23-5 Transport in Plants Slide 1 of 30

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2 Xylem tissue forms a continuous set of tubes that runs from the roots through stems and out into the spongy mesophyll of leaves. Active transport and root pressure cause water to move from soil into plant roots. Capillary action and transpiration also are needed to transport water and minerals. 2 of 30

3 The combination of root pressure, capillary action, and transpiration provides enough force to move water through the xylem tissue of even the tallest plant. 3 of 30

4 Cohesion is the attraction of molecules of the same substance to each other. Adhesion is the attraction between unlike molecules. 4 of 30

5 The tendency of water to rise in a thin tube is called capillary action. Water is attracted to the walls of the tube, and water molecules are attracted to one another. 5 of 30

6 Capillary action causes water to move much higher in a narrow tube than in a wide tube. 6 of 30

7 Tracheids and vessel elements form hollow connected tubes in a plant. Capillary action in these structures causes water to rise well above the level of the ground. 7 of 30

8 Transpiration In tall plants, the major force in water transport comes from the evaporation of water from leaves during transpiration. 8 of 30

9 When water is lost through transpiration, osmotic pressure moves water out of the vascular tissue of the leaf. 9 of 30

10 The movement of water out of the leaf pulls water upward through the vascular system all the way from the roots. This process is known as transpirational pull. 10 of 30

11 Controlling Transpiration The water content of the leaf is kept relatively constant. When there is a lot of water, water pressure in the guard cells is increased and the stomata open. Excess water is then lost through the open stomata by transpiration. 11 of 30

12 When water is scarce, the opposite occurs. Water pressure in the leaf decreases. The guard cells respond by closing the stomata. This reduces further water loss by limiting transpiration. When too much water is lost, wilting occurs. When a leaf wilts, its stomata close and transpiration slows down. This helps a plant conserve water. 12 of 30

13 Nutrient Transport Nutrient Transport Many plants pump sugars into their fruits. In cold climates, plants pump food into their roots for winter storage. This stored food must be moved back into the trunk and branches of the plant before growth begins again in the spring. 13 of 30

14 Nutrient Transport Movement from Source to Sink A process of phloem transport moves sugars through a plant from a source to a sink. A source is any cell in which sugars are produced by photosynthesis. A sink is any cell where the sugars are used or stored. 14 of 30

15 Nutrient Transport When nutrients are pumped into or removed from the phloem system, the change in concentration causes a movement of fluid in that same direction. As a result, phloem is able to move nutrients in either direction to meet the nutritional needs of the plant. 15 of 30

16 Nutrient Transport One idea that explains how phloem transport takes place is called the pressure-flow hypothesis. 16 of 30

17 Nutrient Transport Sugars produced during photosynthesis are pumped into the phloem (source). Sugar molecules Source cell Phloem Xylem Movement of water Movement of sugar 17 of 30

18 Nutrient Transport As sugar concentrations increase in the phloem, water from the xylem moves in by osmosis. Sugar molecules Source cell Phloem Xylem Movement of water Movement of sugar 18 of 30

19 Nutrient Transport This movement causes an increase in pressure at that point, forcing nutrient-rich fluid to move through the phloem from nutrient-producing regions. Sugar molecules Source cell Phloem Xylem Movement of water Movement of sugar 19 of 30

20 Nutrient Transport. toward a region that uses these nutrients (sink). Movement of water Movement of sugar Sink cell Phloem Xylem 20 of 30

21 Nutrient Transport If part of a plant actively absorbs nutrients from the phloem, osmosis causes water to follow. Movement of water Movement of sugar This decreases pressure and causes a movement of fluid in the phloem toward the sink. Sink cell Phloem Xylem 21 of 30

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