BRØNSTED ACIDS & BASES

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1 ACIDS & BASES

2 BRØNSTED ACIDS & BASES

3 BRØNSTED ACIDS & BASES Brønsted acids are proton donors. Brønsted bases are proton acceptors. Amphoteric species can act as either an acid or a base, depending on the conditions. HSO 4 + HCl H 2 SO 4 + Cl HSO 4 + OH SO H 2 O

4 CONJUGATE ACIDS/BASES: CONJUGATE PAIRS base conjugate acid HSO 4 + OH SO H 2 O acid conjugate base

5 STRENGTHS OF ACIDS

6 MOLECULAR STRUCTURE AND STRENGTH What determines the strength of an acid is how easy it is to remove the acidic proton. There are two things to consider: 1.) How easy it is to break the bond between the acidic proton and the rest of the molecule. a.) Bond length (longer = easier to break) b.) Polarity (more polar = easier to break) 2.) How stable the conjugate base of the acid is after removing the acidic proton. a.) For a monatomic anion, more E.N. = more stable b.) For a polyatomic anion, delocalization of charge = more stable

7 THE HYDROHALIC ACIDS Relative acidity: HF << HCl < HBr < HI Even though the fluoride ion is the most stable (F is most E.N.), the length of the H-X bond is more important here.

8 THE OXOACIDS An acid that has one or more oxygen atoms along with another element. Nitric acid, nitrous acid, sulfuric acid, sulfurous acid, perchloric acid, hypoiodous acid etc. Same central atom, different number of oxygen atoms: More oxygen atoms mean the anion has more resonance forms and is more stable, making the acid stronger. Different central atom, same number of oxygen atoms: the more E.N. central atom makes the bond more polar, and also stabilizes the resulting anion more making the acid stronger.

9 CARBOXYLIC ACIDS Organic acids of the form RCO 2 H where R is the general symbol for a group containing C and/or H, and maybe other elements.

10 ACID-BASE PROPERTIES OF WATER

11 THE AUTOIONIZATION OF WATER H 2 O + H 2 O H 2 O or H 3 O + + OH H + + OH K W = [H 3 O + ][OH ] or K W = [H + ][OH ] At 25 o C in pure water [H 3 O + ] = [OH ] = 1.0 x 10 7 or K W = 1.0 x 10 14

12 AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS In any aqueous solution, not just pure water: K W = [H + ][OH ] = 1.0 x If [H + ] = [OH ] then the solution is neutral If [H + ] > [OH ] then the solution is acidic If [H + ] < [OH ] then the solution is basic

13 ph

14 THE ph SCALE ph = log H 3 O + H 3 O + = 10 ph poh = log OH OH = 10 poh H 3 O + OH = ph + poh = 14

15 STRONG ACIDS & STRONG BASES

16 THE STRONG ACIDS Hydrochloric acid These acids completely dissociate in water Hydrobromic acid Hydroiodic acid Nitric acid The [H 3 O + ] = [acid] because they completely dissociate. Chloric acid Perchloric acid Sulfuric acid (only the first acidic proton completely dissociates) HClO 4 (aq) H + (aq) + ClO 4 (aq)

17 THE STRONG BASES Lithium hydroxide Sodium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Rubidium hydroxide Cesium hydroxide Calcium hydroxide Strontium hydroxide Barium hydroxide These bases completely dissociate in water The [OH ] = [base] (or 2x[base]) because they completely dissociate. Even though calcium hydroxide and strontium hydroxide are only slightly soluble, what does dissolves does so completely. Ba(OH) 2 (aq) Ba 2+ (aq) + 2OH (aq)

18 WEAK ACIDS AND Ka

19 K a If an acid is not a strong acid, it is a weak acid. Weak acids do not completely dissociate in water, but rather exist at equilibrium: HA(aq) + H 2 O(l) H 3 O + (aq) + A (aq) The equilibrium expression is K a = H 3O + A HA K a is the acid ionization constant

20 𝐾𝑎

21 CALCULATING ph FROM K a Calculating ph means finding [H + ]. This is an equilibrium problem, so we set up an i.c.e. table. Example: Calculate the ph of a solution whose initial concentration of acetic acid is M. ph = 2.54

22 PERCENT IONIZATION % ionization = H+ eq HA In general if the % ionization is < 5% we can assume that [H + ] eq << [HA] 0 and can be neglected in the denominator of the equilibrium expression. Otherwise the quadratic formula must be used. % ionization increases as the [HA] 0 approaches zero.

23 PERCENT IONIZATION What is the percent ionization of acetic acid in the preceding example? = = % Therefore it was safe to neglect [H + ] eq in the equilibrium expression.

24 WEAK BASES AND Kb

25 K b If an base is not a strong base, it is a weak base. Weak bases do not completely dissociate in water, but rather exist at equilibrium: B(aq) + H 2 O(l) HB + (aq) + OH (aq) The equilibrium expression is K a = HB+ OH B K b is the base ionization constant

26 𝐾𝑏

27 CALCULATING ph FROM K b Calculating ph means finding [H + ]. This is an equilibrium problem, so we set up an i.c.e. table. Example: Calculate the ph of a solution whose initial concentration of ethylamine is M. ph = (% ionization = 9.9%, so had to use the quadratic formula)

28 K a FROM ph What is the value of K a for a weak acid if a M solution of the acid gives a solution with ph = 2.34? K a = 4.1 x 10-5

29 K b FROM ph What is the value of K b for a weak base if a M solution of the base gives a ph of 9.44? K b = 1.9 x 10-9

30 CONJUGATE ACID-BASE PAIRS

31 CONJUGATE S STRENGTHS The conjugate base of a strong acid is a weak conjugate base. The conjugate acid of a strong base is a weak conjugate acid. The conjugate base of a weak acid is a strong conjugate base * The conjugate acid of a weak base is a strong conjugate acid * * A strong conjugate base is a weak base * A strong conjugate acid is a weak acid.

32 K b, K a, and K w K b K a = K w pk b + pk a = 14 The K a for nitrous acid is 4.5 x What is K b for the nitrite ion? K b = 2.2 x 10-11

33 POLYPROTIC ACIDS

34 POLYPROTIC ACIDS Acids that have more than one acidic proton lose them successively. The K a s are labeled K a1, K a2, and K a3 (if there is a third acidic proton). K a1 > K a2 > K a3 H 3 C 6 H 5 O 7 H 2 C 6 H 5 O 7 + H + K a1 = 7.1 x 10 4 H 2 C 6 H 5 O 7 HC 6 H 5 O H + K a2 = 1.7 x 10 5 HC 6 H 5 O 7 2 C 6 H 5 O H + K a3 = 6.4 x 10 6

35 Acid Name K a pk a Carbonic, H 2 CO 3 1 st 4.5 x nd 4.7 x Hydrogen sulphide, H 2 S 1 st 9.5 x nd 1.0 x Phosphoric acid, H 3 PO 4 1 st 7.1 x nd 6.3 x rd 4.5 x Sulphuric acid, H 2 SO 4 1 st large 2 nd 1.2 x Telluric acid, H 6 TeO 6 1 st 2.0 x nd 1.0 x rd 3.0 x Sulphurous acid, H 2 SO 3 1 st 1.2 x nd 6.6 x Selenous acid, H 2 SeO 3 1 st 3.5 x nd 5.0 x Tellurous acid, H 2 TeO 3 1 st 3.0 x nd 2.0 x Ascorbic acid, H 2 C 6 H 6 O 6 1 st 7.9 x nd 1.6 x Citric acid, H 3 C 6 H 5 O 7 1 st 7.1 x nd 1.7 x rd 6.4 x

36 Calculate the concentrations of all species present at equilibrium in a 0.25 M solution of citric acid at 25 o C. [H 3 C 6 H 5 O 7 ] = 0.24 M [H 2 C 6 H 5 O 7 ] = M [HC 6 H 5 O 7 2 ] = M [C 6 H 5 O 7 3 ] = M [H + ] = M

37 SALTS AS ACIDS AND BASES

38 SALT HYDROLYSIS When a strong electrolyte is dissolved in water, if the anion is the conjugate base of a weak acid, or the cation is the conjugate acid of a weak base, hydrolysis occurs affecting the ph of the solution. For example, if a M solution of KF is prepared, the following occurs: F + H 2 O HF + OH What is the ph of the resulting solution? K a for HF = 7.1 x 10 4 ph = 8.18

39 THE METAL CATION CAN ALSO REACT WITH H 2 O Small, highly charges metal cations such as Al 3+, Cr 3+, Fe 3+, Bi 3+, and Be 2+ associate with water molecules through ion-dipole interactions. For example the aluminum ion: Al(H 2 O) 6 3+ (aq) Al(OH)(H 2 O) 5 2+ (aq) + H + (aq) K a = 1.3 x 10 5

40 SALT SOLUTIONS Metal cations that are relatively large and/or not highly charged do not undergo hydrolysis. Thus, the group 1A and 2A metals (except Be) do not do this. Anions that are conjugate bases of strong acids do no undergo hydrolysis either. If both the cation and anion hydrolyze: If K a > K b the solutions is acidic If K b > K a the solution is basic If K a K b the solution is neutral, or close to neutral.

41 OXIDES AND HYDROXIDES

42 ALKALI METAL OXIDES AND ALKALINE EARTH METAL HYDROXIDES ARE BASIC (EXCEPT BeO WHICH IS AMPHOTERIC) Na 2 O(s) + H 2 O(l) 2NaOH(aq) CaO(s) + H 2 O(l) Ca(OH) 2 (aq)

43 NONMETAL OXIDES WHOSE NONMETAL HAS A HIGH OXIDATION NUMBER ARE ACIDIC CO 2 (g) + H 2 O(l) SO 3 (g) + H 2 O(l) N 2 O 5 (g) + H 2 O(l) P 4 O 10 (g) + H 2 O(l) Cl 2 O 7 (g) + H 2 O(l) H 2 CO 3 (aq) H 2 SO 4 (aq) 2HNO 3 (aq) 4H 3 PO 4 (aq) 2HClO 4 (aq)

44 LEWIS ACIDS AND BASES

45 DEFINITIONS A Lewis acid is an electron pair donor. A Lewis base is an electron pair acceptor. In every Lewis-base reaction a coordinate covalent bond is formed.

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