perform, but may miss some important semantic information; functionality-based IPM is more challenging, but can be very effective in many cases. Boundary analysis considers values both at and near boundaries. Software Testing and Maintenance 30 15

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