# Sampling Central Limit Theorem Proportions. Outline. 1 Sampling. 2 Central Limit Theorem. 3 Proportions

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1 Outline 1 Sampling 2 Central Limit Theorem 3 Proportions

2 Outline 1 Sampling 2 Central Limit Theorem 3 Proportions

3 Populations and samples When we use statistics, we are trying to find out information about a whole population by gathering information about just some of them (a sample). population

4 Populations and samples When we use statistics, we are trying to find out information about a whole population by gathering information about just some of them (a sample). population sample

5 Our process population

6 Our process population select sample

7 Our process population select sample compute statistics

8 Our process population parameters select approximate sample compute statistics

9 Our process population describe parameters select approximate sample compute statistics

10 Population Mean vs. Sample Mean For example, we use the sample mean to approximate the population mean. Symbol Considers is a... Population mean µ All members of the population Sample mean x Just our random sample parameter statistic

11 Parameters and Statistics Standard Mean Variance Deviation these are... Population µ σ 2 σ parameters Sample x s 2 s statistics

12 Parameters and Statistics These are what we care about. Standard Mean Variance Deviation these are... Population µ σ 2 σ parameters Sample x s 2 s statistics

13 Parameters and Statistics These are what we care about. Standard Mean Variance Deviation these are... Population µ σ 2 σ parameters Sample x s 2 s statistics These are just our estimates of the top row.

14 Notation convention To keep our variables straight, we typically use the following conventions: We use Greek letters for parameters describing the whole population E.g., µ, σ, σ 2 We use lower-case Roman letters for statistics computed from the sample E.g., x, s, s 2 We use upper-case Roman letters for random variables E.g., X, Z

15 Notation convention To keep our variables straight, we typically use the following conventions: We use Greek letters for parameters describing the whole population E.g., µ, σ, σ 2 We use lower-case Roman letters for statistics computed from the sample E.g., x, s, s 2 We use upper-case Roman letters for random variables E.g., X, Z

16 Notation convention To keep our variables straight, we typically use the following conventions: We use Greek letters for parameters describing the whole population E.g., µ, σ, σ 2 We use lower-case Roman letters for statistics computed from the sample E.g., x, s, s 2 We use upper-case Roman letters for random variables E.g., X, Z

17 Statistics as random variables Every time you take a random sample and compute the sample mean x, you ll probably get a different answer. Thus the sample mean is itself a random variable, written as X. Likewise the sample standard deviation is a random variable, written as S. Distinction When we write x or s, we are thinking of an actual number computed from a specific sample. When we write X or S, we are thinking of the process of computing a sample mean or sample s.d., which gives us different results at different times.

18 Statistics as random variables Every time you take a random sample and compute the sample mean x, you ll probably get a different answer. Thus the sample mean is itself a random variable, written as X. Likewise the sample standard deviation is a random variable, written as S. Distinction When we write x or s, we are thinking of an actual number computed from a specific sample. When we write X or S, we are thinking of the process of computing a sample mean or sample s.d., which gives us different results at different times.

19 Outline 1 Sampling 2 Central Limit Theorem 3 Proportions

20 Experiments Since X is a random variable, we can ask what its probability distribution is. What are its mean and standard deviation? Let s begin with a population distribution, take some random samples, and compute x for each sample. By keeping track of lots of sample means, we ll see what the distribution of X looks like.

21 Experiments Since X is a random variable, we can ask what its probability distribution is. What are its mean and standard deviation? Let s begin with a population distribution, take some random samples, and compute x for each sample. By keeping track of lots of sample means, we ll see what the distribution of X looks like.

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184 Observations We started with a distribution, took samples, and recorded our sample means. The sample means x seemed to be normally distributed. The average of the sample means was the actual population mean. The standard deviation of the sample means seemed smaller than the population standard deviation. All of this was true, no matter what the original distribution looked like. These observations lead to a very, very important theorem!

185 Observations We started with a distribution, took samples, and recorded our sample means. The sample means x seemed to be normally distributed. The average of the sample means was the actual population mean. The standard deviation of the sample means seemed smaller than the population standard deviation. All of this was true, no matter what the original distribution looked like. These observations lead to a very, very important theorem!

186 Observations We started with a distribution, took samples, and recorded our sample means. The sample means x seemed to be normally distributed. The average of the sample means was the actual population mean. The standard deviation of the sample means seemed smaller than the population standard deviation. All of this was true, no matter what the original distribution looked like. These observations lead to a very, very important theorem!

187 Observations We started with a distribution, took samples, and recorded our sample means. The sample means x seemed to be normally distributed. The average of the sample means was the actual population mean. The standard deviation of the sample means seemed smaller than the population standard deviation. All of this was true, no matter what the original distribution looked like. These observations lead to a very, very important theorem!

188 Observations We started with a distribution, took samples, and recorded our sample means. The sample means x seemed to be normally distributed. The average of the sample means was the actual population mean. The standard deviation of the sample means seemed smaller than the population standard deviation. All of this was true, no matter what the original distribution looked like. These observations lead to a very, very important theorem!

189 Observations We started with a distribution, took samples, and recorded our sample means. The sample means x seemed to be normally distributed. The average of the sample means was the actual population mean. The standard deviation of the sample means seemed smaller than the population standard deviation. All of this was true, no matter what the original distribution looked like. These observations lead to a very, very important theorem!

190 Central Limit Theorem Central Limit Theorem Consider a population with mean µ and standard deviation σ. Let the random variable X be the sample mean of a randomly chosen sample of size n. Then X is approximately a normal distribution with mean µ and with standard deviation σ n. In general, the Central Limit Theorem will apply if: the population distribution is normal, OR the population distribution is symmetric and n 10, OR n 30.

191 Central Limit Theorem Central Limit Theorem Consider a population with mean µ and standard deviation σ. Let the random variable X be the sample mean of a randomly chosen sample of size n. Then X is approximately a normal distribution with mean µ and with standard deviation σ n. In general, the Central Limit Theorem will apply if: the population distribution is normal, OR the population distribution is symmetric and n 10, OR n 30.

192 Central Limit Theorem Central Limit Theorem Consider a population with mean µ and standard deviation σ. Let the random variable X be the sample mean of a randomly chosen sample of size n. Then X is approximately a normal distribution with mean µ and with standard deviation σ n. In general, the Central Limit Theorem will apply if: the population distribution is normal, OR the population distribution is symmetric and n 10, OR n 30.

193 What the Central Limit Theorem is not for Let s be clear: we do not use the Central Limit Theorem to get a better approximation of µ by using lots of samples. We only ever do one sample; we only get one red dot. If you want a better approximation, and can afford it, use a larger sample size (i.e., increase n). We only get one red dot (one sample mean x); the Central Limit Theorem will tell us how good it is!

194 What the Central Limit Theorem is for In the next two weeks, we will use the Central Limit Theorem to: calculate error bars to estimate how accurate our sample mean is. test our hypotheses about the population. calculate how firmly we can believe our statistical conclusions. We won t do any of that today, though!

195 Question Example A hardware store receives a shipment of bolts that are supposed to be 12 cm long. The mean is indeed 12 cm, and the standard deviation is 0.2 cm. For quality control, the hardware store chooses 100 bolts at random to measure. They will call the shipment defective and return it to the manufacturer if the average length of the 100 bolts is less than cm or greater than cm. Find the probability that the shipment will be found satisfactory.

196 Question Example A hardware store receives a shipment of bolts that are supposed to be 12 cm long. The mean is indeed 12 cm, and the standard deviation is 0.2 cm. For quality control, the hardware store chooses 100 bolts at random to measure. They will call the shipment defective and return it to the manufacturer if the average length of the 100 bolts is less than cm or greater than cm. Find the probability that the shipment will be found satisfactory. Solution The population has µ = 12 and σ = 0.2, but we are finding the sample mean x of the sample of n = 100 bolts....

197 Example Question... They will call the shipment defective and return it to the manufacturer if the average length of the 100 bolts is less than cm or greater than cm. Find the probability that the shipment will be found satisfactory. Solution, cont. So µ = 12, σ = 0.2, and n = 100. According to the Central Limit Theorem, X is normally distributed with mean µ = 12 and standard deviation σ/ n = 0.2/ 100 = Thus Pr(11.97 X 12.04)

198 Example Question... They will call the shipment defective and return it to the manufacturer if the average length of the 100 bolts is less than cm or greater than cm. Find the probability that the shipment will be found satisfactory. Solution, cont. So µ = 12, σ = 0.2, and n = 100. According to the Central Limit Theorem, X is normally distributed with mean µ = 12 and standard deviation σ/ n = 0.2/ 100 = Thus Pr(11.97 X 12.04)

199 Question... Example They will call the shipment defective and return it to the manufacturer if the average length of the 100 bolts is less than cm or greater than cm. Find the probability that the shipment will be found satisfactory. Solution, cont. So µ = 12, σ = 0.2, and n = 100. According to the Central Limit Theorem, X is normally distributed with mean µ = 12 and standard deviation σ/ n = 0.2/ 100 = Thus Pr(11.97 X 12.04)

200 Example Question... They will call the shipment defective and return it to the manufacturer if the average length of the 100 bolts is less than cm or greater than cm. Find the probability that the shipment will be found satisfactory. Solution, cont. So µ = 12, σ = 0.2, and n = 100. According to the Central Limit Theorem, X is normally distributed with mean µ = 12 and standard deviation σ/ n = 0.2/ 100 = Thus ( Pr(11.97 X 12.04) = Pr Z )

201 Example Question... They will call the shipment defective and return it to the manufacturer if the average length of the 100 bolts is less than cm or greater than cm. Find the probability that the shipment will be found satisfactory. Solution, cont. So µ = 12, σ = 0.2, and n = 100. According to the Central Limit Theorem, X is normally distributed with mean µ = 12 and standard deviation σ/ n = 0.2/ 100 = Thus ( Pr(11.97 X 12.04) = Pr Z 0.02 = Pr ( 1.5 Z 2.0) )

202 Example Question... They will call the shipment defective and return it to the manufacturer if the average length of the 100 bolts is less than cm or greater than cm. Find the probability that the shipment will be found satisfactory. Solution, cont. So µ = 12, σ = 0.2, and n = 100. According to the Central Limit Theorem, X is normally distributed with mean µ = 12 and standard deviation σ/ n = 0.2/ 100 = Thus ( Pr(11.97 X 12.04) = Pr Z 0.02 = Pr ( 1.5 Z 2.0) = Pr(Z 2.0) Pr(Z 1.5) )

203 Example Question... They will call the shipment defective and return it to the manufacturer if the average length of the 100 bolts is less than cm or greater than cm. Find the probability that the shipment will be found satisfactory. Solution, cont. So µ = 12, σ = 0.2, and n = 100. According to the Central Limit Theorem, X is normally distributed with mean µ = 12 and standard deviation σ/ n = 0.2/ 100 = Thus ( Pr(11.97 X 12.04) = Pr Z 0.02 = Pr ( 1.5 Z 2.0) = Pr(Z 2.0) Pr(Z 1.5) = )

204 Example Question... They will call the shipment defective and return it to the manufacturer if the average length of the 100 bolts is less than cm or greater than cm. Find the probability that the shipment will be found satisfactory. Solution, cont. So µ = 12, σ = 0.2, and n = 100. According to the Central Limit Theorem, X is normally distributed with mean µ = 12 and standard deviation σ/ n = 0.2/ 100 = Thus ( Pr(11.97 X 12.04) = Pr Z 0.02 = Pr ( 1.5 Z 2.0) = Pr(Z 2.0) Pr(Z 1.5) = = )

205 Outline 1 Sampling 2 Central Limit Theorem 3 Proportions

206 Two Types of Questions There are two types of statistical questions: Numerical questions, to which the answer is a number How much does this pumpkin weigh? How old are you? Category questions, to which the answer is yes or no Is this mouse infected with the disease? Do you have blue eyes? Everything we ve done so far has been fine for numerical questions. How can we handle these category questions?

207 Two Types of Questions There are two types of statistical questions: Numerical questions, to which the answer is a number How much does this pumpkin weigh? How old are you? Category questions, to which the answer is yes or no Is this mouse infected with the disease? Do you have blue eyes? Everything we ve done so far has been fine for numerical questions. How can we handle these category questions?

208 Two Types of Questions There are two types of statistical questions: Numerical questions, to which the answer is a number How much does this pumpkin weigh? How old are you? Category questions, to which the answer is yes or no Is this mouse infected with the disease? Do you have blue eyes? Everything we ve done so far has been fine for numerical questions. How can we handle these category questions?

209 Two Types of Questions There are two types of statistical questions: Numerical questions, to which the answer is a number How much does this pumpkin weigh? How old are you? Category questions, to which the answer is yes or no Is this mouse infected with the disease? Do you have blue eyes? Everything we ve done so far has been fine for numerical questions. How can we handle these category questions?

210 The main issue: Proportion The main question about a category is, what percentage of the population belongs to the category? Definition A proportion is the percentage of the group that belongs to the category you re interested in. The population proportion is denoted by p. The sample proportion is denoted by p. Because it is a number between 0 and 1, it can also be viewed as the probability that a randomly selected individual belongs to the category. We use the sample proportion to estimate the population proportion.

211 The main issue: Proportion The main question about a category is, what percentage of the population belongs to the category? Definition A proportion is the percentage of the group that belongs to the category you re interested in. The population proportion is denoted by p. The sample proportion is denoted by p. Because it is a number between 0 and 1, it can also be viewed as the probability that a randomly selected individual belongs to the category. We use the sample proportion to estimate the population proportion.

212 The main issue: Proportion The main question about a category is, what percentage of the population belongs to the category? Definition A proportion is the percentage of the group that belongs to the category you re interested in. The population proportion is denoted by p. The sample proportion is denoted by p. Because it is a number between 0 and 1, it can also be viewed as the probability that a randomly selected individual belongs to the category. We use the sample proportion to estimate the population proportion.

213 What proportion of the population is green?

214 What proportion of the population is green?

215 What proportion of the population is green?

216 What proportion of the population is green?

217 What proportion of the population is green? 15 green 20 total

218 What proportion of the population is green? 15 green 20 total p = = 0.75.

219 What proportion of the population is green? So we guess p green 20 total p = = 0.75.

220 What proportion of the population is green? So we guess p green 20 total p = = 0.75.

221 Parameters and Statistics Standard Mean Variance Deviation Proportion Parameter µ σ 2 σ p Statistic x s 2 s p

222 We need a CLT for proportions! Over the next weeks we ll use the CLT to calculate how good x is. The CLT we saw only worked for the sample mean of numerical questions. We want a CLT that will work for p, the sample proportion of category questions. Since the CLT described X, we need an analogue that describes P, which is the number of individuals in a random sample belonging to the category, divided by the sample size n.

223 Calculating P Suppose the actual population proportion is p, and we take a sample of n individuals. Call it a success if an individual belongs to our category. For each individual, the probability of success is p. For each individual, the probability of failure is q = 1 p. This is true for each of the n individuals. We are counting up the number of successes.

224 Calculating P Suppose the actual population proportion is p, and we take a sample of n individuals. Call it a success if an individual belongs to our category. For each individual, the probability of success is p. For each individual, the probability of failure is q = 1 p. This is true for each of the n individuals. We are counting up the number of successes. This is a binomial distribution!! Let B = B(n, p) denote the binomial random variable with n trials and probability p. Then B is the number of successes in a random sample. Thus the sample proportion P # in category equals # in sample = 1 n B.

225 Calculating P Suppose the actual population proportion is p, and we take a sample of n individuals. Call it a success if an individual belongs to our category. For each individual, the probability of success is p. For each individual, the probability of failure is q = 1 p. This is true for each of the n individuals. We are counting up the number of successes. This is a binomial distribution!! Let B = B(n, p) denote the binomial random variable with n trials and probability p. Then B is the number of successes in a random sample. Thus the sample proportion P # in category equals # in sample = 1 n B.

226 Calculating P Suppose the actual population proportion is p, and we take a sample of n individuals. Call it a success if an individual belongs to our category. For each individual, the probability of success is p. For each individual, the probability of failure is q = 1 p. This is true for each of the n individuals. We are counting up the number of successes. This is a binomial distribution!! Let B = B(n, p) denote the binomial random variable with n trials and probability p. Then B is the number of successes in a random sample. Thus the sample proportion P # in category equals # in sample = 1 n B.

227 Calculating P Suppose the actual population proportion is p, and we take a sample of n individuals. Call it a success if an individual belongs to our category. For each individual, the probability of success is p. For each individual, the probability of failure is q = 1 p. This is true for each of the n individuals. We are counting up the number of successes. This is a binomial distribution!! Let B = B(n, p) denote the binomial random variable with n trials and probability p. Then B is the number of successes in a random sample. Thus the sample proportion P # in category equals # in sample = 1 n B.

228 On the last slide, we saw that P = 1 B(n, p). n On the other hand, we know from 7.7 that B(n, p) is approximately the normal distribution with mean µ = np and standard deviation σ = npq. In symbols, B(n, p) N(np, npq). Putting these together, we see that P = 1 B(n, p) n

229 On the last slide, we saw that P = 1 B(n, p). n On the other hand, we know from 7.7 that B(n, p) is approximately the normal distribution with mean µ = np and standard deviation σ = npq. In symbols, B(n, p) N(np, npq). Putting these together, we see that P = 1 B(n, p) n

230 On the last slide, we saw that P = 1 B(n, p). n On the other hand, we know from 7.7 that B(n, p) is approximately the normal distribution with mean µ = np and standard deviation σ = npq. In symbols, B(n, p) N(np, npq). Putting these together, we see that P = 1 B(n, p) n

231 On the last slide, we saw that P = 1 B(n, p). n On the other hand, we know from 7.7 that B(n, p) is approximately the normal distribution with mean µ = np and standard deviation σ = npq. In symbols, B(n, p) N(np, npq). Putting these together, we see that P = 1 B(n, p) n 1 n N(np, npq)

232 On the last slide, we saw that P = 1 B(n, p). n On the other hand, we know from 7.7 that B(n, p) is approximately the normal distribution with mean µ = np and standard deviation σ = npq. In symbols, B(n, p) N(np, npq). Putting these together, we see that P = 1 B(n, p) n 1 n N(np, npq) ( ) np npq = N n, n

233 On the last slide, we saw that P = 1 B(n, p). n On the other hand, we know from 7.7 that B(n, p) is approximately the normal distribution with mean µ = np and standard deviation σ = npq. In symbols, B(n, p) N(np, npq). Putting these together, we see that P = 1 B(n, p) n 1 n N(np, npq) ( ) np npq = N n, n ( ) pq = N p,. n

234 Central Limit Theorem for Proportions Consider a population with proportion p, and let q = 1 p. Let the random variable P be the sample proportion of a randomly chosen sample of size n. Then P is approximately a normal distribution with mean p and with standard deviation pq n.

235 Question Example Suppose that 75% of Concordia students like corn on the cob. If you randomly survey 30 students, what is the probability that your survey says at least 60% like corn on the cob?

236 Question Example Suppose that 75% of Concordia students like corn on the cob. If you randomly survey 30 students, what is the probability that your survey says at least 60% like corn on the cob? Solution The population proportion is p = 0.75, so q = The sample size is n = 30. Thus, by the Central Limit Theorem for Proportions, the sample proportion P is approximately normal with mean p = 0.75 and standard deviation pq n = =

237 Question Example Suppose that 75% of Concordia students like corn on the cob. If you randomly survey 30 students, what is the probability that your survey says at least 60% like corn on the cob? Solution, cont. So the sample proportion P is approximately normal with mean 0.75 and standard deviation Then ( ) Pr( P 0.6) Pr Z = Pr (Z ) =

238 Hints for the Homework Identify whether the problem is about means or proportions. Identify what is the population and what is the sample.

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