1 Labour Market Bulletin Quebec Annual Edition 2015 This Labour Market Bulletin provides an analysis of Labour Force Survey results for the province of Quebec and its regions. OVERVIEW While employment remained stagnant in 2014, moderate growth in Quebec was recorded for According to data from Statistics Canada s Labour Force Survey (LFS), there were 37,300 additional people working in 2015 compared to 2014, an increase of 0.9%. This represents a growth rate close to the average of the last five years (1.0%). On one hand, the province benefited from a slow expansion of its exports, thanks, among other things, to the depreciating Canadian dollar and the US economic recovery. On the other hand, domestic demand (consumption, government spending and investments) contributed very little. Nonetheless, with 4,097,000 jobs, the employment level has never been so high in Quebec since the start of data publication. Quebec Annual Labour Force Statistics to to 2014 Number % Number % Population 15 + ('000) 6, , , Labour Force ('000) 4, , , Employment ('000) 4, , , Full-Time ('000) 3, , , Part-Time ('000) Unemployment ('000) Unemployment Rate (%) Participation Rate (%) Employment Rate (%) Note: Totals may not add due to rounding Source: Statistics Canada Labour Force Survey CANSIM Table
2 Labour Market Bulletin Quebec Annual Edition 2015 Page 2 Quebec Annual Employment and Unemployment Rate Quebec Annual Employment Growth The employment increase comes entirely from full-time work (+45,000 jobs or 1.4%), while part-time work declined by 7,700 jobs (-0.9%). In 2014, the proportion of part-time work to overall employment surpassed the 20% mark (20.1%). Employment variations from the previous year help this ratio return under the 20% mark to 19.5%, a higher proportion, however, than the average of the last 10 years (19.1%). Canada and Ontario also registered an employment increase from 2014 to 2015, but slightly lower than that of Quebec. Indeed, employment increased by 0.8% (+144,400 jobs) in Canada, while employment growth in Ontario was weaker at 0.7% (+45,300 jobs). It is the first time since 2010 that employment growth in Quebec is higher than that recorded in Canada. It must be noted that the only three provinces to have experienced employment declines in 2015 are located in the Atlantic region, namely Prince Edward Island (-1.1%), Newfoundland and Labrador (-1.0%) and New Brunswick (-0.6%).
3 Labour Market Bulletin Quebec Annual Edition 2015 Page 3 In Quebec, other labour market indicators progressed slightly in the past year, following a more significant increase in the number of people working than in the labour force and working age population. First, the unemployment rate declined by one tenth of a percentage point (7.6%). However, it remains higher than what it was before the recession: a 7.3% rate in Even if its employment level was more favourable, Quebec s unemployment rate remains below the rates of Ontario (6.8%) and Canada (6.9%). While it reached a historical low over 10 years (64.7%) in 2014, the participation rate rose by one tenth of a percentage point to settle at 64.8%. With an aging population, it is becoming less and less likely that the participation rate will gain several percentage points; some workers postponing retirement and immigration will probably not bring about a reversal of this trend. The employment rate increased by two tenths of a percentage point, reaching 59.9%. For five years, this indicator has shown little movement: it has fluctuated within a range of 0.4%, between 59.7% and 60.1%. With regard to age groups, the analysis reveals that young men between the ages of 15 to 24 saw their employment decline for a fifth consecutive year. Between 2014 and 2015, there was a decrease of 5,600 jobs, which equals a 2% drop, mostly due to full-time employment. Because their participation rate also recorded a decrease during the same period, their unemployment rate declined by six tenths of a percentage point to reach 15.5%. In the last 10 years, the employment rate of young women (15 to 24 years of age) has always been higher than that of young men. In 2015, the gap between the two groups had never been higher: the employment rate of young women was 62.5%, while that of young men was 56.3%. Employment growth manifested itself mainly for people 25 years and over, particularly among men. Men 25 years and over posted an increase of 36,100 workers (+2%) compared to Their unemployment rate fell from 7.8% to 7.4% between 2014 and However, it remains higher than the unemployment rate of women 25 years and over (6%). While the unemployment rate is lower for women 25 years and under, they remain nonetheless less active than men of the same age, with their participation rate being 59.3% compared to 69.3% for men. Quebec Annual Unemployment Rates, by Gender and Age to to 2014 % % % (% points) (% points) Total years and over Men - 25 years and over Women - 25 years and over to 24 years Men - 15 to 24 years Women - 15 to 24 years Source: Statistics Canada Labour Force Survey CANSIM Table
4 Labour Market Bulletin Quebec Annual Edition 2015 Page 4 EMPLOYMENT BY INDUSTRY The goods-producing sector saw its second consecutive workforce decline. Indeed, in 2015, there were 25,800 fewer jobs than in 2014, a decrease of 3%. Over ten years, the sector has experienced a decline of 9.6% of its workforce. Between 2014 and 2015, the most significant decline in the goods-producing sector came from construction (-20,900 jobs or -8.2%). The decrease in that sector, which began in 2014, can mostly be explained by the control upgrades and necessary authorizations to finalize public contracts and sub-contracts following the Commission d enquête sur l octroi et la gestion des contrats publics dans l industrie de la construction, the tightening of government spending, the downturn of the mining sector and a slowdown in residential construction. It should be noted that from 2004 to 2014, the construction industry posted an employment increase of 55.7%, while overall employment across all sectors only rose by 10.4%. In terms of the manufacturing industry, employment declined by 1,200 jobs (-0.2%), a more modest decrease than the one observed the previous year (-4,400 jobs or -0.9%). Despite a slight recovery in exports, the globalization of value chains requires a search for productivity, which slows employment growth in manufacturing and, in developed countries, benefits the labour force s low-intensity manufacturing needs. The services sector shows a 2% growth compared to 2014, with the addition of 63,100 jobs. For ten years, this sector has grown year after year, with the exception of one, 2009, the year of the recession. In addition, the services sector had 17.3% more jobs than 10 years prior, whereas overall employment experienced only a 10.6% growth between 2005 and The service sector s weight continues to increase in the Quebec labour market: it climbed from 75% in 2005 to 79.6% in Business, building and other support services saw the most significant employment growth (9.2%) between 2014 and 2015, adding 14,200 jobs. Representing only 4.1% of overall employment, this sector climbed 31.6% in 10 years, thanks in part to the outsourcing of specialized services by businesses. Accounting for 5.8% of overall employment, public administration has increased 7.7% since last year, adding 16,800 jobs. This growth rate is much higher than the average of the last 10 years (1%). With 4.8% of jobs in Quebec, the transportation and warehousing sector also experienced a significant increase in the last year, with 10,900 more jobs than in 2014 (+5.9%). This industry has been growing continuously since 2010 due notably to various governments investments in the development of public transit and ground passenger transportation as well as the rise of transportation and warehousing support activities. Only three industries in the services sector recorded a decline compared to First, other services, which includes repair and maintenance services, personal services, religious organizations, foundations, civic groups and professional organizations, posted an 11.4% decline (-20,600 jobs). Employment in this industry experienced successive drops and increases in the last decade, making its 2015 employment level (159,500 jobs) nearly identical to that of 2005 (161,300 jobs). Second, employment within the information, culture and recreation industry fell 5.8% (-10,600 jobs). This industry is strongly dependent on two elements that were constrained in the last year: government grants and household spending. Lastly, employment in the finance, insurance, real estate and leasing industry dropped 1.4%, or 3,100 fewer jobs than in This sector was affected by the 2008 recession and the slowing economy in Since then, the industry has witnessed a more significant increase in its production (GDP), while its employment has stalled due to the industry being a frontrunner in productivity gains in recent years.
5 Labour Market Bulletin Quebec Annual Edition 2015 Page 5 Quebec Annual Labour Force Statistics, by Industry to to 2014 Number % Number % Total employed, all industries 4, , , Goods-producing sector Agriculture Forestry, fishing, mining, quarrying, oil and gas Utilities Construction Manufacturing Services-producing sector 3, , , Trade Transportation and warehousing Finance, insurance, real estate and leasing Professional, scientific and technical services Business, building and other support services Educational services Health care and social assistance Information, culture and recreation Accommodation and food services Other services Public administration Note: Totals may not add due to rounding Source: Statistics Canada Labour Force Survey CANSIM Table REGIONAL ANALYSIS Resource Regions The Resource Regions include the Abitibi-Témiscamingue, Bas-Saint-Laurent, Côte-Nord and Nord-du-Québec, Gaspésie Îles-de-la-Madeleine and Saguenay Lac-Saint-Jean regions. They generate 9% of all jobs in Quebec. Overall, the Resource Regions saw their number of jobs decline in 2015 (-0.9%). The Abitibi-Témiscamingue (- 4,100 jobs) and Gaspésie Îles-de-la-Madeleine (-1,500 jobs) regions experienced the most significant employment drops among the Resource Regions, whereas the Côte-Nord and Nord-du-Québec (+1,700 jobs) and Saguenay Lac-Saint-Jean (+1,300 jobs) regions registered employment increases from 2014 to The majority of Resource Regions saw their unemployment rate decline in 2015, with the exception of Côte- Nord and Nord-du-Québec, where it rose by one percentage point to 9.8%. Among these regions, only Abitibi- Témiscamingue (7%) posted an unemployment rate below that of Quebec (7.6%). Intermediary Regions The Intermediary Regions include the Centre-du-Québec, Chaudière-Appalaches, Estrie and Mauricie regions. They provide 14.8% of all jobs in Quebec. Since 2014, employment has remained relatively stable in the Intermediary Regions. Indeed, employment increases were recorded in the Centre-du-Québec (+5,200 jobs) and Mauricie (+1,500 jobs) regions, but these were completely cancelled out by employment declines in the Chaudière-Appalaches (-4,700 jobs) and Estrie (-2,100 jobs) regions. It should be noted that for the first time in 2015, the Centre-du-Québec region regained its pre-recession employment level from 2007.
6 Labour Market Bulletin Quebec Annual Edition 2015 Page 6 The unemployment rate for all of the Intermediary Regions declined between 2014 and The most significant decrease was recorded in the Mauricie region, where the unemployment rate fell from 8.6% to 7.9% in However, it remained the only one among the Intermediary Regions with a higher unemployment rate than the province (7.6%). The Chaudière-Appalaches region, with a 5% unemployment rate, has the second lowest rate in Quebec. Greater Montréal Area and surrounding areas The grouping of the economic regions of Lanaudière, Laurentides, Laval, Montérégie and Montréal represent the Greater Montréal Area. They generate 61.5% of all jobs in Quebec. The Greater Montréal region has seen 0.8% employment growth since 2014, a rate slightly lower than that of Quebec as a whole. Job growth from the economic regions of Montréal (+21,700 jobs), Laurentides (+16,600 jobs) and Lanaudière (+9,000 jobs) erased the lost jobs recorded in Laval (-17,800 jobs) and in Montérégie (-8,700 jobs). Despite an increase of their employed populations, the Montréal (+0.7) and Lanaudière (+0.6) regions have seen their unemployment rate increase rise since 2014 due to a significant increase in their labour force. Conversely, the unemployment rate in the Montérégie region dropped six tenths of a percentage point as the labour market deteriorated. Among this group s regions, only the Montérégie and Laurentides regions had a lower unemployment rate that of Quebec as a whole. The Capitals The grouping of the Capitals includes the Capitale-Nationale and Outaouais regions and stands out thanks to their significant employment proportion within the public service in their labour market. In 2015, the Capitals totaled 14.7% of all Quebec employment. The two regions have a positive balance for 2015 with considerably higher employment growth than Quebec: 3.1% for the Capitale-Nationale region and 3.9% for the Outaouais region. The Capitale-Nationale region s unemployment rate dropped by eight tenths of a percentage point between 2014 and 2015 to settle at 4.7%, making it the lowest rate among all of Quebec s economic regions. In the Outaouais region, the unemployment rate did not change, remaining at 7.4%.
7 Labour Market Bulletin Quebec Annual Edition 2015 Page 7 Quebec Annual Labour Force Statistics, by Economic Region Employment ('000) to to 2014 Number % Number % Quebec 4, , , Economic Regions Gaspésie Îles-de-la-Madeleine Bas-Saint-Laurent Capitale-Nationale Chaudière-Appalaches Estrie Centre-du-Québec Montérégie Montréal Laval Lanaudière Laurentides Outaouais Abitibi-Témiscamingue Mauricie Saguenay Lac-Saint-Jean Côte-Nord & Nord-du-Québec Note: Totals may not add due to rounding Source: Statistics Canada Labour Force Survey CANSIM Table Quebec Annual Employment Growth, by Economic Region 2014 to 2015
8 Labour Market Bulletin Quebec Annual Edition 2015 Page 8 Note: In preparing this document, the authors have taken care to provide clients with labour market information that is timely and accurate at the time of publication. Since labour market conditions are dynamic, some of the information presented here may have changed since this document was published. Users are encouraged to also refer to other sources for additional information on the local economy and labour market. Information contained in this document does not necessarily reflect official policies of Employment and Social Development Canada. Prepared by: Labour Market Analysis Directorate, Service Canada, Quebec For further information, please contact the Labour Market Analysis Directorate at: For information on the Labour Force Survey, please visit the Statistics Canada website at: Her Majesty the Queen in right of Canada, represented by Employment and Social Development Canada, 2016, all rights reserved
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