Text Clustering. Clustering

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1 Text Clustering 1 Clustering Partition unlabeled examples into disoint subsets of clusters, such that: Examples within a cluster are very similar Examples in different clusters are very different Discover new categories in an unsupervised manner (no sample category labels provided). 2 1

2 Clustering Example Hierarchical Clustering Build a tree-based hierarchical taxonomy (dendrogram) from a set of unlabeled examples. animal vertebrate fish reptile amphib. mammal invertebrate worm insect crustacean Recursive application of a standard clustering algorithm can produce a hierarchical clustering. 4 2

3 Aglommerative vs. Divisive Clustering Aglommerative (bottom-up) methods start with each example in its own cluster and iteratively combine them to form larger and larger clusters. Divisive (partitional, top-down) separate all examples immediately into clusters. 5 Direct Clustering Method Direct clustering methods require a specification of the number of clusters, k, desired. A clustering evaluation function assigns a realvalue quality measure to a clustering. The number of clusters can be determined automatically by explicitly generating clusterings for multiple values of k and choosing the best result according to a clustering evaluation function. 6 3

4 Hierarchical Agglomerative Clustering (HAC) Assumes a similarity function for determining the similarity of two instances. Starts with all instances in a separate cluster and then repeatedly oins the two clusters that are most similar until there is only one cluster. The history of merging forms a binary tree or hierarchy. 7 HAC Algorithm Start with all instances in their own cluster. Until there is only one cluster: Among the current clusters, determine the two clusters, c i and c, that are most similar. Replace c i and c with a single cluster c i c 8 4

5 Cluster Similarity Assume a similarity function that determines the similarity of two instances: sim(x,y). Cosine similarity of document vectors. How to compute similarity of two clusters each possibly containing multiple instances? Single Link: Similarity of two most similar members. Complete Link: Similarity of two least similar members. Group Average: Average similarity between members. 9 Single Link Agglomerative Clustering Use maximum similarity of pairs: sim( c, c ) = max sim( x, y) i x c, y i c Can result in straggly (long and thin) clusters due to chaining effect. Appropriate in some domains, such as clustering islands. 10 5

6 Single Link Example 11 Complete Link Agglomerative Clustering Use minimum similarity of pairs: sim( c, c i ) = min x c, y i c sim( x, y) Makes more tight, spherical clusters that are typically preferable. 12 6

7 Complete Link Example 13 Computing Cluster Similarity After merging c i and c, the similarity of the resulting cluster to any other cluster, c k, can be computed by: Single Link: sim (( ci c ), ck ) = max( sim( ci, ck ), sim( c, ck )) Complete Link: sim (( ci c ), ck ) = min( sim( ci, ck ), sim( c, ck )) 14 7

8 Group Average Agglomerative Clustering Use average similarity across all pairs within the merged cluster to measure the similarity of two clusters. 1 r r sim( ci, c) = sim( x, y) c c ( c c 1) r r r r i i x ( c c ) y ( c c ): y x Compromise between single and complete link. i i 15 Non-Hierarchical Clustering Typically must provide the number of desired clusters, k. Randomly choose k instances as seeds, one per cluster. Form initial clusters based on these seeds. Iterate, repeatedly reallocating instances to different clusters to improve the overall clustering. Stop when clustering converges or after a fixed number of iterations. 16 8

9 K-Means Assumes instances are real-valued vectors. Clusters based on centroids, center of gravity, or mean of points in a cluster, c: r 1 r µ(c) = x c x r c Reassignment of instances to clusters is based on distance to the current cluster centroids. 17 Distance Metrics Euclidian distance (L 2 norm): m r r 2 L2 ( x, y) = ( x i yi ) i= 1 L 1 norm: m r r L1 ( x, y) = x i y i i= 1 Cosine Similarity (transform to a distance by subtracting from 1): 1 r x r x r y r y 18 9

10 K-Means Algorithm Let d be the distance measure between instances. Select k random instances {s 1, s 2, s k } as seeds. Until clustering converges or other stopping criterion: For each instance x i : Assign x i to the cluster c such that d(x i, s ) is minimal. Update the seeds to the centroid of each cluster: For each cluster c s = µ(c ) 19 K Means Example (K=2) Pick seeds Reassign clusters Compute centroids Reasssign clusters x x x x Compute centroids Reassign clusters Converged! 20 10

11 Seed Choice Results can vary based on random seed selection. Some seeds can result in poor convergence rate, or convergence to sub-optimal clusterings. Select good seeds using a heuristic or the results of another method. 21 Text Clustering HAC and K-Means have been applied to text in a straightforward way. Typically use normalized, TF/IDF-weighted vectors and cosine similarity. Optimize computations for sparse vectors. Applications: During retrieval, add other documents in the same cluster as the initial retrieved documents to improve recall. Clustering of results of retrieval to present more organized results to the user (à la Northernlight folders). Automated production of hierarchical taxonomies of documents for browsing purposes (à la Yahoo & DMOZ)

12 Soft Clustering Clustering typically assumes that each instance is given a hard assignment to exactly one cluster. Does not allow uncertainty in class membership or for an instance to belong to more than one cluster. Soft clustering gives probabilities that an instance belongs to each of a set of clusters. Each instance is assigned a probability distribution across a set of discovered categories (probabilities of all categories must sum to 1). 23 Exercise Cluster to following documents using K-means with K=2 and cosine similarity. Doc1: go monster go Doc2: go karting Doc3: karting monster Doc4: monster monster Assume Doc1 and Doc3 are chosen as initial seeds. Use tf (no idf). Show the clusters and their centroids for each iteration. The algorithm should converge after 2 iterations

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