GCE A Level. Biology. Energy and respiration. сᴏᴏʟιᴏ

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "GCE A Level. Biology. Energy and respiration. сᴏᴏʟιᴏ"

Transcription

1 GCE A Level Biology Energy and respiration сᴏᴏʟιᴏ

2 Q 1(a) Describe how ATP is synthesized by oxidative phosphorylation. [June 2012 # 1] Reduced NAD and reduced FAD are passed to the electron transport chain, where hydrogens are removed from the two hydrogen carriers and each is split into its constituent hydrogen ion and electron. Electrons are passed along the ETC and the energy released pumps protons into intermembrane space. This builds up a proton gradient, therefore protons diffuses back into the mitochondrial matrix through stalked particles in the membrane as the membranes are impermeable to hydrogen ions. Associated with each stalked particle is the enzyme ATP synthase, therefore, as the proton passes through the channel, their electrical potential energy is used to synthesize ATP. ATP is produced from ADP and inorganic phosphate. The electron is transferred to Oxygen, so is the proton, forming water. (b) Using examples outline the need for energy in living organisms. Organisms need energy to stay alive. ATP is the energy currency of the cell as it is the universal intermediary molecules between energy yielding and energy requiring reactions in a cell. Energy is taken in the form of light for photosynthesis where the photosynthetic pigments absorb it and give out excited electrons used to synthesize ATP. In light dependent reactions, water is split by photolysis which gives out hydrogen ions and electrons to reduce NADP. This ATP and reduced NADP are used when carbon dioxide is trapped and reduced to carbohydrate in the light independent reactions of photosynthesis. Apart from this, energy in the form of chemical energy is used for anabolic reactions such a protein synthesis, starch formation e.t.c. Energy is also needed for active transport like sodium-potassium pump for movement of ions, against the concentration gradient. Mechanical energy is used for movement like muscle contraction and also in temperature regulation. Q 2(a) Explain the role of ATP in active transport of ions and in named anabolic reactions. [June 2012 # 2] ATP provides energy for both active transport and anabolic reactions. In active transport, ATP is needed to counteract the tendency of the particles to move by diffusion, down the concentration gradient. When the protein carrier binds to a specific ion, it changes shape. Energy from ATP is needed to change the shape. Anabolic reactions are the syntheses of complex substances from simpler ones. They are also energyrequiring reactions. Like formation of glycosidic bonds between monosaccharides to for starch, ester bonds from fatty acids and glycerol to form lipid and peptide bonds between amino acids to form polypeptides. (b) Outline the process of anaerobic respiration in both mammal and yeast cells. In yeast cells, pyruvate is converted to ethanal by decarboxylation. Ethanal is then reduced by reduced NAD by the enzyme ethanal dehydrogenase, forming ethanol. In mammalian cells, pyruvate acts as the hydrogen acceptor and is converted to lactate by the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase in liver/muscle cells. The reaction is reversible in mammals but irreversible in yeast. In mammals, it is a single step reaction but more than 1 in yeast. Reoxidised/Regenerated NAD allows glycolysis to continue. Q 3(a) Outline the need for energy in living organisms using named examples. [Nov 2010 # 1] ATP is the energy currency of the cell as it is the universal intermediary molecules between energy yielding and energy requiring reactions in a cell. Organisms need energy to stay alive. 2

3 In plants, light energy is needed for photosynthesis. In light-independent reactions ATP is used to convert glycerate 3-phosphate into triose phosphate. It is then used to regenerate RUBP. ATP is also needed for anabolic reactions like protein synthesis, starch formation, triglyceride formation etc. In mammals, activation energy is needed to activate glucose in glycolysis. Energy from ATP is important in active transport, to counteract the tendency of the ions to undergo diffusion. For instance in sodium/potassium pumps. ATP also plays a major role in movement like muscle contraction and cilia beating. It helps in endocytosis, exocytosis and also temperature regulation. (b) Explain the different energy values of carbohydrate, lipid and protein as respiratory substrates. Lipid provides more energy than either protein or carbohydrate. It consists of 39.4 KJg -1 where as protein and carbohydrate contains 17.0 and 15.8 KJg -1 respectively. This is because lipid has relatively more hydrogen atoms in a molecule and hydrogen atoms are used to generate ATP via the electron transport chain. Most energy comes from the oxidation of hydrogen to water, using reduced NAD. Q 4(a) Describe the structure of ATP and the role of ATP as the energy currency in all living organisms. [Nov 2010 # 3] ATP is a nucleotide made up of adenine, ribose and three phosphate groups. Loss of a phosphate group leads to a release of 30.0 Kjmol -1 of energy. When one phosphate group is removed, adenosine diphosphate (ADP) is formed. This ADP when reacts with inorganic phosphate, forms ATP again. It is a reversible reaction. ADP + P i ----> ATP The hydrolysis of one ATP molecule releases a small packet of energy that is often just the right size to fuel a particular step in a process. ATP is a small, water soluble molecule and therefore can be easily transported around a cell. The rate of interconversion or turnover is enormous. It is estimated that a resting human uses about 40 Kg of ATP in 24 hours, but at any one time, contains about 5g of ATP. The cell's energy yielding reactions are linked to ATP synthesis. The ATP is then used by the cell in all forms of work. ATP is the universal intermediary molecule between energy-yielding and energyrequiring reactions in a cell. In other words, it is the energy currency of the cell. The cell trades in ATP rather than making use of a number of different intermediates. ATP acts as an immediate donor of energy to the cell's energy requiring reactions. It is needed in active transport, during muscle contraction, Calvin cycle e.t.c. (b) Outline anaerobic respiration in mammalian cells and describe how it differs from anaerobic respiration in yeast calls. When free oxygen is not present, hydrogen cannot be disposed off by combination with Oxygen. The electron transfer chain therefore stops working and no further ATP is formed by oxidative phosphorylation. Glycolysis however, takes place but the pyruvate formed cannot enter mitochondrion and so remains in the cytoplasm. It acts as the hydrogen acceptor and is converted to lactate by the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase. Again, the NAD is released which allows glycolysis to continue in anaerobic conditions. Unlike in yeast cells, no decarboxylation takes place in mammalian cells. It is a single step reaction however, in yeast cells; pyruvate is first converted into ethanal and then ethanol. The conversion of pyruvate to lactate is a reversible reaction. The lactate produced diffuses into the blood and is carried in solution in blood plasma to the liver where it is converted back to pyruvate. This requires extra oxygen which is known as oxygen dept. 3

4 Q 5(a) Describe the process of glycolysis. [Nov 2009 # 1] Glycolysis takes place in the cytoplasm of a cell. A Glucose molecule is first phosphorylated using 2 ATPs. This produces a hexose biphosphate molecule, which splits into two triose phosphate molecules. Each triose phosphate is converted to a pyruvate molecule. This involves the removal of hydrogens, which are taken up by the coenzyme NAD. The removal of hydrogens is an oxidation reaction, also known as dehydrogenation. This produces reduced NAD. During this step, the phosphate groups from the triose phosphates are added to ADP to produce a small yield of ATP. Overall, two molecules of ATP are used and four are made, during glycolysis of one glucose molecule, making a net gain of two ATPs per glucose. (b) Describe the structure of ATP and the role of ATP as the energy currency in all living organisms. Refer Q 4 (a) Q 6(a) Outline the main features of the Krebs cycle. [Nov 2009 # 2] Acetyl coenzyme A combines with a four-carbon compound, oxaloacetate to form a six-carbon compound citrate. The citrate is decarboxylated and dehydrogenated in a series of steps, to yield carbon dioxide, which is given off as a waste gas and hydrogens which are accepted by the carriers NAD and FAD, producing reduced NAD and reduced FAD. These steps all takes place in the matrix of the mitochondrion, and each is controlled by specific enzymes. Oxaloacetate is regenerated to combine with another acetyl coenzyme A. For each turn of the cycle, two carbon dioxide molecules are produced, one FAD and three NAD molecules are reduced and one ATP molecule is generated via an intermediate compound. [Diagram just for reference] Acetyl coenzyme A coenzyme A Oxaloacetate (4C) Citrate (6C) 2 x Reduced NAD Krebs cycle CO 2 NAD 2 x NAD Reduced NAD Reduced FAD FAD CO 2 ATP ADP + P i 4

5 (b) Explain the role of NAD in aerobic respiration. NAD is a coenzyme for dehydrogenase. It can accept a hydrogen ion and two electrons. Thereby becoming reduced. It carries electrons and protons from Krebs cycle and glycolysis to ETC. The reduced NAD can be regenerated. ATP is produced. Q 7(a) Describe the process of oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondrion. [June 2008] Refer Q1 (a) (b) Explain the roles of NAD in anaerobic respiration in both plants and animals. In animals, when free oxygen is not present, hydrogen cannot be disposed of by combination with Oxygen. The electron transfer chain therefore stops working and no further ATP is formed by oxidative phosphorylation. Glycolysis however, takes place but the pyruvate formed cannot enter mitochondrion and so remains in the cytoplasm. It acts as the hydrogen acceptor and is converted to lactate by the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase. Again, the NAD is released which allows glycolysis to continue in anaerobic conditions. Unlike in plant cells, no decarboxylation takes place in mammalian cells. It is a single step reaction however, in plant cells; pyruvate is first converted into ethanal and then ethanol. The conversion of pyruvate to lactate is a reversible reaction. The lactate produced diffuses into the blood and is carried in solution in blood plasma to the liver where it is converted back to pyruvate. This requires extra oxygen which is known as oxygen dept. Q 8 Describe the process of oxidative phosphorylation. [Nov 2006] Refer Q1 (a) Q 9(a) Outline the main features of the Krebs cycle. [Nov 2004] Refer Q 6 (a) (b) Explain the role of NAD in aerobic respiration. Refer Q 6 (b) 5

Chapter 6: CELLULAR RESPIRATION

Chapter 6: CELLULAR RESPIRATION Chapter 6: CELLULAR RESPIRATION 1. Overview of Respiration 2. Glycolysis 3. The Citric Acid Cycle 4. Oxidative Phosphorylation 1. Overview of Respiration What is Cellular Respiration? It is the process

More information

IB BIOLOGY: Respiration Notes. Draw and annotate a molecule of ATP to show how it stores and releases energy.

IB BIOLOGY: Respiration Notes. Draw and annotate a molecule of ATP to show how it stores and releases energy. IB BIOLOGY: Respiration Notes Draw and annotate a molecule of ATP to show how it stores and releases energy. Contrast oxidation and reduction from the perspectives of (a) the gain or loss of electrons

More information

What are the basic steps in glycolysis, the TCA cycle, and the electron transport system? An Introduction to Cellular Metabolism.

What are the basic steps in glycolysis, the TCA cycle, and the electron transport system? An Introduction to Cellular Metabolism. What are the basic steps in glycolysis, the TCA cycle, and the electron transport system? An Introduction to Cellular Metabolism Figure 25 1 1 Carbohydrate Metabolism Generates ATP and other high-energy

More information

monosaccharides fatty acids amino acids

monosaccharides fatty acids amino acids Cellular Energy In order to sustain life (steady state), cells constantly expend energy in the form of ATP hydrolysis the hydrolysis of ATP yields a molecule of ADP (adenosine diphosphate) and a Phosphate

More information

Lecture 8: Cellular Respiration

Lecture 8: Cellular Respiration Lecture 8: Cellular Respiration I. Overview of Aerobic Respiration A. Redox process where energy contained in chemical bonds in glucose is converted to ATP 1. Aerobic respiration a. Requires oxygen C.

More information

Respiration. Respiration. Respiration. How Cells Harvest Energy. Chapter 7

Respiration. Respiration. Respiration. How Cells Harvest Energy. Chapter 7 How Cells Harvest Energy Chapter 7 Organisms can be classified based on how they obtain energy: autotrophs: are able to produce their own organic molecules through photosynthesis heterotrophs: live on

More information

Buddhist Chi Hong Chi Lam Memorial College A.L. Bio. Notes (by Denise Wong) Energetics... Page 18. Respiration

Buddhist Chi Hong Chi Lam Memorial College A.L. Bio. Notes (by Denise Wong) Energetics... Page 18. Respiration Energetics... Page 18 Respiration Syllabus : The importance of respiration in converting chemical energy in food to chemical energy in ATP. The sites of respiration the sites of the various biochemical

More information

Mitochondrial Structure and Aerobic Respiration. Biology Exploring Life section 7.5 Modern Biology section 7-2

Mitochondrial Structure and Aerobic Respiration. Biology Exploring Life section 7.5 Modern Biology section 7-2 Mitochondrial Structure and Aerobic Respiration Biology Exploring Life section 7.5 Modern Biology section 7-2 Mitochondrial Structure and Aerobic Respiration Objectives: Diagram and explain the function

More information

5.3 Cellular Respiration Releases Energy from Organic Compounds

5.3 Cellular Respiration Releases Energy from Organic Compounds 5.3 Cellular Respiration Releases Energy from Organic Compounds In this section, you will distinguish among aerobic respiration, anaerobic respiration, and fermentation explain how carbohydrates are oxidized

More information

1. Overview of Respiration

1. Overview of Respiration Chapter 6: CELLULAR RESPIRATION 1. Overview of Respiration 2. Glycolysis 3. The Citric Acid Cycle 4. Oxidative Phosphorylation 1. Overview of Respiration What is Cellular Respiration? It is the process

More information

Chapter 6: CELLULAR RESPIRATION

Chapter 6: CELLULAR RESPIRATION Chapter 6: CELLULAR RESPIRATION 1. Overview of Respiration 2. Glycolysis 3. The Citric Acid Cycle 4. Oxidative Phosphorylation 1. Overview of Respiration What is Cellular Respiration? It is the process

More information

The correct answer is d C. Answer c is incorrect. Reliance on the energy produced by others is a characteristic of heterotrophs.

The correct answer is d C. Answer c is incorrect. Reliance on the energy produced by others is a characteristic of heterotrophs. 1. An autotroph is an organism that a. extracts energy from organic sources b. converts energy from sunlight into chemical energy c. relies on the energy produced by other organisms as an energy source

More information

Respiration. ATP (Adenosine triphosphate) Mitochondria. Page 1 of 5

Respiration. ATP (Adenosine triphosphate) Mitochondria. Page 1 of 5 Respiration Respiration is a set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place with in the cells of organisms. It stores biochemical energy within adenosine triphosphate (ATP) molecules. There are

More information

thebiotutor.com A2 Biology OCR Unit F214: Communication, Homeostasis and Energy Module 4.1 Respiration Notes & Questions

thebiotutor.com A2 Biology OCR Unit F214: Communication, Homeostasis and Energy Module 4.1 Respiration Notes & Questions thebiotutor.com A2 Biology OCR Unit F214: Communication, Homeostasis and Energy Module 4.1 Respiration Notes & Questions Andy Todd 2014 1 Outline why plants, animals and microorganisms need to respire,

More information

CLASS XI BIOLOGY. Plant Respiration. Finish Line & Beyond send your queries to

CLASS XI BIOLOGY. Plant Respiration. Finish Line & Beyond send your queries to CLASS XI BIOLOGY Plant Respiration 1. Differentiate between (a) Respiration and Combustion (b) Glycolysis and Krebs cycle (c) Aerobic respiration and Fermentation (a) Respiration takes place in cells of

More information

Which statement best describes the movement of ions shown in the diagram? where they create a highly reducing environment and hydrolyze CO 2

Which statement best describes the movement of ions shown in the diagram? where they create a highly reducing environment and hydrolyze CO 2 1. The electron transport chain is a part of cellular respiration. The diagram below shows the movement of ions in the electron transport chain within a mitochondrion. Which statement best describes the

More information

SBI4U: Respiration and Photosynthesis Test. [25 marks]

SBI4U: Respiration and Photosynthesis Test. [25 marks] Part 1: Multiple Choice SBI4U: Respiration and Photosynthesis Test Mr. Dykstra Name: [25 marks] 1. Which of the following molecules links glucose oxidation, fatty acid catabolism, and the catabolism of

More information

Pathways that Harvest and Store Chemical Energy

Pathways that Harvest and Store Chemical Energy Pathways that Harvest and Store Chemical Energy Chapter 6 Pathways that Harvest and Store Chemical Energy Key Concepts 6.1 ATP, Reduced Coenzymes, and Chemiosmosis Play Important Roles in Biological Energy

More information

Chapter 9 Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration

Chapter 9 Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Chapter Outline Chapter 9 Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Section 1: Energy in Living Systems KEY IDEAS > What type of energy is used in cells, and what is the ultimate source of this energy? >

More information

Cellular respiration. The process by which cells harvest the energy stored in food

Cellular respiration. The process by which cells harvest the energy stored in food Cellular respiration The process by which cells harvest the energy stored in food 1 SAVING FOR A Rainy Day Suppose you earned extra money by having a part-time job. At first, you might be tempted to spend

More information

Photosynthesis (CO 2 + H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 + O 2 )

Photosynthesis (CO 2 + H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 + O 2 ) The vital role of A This is the energy-rich compound that is the source of energy for all living things. It is a nucleotide, comprising a 5C sugar (ribose); an organic base (adenosine); and 3 phosphate

More information

Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy

Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy Energy Flows through the Ecosystem Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy Energy enters the ecosystem in form of solar energy Photosynthesis converts solar energy to chemical energy. and O are

More information

INTRODUCTION TO CELLULAR RESPIRATION. Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

INTRODUCTION TO CELLULAR RESPIRATION. Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. INTRODUCTION TO CELLULAR RESPIRATION 6.2 Breathing supplies oxygen to our cells for use in cellular respiration and removes carbon dioxide Breathing and cellular respiration are closely related Breathing

More information

Summary of Metabolism. Mechanism of Enzyme Action

Summary of Metabolism. Mechanism of Enzyme Action Summary of Metabolism Mechanism of Enzyme Action 1. The substrate contacts the active site 2. The enzyme-substrate complex is formed. 3. The substrate molecule is altered (atoms are rearranged, or the

More information

8/13/2009. Cellular Metabolism. Metabolism. Cellular Metabolism. Summary of Cellular Respiration. Aerobic Cellular respiration

8/13/2009. Cellular Metabolism. Metabolism. Cellular Metabolism. Summary of Cellular Respiration. Aerobic Cellular respiration Metabolism Cellular Metabolism Consists of all of the chemical reactions that take place in a cell Biol 105 Lecture 6 Read Chapter 3 (pages 63 69) Cellular Metabolism Aerobic cellular respiration requires

More information

Chapter 4: Cellular Respiration pg : Aerobic Respiration: The Details pg

Chapter 4: Cellular Respiration pg : Aerobic Respiration: The Details pg UNIT 2: Metabolic Processes Chapter 4: Cellular Respiration pg. 166-209 4.2: Aerobic Respiration: The Details pg. 172-182 Aerobic Respiration (cellular respiration) is the beak down of glucose in the presence

More information

Cell Metabolism. K. Muma Bio 6

Cell Metabolism. K. Muma Bio 6 K. Muma Bio 6 Cell Metabolism Study Objectives: 1. Define oxidation and reduction. 2. Describe the mechanisms of ATP synthesis: substrate level phosphorylation vs. oxidative phosphorylation 3. Write the

More information

INTRODUCTION TO CELLULAR RESPIRATION. Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

INTRODUCTION TO CELLULAR RESPIRATION. Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. INTRODUCTION TO CELLULAR RESPIRATION 6.1 Photosynthesis and cellular respiration provide energy for life Energy is necessary for life processes These include growth, transport, manufacture, movement, reproduction,

More information

Chapter 9. Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy. m/watch?v=9wjdfc 5ISKw

Chapter 9. Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy.  m/watch?v=9wjdfc 5ISKw Chapter 9 Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy http://www.youtube.co m/watch?v=9wjdfc 5ISKw Principles of Energy Harvest Photosynthesis vs. Cellular respiration Principles of Energy Harvest

More information

The Citric Acid Cycle and Oxidative Phosphorylation

The Citric Acid Cycle and Oxidative Phosphorylation Honors Biology Chapter 6.8 6.12 Study Sheet The Citric Acid Cycle and Oxidative Phosphorylation PYRUVATE OXIDATION DRAW THE DETAILED REACTION BELOW: REACTION SUMMARY: SUBSTRATES: PRODUCTS: THE CITRIC ACID

More information

8 CELLULAR RESPIRATION

8 CELLULAR RESPIRATION Cellular Respiration Test Study Guide Redox Reactions What does it mean when something is reduced? Oxidized? What is an oxidizing agent? Reducing agent? Be able to apply these to the cellular respiration

More information

Which statement best describes the movement of ions shown in the diagram? where they create a highly reducing environment and hydrolyze CO 2

Which statement best describes the movement of ions shown in the diagram? where they create a highly reducing environment and hydrolyze CO 2 1. The electron transport chain is a part of cellular respiration. The diagram below shows the movement of ions in the electron transport chain within a mitochondrion. Which statement best describes the

More information

Chapter 9: How Cells Harvest Energy

Chapter 9: How Cells Harvest Energy Chapter 9: How Cells Harvest Energy General Pathways for making ATP Aerobic Respiration Anaerobic Respiration Fermentation Differentiate between aerobic respiration, anaerobic respiration, and fermentation

More information

Photosynthesis takes place in three stages:

Photosynthesis takes place in three stages: Photosynthesis takes place in three stages: Light-dependent reactions Light-independent reactions The Calvin cycle 1. Capturing energy from sunlight 2. Using energy to make ATP and NADPH 3. Using ATP and

More information

Name 6 How Cells Harvest Chemical Energy Test Date Study Guide You must know: The difference between fermentation and cellular respiration.

Name 6 How Cells Harvest Chemical Energy Test Date Study Guide You must know: The difference between fermentation and cellular respiration. Name 6 How Cells Harvest Chemical Energy Test Date Study Guide You must know: The difference between fermentation and cellular respiration. The role of glycolysis in oxidizing glucose to two molecules

More information

Lecture Notes Respiration

Lecture Notes Respiration Lecture Notes Respiration We will consider two processes by which organisms harvest energy from food molecules: Aerobic Respiration more efficient, occurs in presence of O 2 Anaerobic Respiration less

More information

Cellular Energy Acquisition

Cellular Energy Acquisition Cellular Energy Acquisition 1. Organisms that can manufacture their own chemical energy sources are called. 2. depend on energy stored in chemical bonds by autotrophs for their food energy. 3. Simple molecules

More information

Biology Unit 4 Energy and Life. 4:1 Energy All living things require a constant supply of ENERGY. AUTOTROPH: organisms that make their own food

Biology Unit 4 Energy and Life. 4:1 Energy All living things require a constant supply of ENERGY. AUTOTROPH: organisms that make their own food Biology Unit 4 Energy and Life 4:1 Energy All living things require a constant supply of ENERGY. AUTOTROPH: organisms that make their own food HETEROTROPH: obtain energy from the food they consume GLUCOSE:

More information

Glycolysis and the Krebs Cycle

Glycolysis and the Krebs Cycle Why? Glycolysis and the Krebs Cycle What reactions occur in the cell to turn glucose into carbon dioxide? Glucose is a high potential energy molecule. Carbon dioxide on the other hand is a very stable,

More information

MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS

MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS 1. Which of the following statements concerning anabolic reactions is FALSE? A. They are generally endergonic. B. They usually require ATP. C. They are part of metabolism. D.

More information

Chapter 7. How Cells Release Chemical energy

Chapter 7. How Cells Release Chemical energy Chapter 7 How Cells Release Chemical energy Overview of Carbohydrate Breakdown Pathway Plants and all other photoautotrophs get energy from the sun, heterotrophs get by eating plants and one another ATP

More information

Lecture Chapter 6. Cellular Respiration

Lecture Chapter 6. Cellular Respiration Lecture 12-13 Chapter 6 Cellular Respiration How do marathon runners and sprinters differ? Long-distance runners have many SLOW FIBERS in their muscles Slow fibers break down glucose for ATP production

More information

General reactions A reaction wherein an enzyme converts a substrate into a product:

General reactions A reaction wherein an enzyme converts a substrate into a product: BICHEMICAL REACTINS General reactions A reaction wherein an enzyme converts a substrate into a product: E + S ES E + P E = enzyme S = substrate ES = enzyme substrate complex P = product Notes: 1. The enzyme

More information

Cellular Respiration (Chapter 8) Outline. A. All active organisms, including the infamous killer bees, use energy on a steady basis.

Cellular Respiration (Chapter 8) Outline. A. All active organisms, including the infamous killer bees, use energy on a steady basis. The Killers Are Coming! The Killers Are Coming! Cellular Respiration (Chapter 8) Outline A. All active organisms, including the infamous killer bees, use energy on a steady basis. B. Carbon dioxide and

More information

Lecture 6. Cellular respiration is carried out in two stages: Glycolysis Oxidation. An overview of aerobic respiration.

Lecture 6. Cellular respiration is carried out in two stages: Glycolysis Oxidation. An overview of aerobic respiration. Lecture 6 Respiration An Overview of Cellular Respiration Cellular respiration is the harvesting of energy from breakdown of organic molecules produced by plants The overall process may be summarized as

More information

AP BIOLOGY CHAPTER 7 Cellular Respiration Outline

AP BIOLOGY CHAPTER 7 Cellular Respiration Outline AP BIOLOGY CHAPTER 7 Cellular Respiration Outline I. How cells get energy. A. Cellular Respiration 1. Cellular respiration includes the various metabolic pathways that break down carbohydrates and other

More information

2. Give the formula (with names) for the catabolic degradation of glucose by cellular respiration.

2. Give the formula (with names) for the catabolic degradation of glucose by cellular respiration. Chapter 9: Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy Name Period Overview: Before getting involved with the details of cellular respiration and photosynthesis, take a second to look at the big picture.

More information

Ch. 6 Cellular Respiration Period

Ch. 6 Cellular Respiration Period Ch. 6 Cellular Respiration Name Period California State Standards covered by this chapter: Cell Biology 1. The fundamental life processes of plants and animals depend on a variety of chemical reactions

More information

Chapter 9. Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy. Multiple-Choice Questions

Chapter 9. Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy. Multiple-Choice Questions Chapter 9 Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy Multiple-Choice Questions 1) What is the term for metabolic pathways that release stored energy by breaking down complex molecules? A) anabolic

More information

Metabolism. Metabolism. Total of all chemical reactions that occur in the body. Bioenergetics. 1. Anabolic reactions Synthesis of molecules

Metabolism. Metabolism. Total of all chemical reactions that occur in the body. Bioenergetics. 1. Anabolic reactions Synthesis of molecules Metabolism Metabolism Total of all chemical reactions that occur in the body 1. Anabolic reactions Synthesis of molecules 2. Catabolic reactions Breakdown of molecules Bioenergetics Converting foodstuffs

More information

ENERGY AND METABOLISM 1

ENERGY AND METABOLISM 1 ENERGY AND METABOLISM 1 Respiration and Fermentation 1. Some bacteria can use carbon dioxide rather than oxygen as the prime oxidizing molecule and therefore produce methane (CH4) rather than water as

More information

Energy Production In A Cell (Chapter 25 Metabolism)

Energy Production In A Cell (Chapter 25 Metabolism) Energy Production In A Cell (Chapter 25 Metabolism) Large food molecules contain a lot of potential energy in the form of chemical bonds but it requires a lot of work to liberate the energy. Cells need

More information

: Biochemistry of macromolecules and metabolic pathways

: Biochemistry of macromolecules and metabolic pathways 1. 7 Metabolic pathways Metabolic pathways are chains of chemical reactions that occur in cells. Each pathway modifies chemicals using enzymes to catalyse the reactions. This topic guide looks at a metabolic

More information

Introduction to Biology Respiration Chapter 5

Introduction to Biology Respiration Chapter 5 Introduction to Biology Respiration Chapter 5 Introduction Being alive is work. Cells organize small organic molecules into polymers such as the proteins, carbohydrates, and so forth you studied last week.

More information

Study Guide A. Answer Key. Cells and Energy

Study Guide A. Answer Key. Cells and Energy Cells and Energy Answer Key SECTION 1. CHEMICAL ENERGY AND ATP 1. molecule; food molecules 2. high-energy; lower-energy 3. phosphate group 4. a; d; b; c 5. b; e 6. c; d 7. a; f 8. chemical energy; light

More information

Introduction to Life Science BSC Fall Homework 3: Cellular Processes. Connect Due Date: 11/23/ :59PM. Multiple Choice Portion

Introduction to Life Science BSC Fall Homework 3: Cellular Processes. Connect Due Date: 11/23/ :59PM. Multiple Choice Portion Introduction to Life Science BSC 1005 Fall 2011 Homework 3: Cellular Processes Connect Due Date: 11/23/2011 11:59PM Instructions Complete this homework assignment as the material is covered in class. You

More information

Powering the Cell: Cellular Respiration

Powering the Cell: Cellular Respiration Powering the Cell: Cellular Respiration Lesson Objectives Name the three stages of cellular respiration. Give an overview of glycolysis. Explain why glycolysis probably evolved before the other stages

More information

Big Idea 2B Basic Review. 1. Which of the following is the currency of energy in organisms? a. DNA b. RNA c. ATP d. AMP

Big Idea 2B Basic Review. 1. Which of the following is the currency of energy in organisms? a. DNA b. RNA c. ATP d. AMP Big Idea 2B Basic Review 1. Which of the following is the currency of energy in organisms? a. DNA b. RNA c. ATP d. AMP 2. When changing from ADP to ATP: a. A phosphate group is lost b. The phosphate groups

More information

CATABOLISM AND ANABOLISM METABOLISM ENERGY TRANSFER ATP MOLECULE & ENERGY OXIDATION AND REDUCTION

CATABOLISM AND ANABOLISM METABOLISM ENERGY TRANSFER ATP MOLECULE & ENERGY OXIDATION AND REDUCTION METABOLISM Functions of food source of energy essential nutrients stored for future use Metabolism is all the chemical reactions of the body some reactions produce the energy which is stored in that other

More information

Energy Transformation: Cellular Respiration Outline 1. Sources of cellular ATP 2. Turning chemical energy of covalent bonds between C-C into energy

Energy Transformation: Cellular Respiration Outline 1. Sources of cellular ATP 2. Turning chemical energy of covalent bonds between C-C into energy Energy Transformation: Cellular Respiration Outline 1. Sources of cellular ATP 2. Turning chemical energy of covalent bonds between C-C into energy for cellular work (ATP) 3. Importance of electrons and

More information

9.2 The Process of Cellular Respiration

9.2 The Process of Cellular Respiration 9.2 The Process of Cellular Respiration Oxygen Carbon 2 2 Dioxide 34 Water Glycolysis Glycolysis is the first stage of cellular respiration. During glycolysis, glucose is broken down into 2 molecules of

More information

How Cells Release Chemical Energy

How Cells Release Chemical Energy How Cells Release Chemical Energy Chapter 7 Learning Objectives: 1. What is the relationship between cellular respiration and breathing? 2. List the balanced chemical equation that summarizes the complete

More information

How Cells Harvest Chemical Energy

How Cells Harvest Chemical Energy Chapter 6 How Cells Harvest Chemical Energy oweroint Lectures for Biology: Concepts and Connections, Fifth Edition Campbell, Reece, Taylor, and Simon Lectures by Chris Romero How Is a Marathoner Different

More information

AP Bio Photosynthesis & Respiration

AP Bio Photosynthesis & Respiration AP Bio Photosynthesis & Respiration Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. What is the term used for the metabolic pathway in which

More information

Chapter 9 Study Guide. 2. What is the difference between fermentation and cell respiration? (2 pts)

Chapter 9 Study Guide. 2. What is the difference between fermentation and cell respiration? (2 pts) Chapter 9 Study Guide Name 1. Fill in this summary for cellular respiration: (3 pts) + 6 O 2 + 6 H 2 O + 2. What is the difference between fermentation and cell respiration? (2 pts) 3. What do we call

More information

Chapter 7. Harvesting Energy: Glycolysis and Cellular Respiration

Chapter 7. Harvesting Energy: Glycolysis and Cellular Respiration Chapter 7 Harvesting Energy: Glycolysis and Cellular Respiration Including some materials from lectures by Gregory Ahearn University of North Florida Ammended by John Crocker Copyright 2009 Pearson Education,

More information

The Structure and Hydrolysis of ATP

The Structure and Hydrolysis of ATP The Structure and Hydrolysis of ATP ATP drives endergonic reactions by phosphorylation, transferring a phosphate group to some other molecule, such as a reactant The recipient molecule is now called a

More information

How is a Marathoner Different from a Sprinter? Long-distance runners have many slow fibers in their muscles

How is a Marathoner Different from a Sprinter? Long-distance runners have many slow fibers in their muscles How is a Marathoner Different from a Sprinter? Long-distance runners have many slow fibers in their muscles Slow fibers break down glucose aerobically (using oxygen) for ATP production These muscle cells

More information

Energy in a Cell. Concept Mapping. Chapter 9. Photosynthesis: Trapping the Sun s Energy

Energy in a Cell. Concept Mapping. Chapter 9. Photosynthesis: Trapping the Sun s Energy hapter 9 Energy in a ell oncept Mapping Use with hapter 9, Section 9.2 Photosynthesis: Trapping the Sun s Energy omplete the concept map describing photosynthesis. Use these words or phrases once: chemical

More information

I. Cellular Energy Figure 1: Adenosine Triphosphate: ATP. Figure1.1: ATP as an Energy Source ATP:

I. Cellular Energy Figure 1: Adenosine Triphosphate: ATP. Figure1.1: ATP as an Energy Source ATP: I. Cellular Energy Figure 1: Adenosine Triphosphate: ATP Figure1.1: ATP as an Energy Source ATP: 1 II. Chemistry of Aerobic Respiration Figure 2: ATP Consumption & Cellular Respiration Cell Respiration:

More information

Chapter 9 Cellular Respiration and Fermentation*

Chapter 9 Cellular Respiration and Fermentation* Chapter 9 Cellular Respiration and Fermentation* *Lecture notes are to be used as a study guide only and do not represent the comprehensive information you will need to know for the exams. Overview : Life

More information

The Chemical Reactions in Glycolysis

The Chemical Reactions in Glycolysis 12.4 Glycolysis From Hydrolysis Products to Common Metabolites The Chemical Reactions in Glycolysis In the body, energy must be transferred in small amounts to minimize the heat released in the process.

More information

Nutrients Vanessa Jason Biology Roots )

Nutrients Vanessa Jason Biology Roots ) Nutrients 2013 Vanessa Jason Biology Roots ) Cellular Respiration Have you ever wondered why you need to breathe? Why you need oxygen? You need oxygen in order for your body to USE the food that you eat!

More information

Cellular Respiration: How Cells Use Stored Energy. Killer Bees. ATP -- Energy Storage. Chapter 8

Cellular Respiration: How Cells Use Stored Energy. Killer Bees. ATP -- Energy Storage. Chapter 8 Cellular Respiration: How Cells Use Stored Energy Chapter 8 Killer Bees Descendents of African honeybees that were imported to Brazil in the 1950s More aggressive, wider-ranging than other honeybees Africanized

More information

True or False: 1. Reactions are called endergonic if they occur spontaneously and release free energy.

True or False: 1. Reactions are called endergonic if they occur spontaneously and release free energy. True or False: 1. Reactions are called endergonic if they occur spontaneously and release free energy. 2. Enzymes catalyze chemical reactions by lowering the activation energy 3. Biochemical pathways are

More information

3. The final output of the Krebs cycle includes all of the following except? a. NADP b. FADH2 c. ATP d. CO2

3. The final output of the Krebs cycle includes all of the following except? a. NADP b. FADH2 c. ATP d. CO2 Laura Tucker Bio 212 SI Cellular Respiration 1. What are the four steps of cellular respiration? a. b. c. d. 2. The end product of glycolysis is? a. NADH b. Acetyl CoA c. Lactate d. Pyruvate 3. The final

More information

Todays Outline. Metabolism. Why do cells need energy? How do cells acquire energy? Metabolism. Concepts & Processes. The cells capacity to:

Todays Outline. Metabolism. Why do cells need energy? How do cells acquire energy? Metabolism. Concepts & Processes. The cells capacity to: and Work Metabolic Pathways Enzymes Features Factors Affecting Enzyme Activity Membrane Transport Diffusion Osmosis Passive Transport Active Transport Bulk Transport Todays Outline -Releasing Pathways

More information

ADP, ATP and Cellular Respiration. Copyright Cmassengale

ADP, ATP and Cellular Respiration. Copyright Cmassengale ADP, ATP and Cellular Respiration What Is ATP? Energy used by all Cells Adenosine Triphosphate Organic molecule containing highenergy Phosphate bonds Chemical Structure of ATP Adenine Base 3 Phosphates

More information

Energetics Practice Test

Energetics Practice Test Name: Class: _ Date: _ ID: A Energetics Practice Test Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Pyruvic acid is converted to ethyl alcohol and lactic

More information

Cellular Respiration. Cellular respiration is a catabolic, energy-yielding pathway.

Cellular Respiration. Cellular respiration is a catabolic, energy-yielding pathway. Cellular Respiration Typical animal cell Cellular respiration is a catabolic, energy-yielding pathway. It is the process by which organisms break down energy rich molecules, such as glucose, releasing

More information

Intermediate Step. Pyruvic acid (from ) is oxidized and decarboyxlated. Figure

Intermediate Step. Pyruvic acid (from ) is oxidized and decarboyxlated. Figure Intermediate Step Pyruvic acid (from ) is oxidized and decarboyxlated Figure 5.13.1 Krebs Cycle Oxidation of acetyl CoA produces NADH, FADH 2 & ATP Energy from acetyl CoA bonds transferred to? Where in

More information

Cellular Respiration and Fermentation

Cellular Respiration and Fermentation LECTURE PRESENTATIONS For CAMPBELL BIOLOGY, NINTH EDITION Jane B. Reece, Lisa A. Urry, Michael L. Cain, Steven A. Wasserman, Peter V. Minorsky, Robert B. Jackson Chapter 9 Cellular Respiration and Fermentation

More information

An outline of glycolysis.

An outline of glycolysis. An outline of glycolysis. Each of the 10 steps shown is catalyzed by a different enzyme. Note that step 4 cleaves a six-carbon sugar into two three-carbon sugars, so that the number of molecules at every

More information

Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis

Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis A Meridian Biology AP Study Guide by John Ho and Tim Qi Metabolism: Totality of an organism s chemical reactions Free Energy Change : G = H T S Where G = Gibbs free

More information

4. The final output of the Krebs cycle includes all of the following except A) NADP B) FADH2 C) ATP D) CO2

4. The final output of the Krebs cycle includes all of the following except A) NADP B) FADH2 C) ATP D) CO2 Cellular Respiration Multiple Choice Quiz Please answer all questions 1. When energy-depleted elements associated with a proton are accepted by an organic molecule, the process is called A) fermentation

More information

Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy

Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy Chapter 9 Objectives Define oxidation and reduction, and, in general terms, explain how redox reactions are involved in energy exchanges. Name the three

More information

VI. Reaction Coupling and ATP [cont.]

VI. Reaction Coupling and ATP [cont.] VI. Reaction Coupling and [cont.] The cycle hosphorylation Strongly Endergonic Hydrolysis Strongly Exergonic Energy from exergonic reactions AD+ Energy for endergonic reactions Background: VII. Metabolism

More information

Cellular Respiration

Cellular Respiration Cellular Respiration So, all living things need energy in order to stay alive. The transformation of energy and matter in the body is called metabolism. Metabolism involves anabolic (build-up) and catabolic

More information

Chapter 9: CELLULAR RESPIRATION & FERMENTATION

Chapter 9: CELLULAR RESPIRATION & FERMENTATION Chapter 9: CELLULAR RESPIRATION & FERMENTATION 1. Overview of Respiration 2. Glycolysis 3. The Citric Acid Cycle 4. Oxidative Phosphorylation 5. Fermentation 1. Overview of Respiration Chapter Reading

More information

Chapter 8 Harvesting Energy: Glycolysis and Cellular Respiration

Chapter 8 Harvesting Energy: Glycolysis and Cellular Respiration Chapter 8 Harvesting Energy: Glycolysis and Cellular Respiration What is Glucose Metabolism? Answer: The breakdown of glucose to release energy from its chemical bonds Photosynthesis: 6 CO 2 + 6 H 2 O

More information

ATP. The point is to make ATP!

ATP. The point is to make ATP! ATP The point is to make ATP! 2008-2009 The energy needs of life Organisms are endergonic systems. What do we need energy for? synthesis building biomolecules reproduction movement active transport temperature

More information

Autotrophs and Heterotrophs

Autotrophs and Heterotrophs 8-1 Energy and Life Autotrophs and Heterotrophs Living things need energy to survive. This energy comes from food. The energy in most food comes from the sun. Where do plants get the energy they need to

More information

Cellular Respiration. Biology 20 Aerobic Cellular Respiration

Cellular Respiration. Biology 20 Aerobic Cellular Respiration Cellular Respiration Biology 20 Aerobic Cellular Respiration Stages Stage 1: Glycolysis- 10 steps; cytoplasm Stage 2: Pyruvate Oxidation- 1 step; mitochondria Stage 3: The Krebs Cycle- 8 step cyclic; mitochondria

More information

Class XI Chapter 14 Respiration in Plants Biology. 1. It is a biochemical process. 1. It is a physiochemical process.

Class XI Chapter 14 Respiration in Plants Biology. 1. It is a biochemical process. 1. It is a physiochemical process. Question 1: Differentiate between (a) Respiration and Combustion (b) Glycolysis and Krebs cycle (c) Aerobic respiration and Fermentation (a) Respiration and combustion Respiration Combustion 1. It is a

More information

Transfers of electrons during chemical reactions (oxidation-reduction reactions)

Transfers of electrons during chemical reactions (oxidation-reduction reactions) Transfers of electrons during chemical reactions (oxidation-reduction reactions) Relocation of electrons in food molecules releases energy which can be used to synthesize ATP ATP is used to do ALL types

More information

9-2 The Krebs Cycle and Electron Transport

9-2 The Krebs Cycle and Electron Transport Biology 1 of 37 2 of 37 1 Oxygen is required for the final steps of cellular respiration. Because the pathways of cellular respiration require oxygen, they are aerobic. 3 of 37 In the presence of oxygen,

More information

Metabolism - Part 1 Glycolysis & Respiration

Metabolism - Part 1 Glycolysis & Respiration Metabolism - Part 1 Glycolysis & Respiration Cells harvest chemical energy from foodstuffs in a series of exergonic reactions. The harvested energy can then be used to power energy demanding processes

More information

Cellular Respiration and Fermentation

Cellular Respiration and Fermentation Cellular Respiration and Fermentation Cellular Basis of Life Q: How do organisms obtain energy? 9.1 Why do most organisms undergo the process of cellular respiration? WHAT I KNOW SAMPLE ANSWER: Cellular

More information

Oxidation of Cytoplasmic Reduced NAD (NADH+H + )

Oxidation of Cytoplasmic Reduced NAD (NADH+H + ) 1 Oxidation of Cytoplasmic Reduced NAD (NADH+H + ) NADH+H + is continuously formed in the cytoplasm by glycolysis and it must be oxidized to regenerate cytoplasmic NAD + which is important for the process

More information

Harvesting Energy: Glycolysis and Cellular Respiration. Chapter 8

Harvesting Energy: Glycolysis and Cellular Respiration. Chapter 8 Harvesting Energy: Glycolysis and Cellular Respiration Chapter 8 Overview of Glucose Breakdown The overall equation for the complete breakdown of glucose is: C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + ATP The

More information