Materials and Process Innovation for 3D Printing of Ceramics. David Huson

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1 Centre for Fine Print Research: 3D Laboratory Materials and Process Innovation for 3D Printing of Ceramics David Huson Research Fellow Centre for Fine Print Research University of the West of England

2 Areas of investigation The use of 3D printing technologies and CNC machining to translate a computer 3D model into a mould capable of producing a bespoke ceramic artefact The use of laser scanning, reverse engineering and digital fabrication techniques to facilitate the production of short runs of bespoke ceramic artefact To research the possibilities, and then develop the methodology of forming a bespoke ceramic artefact directly by the use of 3D printing and other RP technologies

3 3D lab equipment

4 3D laser scanning

5 Z- Corp Powder- Binder 3D Prin8ng System Roller Print Head Feed Piston Build Piston Feed Drive Build Drive

6 Z Corp 310 Printer

7 3D printed artworks

8 3D printing of ceramic artworks The 3D computer model is drawn in a CAD program or generated from data collected by a 3D scanner (or a combination of the two) The proprietary material in a Z Corp 3D printer is replaced with a ceramic body powder 3D printing of ceramics allows an artist to move directly from the 3D model to a finished article without using traditional modelling and mould making processes

9 3D printed ceramic test pieces

10 CAD model of impossible ceramic object

11 Printing object in ceramic powder

12 Post-processing printed ceramic

13 3D printed ceramics

14 Spray dried ceramic body Advantage Disadvantage Easily available Prepared body Correct thermal expansion Coarse grain size Poor green strength Needs pre-sintering to post process

15 3D ceramic printing with ball clay

16 3D ceramic printing with ball clay Problems Layers curling during printing Layers moving during printing Cracking and distortion

17 3D ceramic printing with ball clay Advantage Easily available Fine particle size Better green strength so no pre-sintering required Disadvantage High plasticity Low thermal expansion Difficult to fit glaze

18 Earthenware type ceramic body Dry blended from powder constituents ball clay china clay silica filler flux Binder additives to improve green strength Adjust orientation in build bed to reduce layer shift

19 Printed examples

20 Fired examples

21 Earthenware type ceramic body Far better but still some problems Layer shift Variable surface quality High porosity High fired contraction

22 Layer shift

23 Dead swallows

24 Dead swallows

25 Dead swallows

26 Dead swallows

27

28 To improve the process Investigate particle size distribution Increase green strength of body Reduce binder saturation Reduce porosity and contraction Have ability to use wider range of ceramic bodies Decided to develop a process to adapt commercially available ceramic bodies for use with the Z Corp 3D printers

29 New body characteristics Ball milling of body to improve particle size distribution Improved binder in body mix to increase green strength Reduced binder saturation to eliminate layer shifting Adjust the body mix to reduce fired contraction

30 Firing contraction and porosity

31 Manta

32 3D printed in bone china

33 Removing from bed

34 Fired with setter

35 With coloured 3d prints

36 Trumpet sphere cad model

37 Urchin cad model

38 Trumpet sphere 3D printed

39 Urchin 3D printed

40 3D printed ceramic

41 Further developments Need to reduce the porosity and fired shrinkage Need to improve the green strength Need to improve printing performance and eliminate layer shift To achieve these aims it was decided to develop a new type of ceramic body and process methodology that would work specifically with the characteristics of the Z Corp 3D printing system

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50 Future Developments Exhibition of 3D printed ceramic artworks Patent application License agreement with Z Corp.

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