Higher Yields: Pros and Cons of GMOs. Fall 2013

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Higher Yields: Pros and Cons of GMOs. Fall 2013"

Transcription

1 Higher Yields: Pros and Cons of GMOs JT Fall

2 The horror stories of GMOs are out there. Genetically modified organisms have not been studied enough. Eating them can lead to countless links to diseases, or disabilities. They take away genetic diversity. The idea and the risks of genetic modification can sound scary, but we need to look beyond that initial fear. GMOs could help feed a hungry world by making crops more convenient and easier to grow in places where it has formerly been too difficult. Advantages of Genetically Modified Organisms include faster crop production, higher yields, decreased need for pesticides, and health benefits. These advantages outweigh unfounded concerns about health risks, links to disease and economic hardships for small family farms. The worry that GMOs are unnatural and that that has a detrimental effect on the human body is not valid because everything we eat, by definition is unnatural. But first what exactly is a GMO? A GMO is an organism that has been altered through genetic engineering to have a different genetic make- up. This process can be done in many different ways, but the goal is always similar. Scientists are trying to create an organism that can grow better in specific conditions, and produce a higher yield. Explore Directory is a site which was created to try to help make people more aware of what GMOs are. Biotechnology in plant agriculture has come to mean the process of intentionally making a copy of a gene for a desired trait from one plant or organism and using it in another plant. The result is a GMO (expoloredirectory). And why are they controversial? The first genetically modified organism was created and patented in 1980.This was 45 years after the discovery of DNA. This means it only took us 45 years to isolate a gene from DNA and figure out how to transfer it to another organism. This specific GMO was a bacterium that consumed crude oil. It was designed to be released into the ocean after oil spills to rid of all of the oil. Fifteen years after the first GMO patent, Flavr Savr introduced a genetically modified tomato to the market. This tomato was hyped up for months before it was 2

3 released. It was advertised as great tasting, just like it was grown in your own back yard. (Schonwald) This specific product was a huge failure; it tasted terrible and this was the start of the anti- GMO campaigning. Although this first GMO was not a success, it did not hold researchers and scientists back for long. In 1996, the first weed resistant crop was created. Most of the research after the tomato fiasco was not geared towards food products to make them taste better, or to make them look prettier. What scientists thought was important changed, and they started focusing more on creating weed, bug and weather resistant crops. (Woolsey) The actual process of genetic modification can be done in two ways. GMO s are the transformation of the organism. One method is using a gene gun. This method has been most useful during the transformation of monocot species. This means the plant only has one seed leaf. Examples of these monocots are corn and rice. This method of modification actually shoots genes into the plant cells. (Keefer) To do this, many steps take place. First scientists must extract the DNA from the organism with the gene of interest. Then, to get the exact gene they need, they use gene cloning. They make thousands of copies of the gene they need. After the scientists have the exact gene they need, they insert it into the cell using the gene gun or agrobacterium. (AgBiosafety) Agrobacterium is the other method most commonly used. This is most commonly used in dicots, plants with two seed leaves, like soybeans and tomatoes. It has recently been modified to be able to be used in monocot plants as well. Agrobacterium is considered to be a more natural way of genetic modification by biologists. Scientists are able to make a plasmid, which is a small piece of DNA, and then get another organism to accept it. Once the other organism accepts it, it makes a copy of it through Mitosis as if the plasmid were it s own. Agrobacterium works this 3

4 way. It uses Mitosis as a way to spread it s genes through replication. (Keefer) Benefits of GMOs The benefits of GMO s are evident in the lives of many farmers in the U.S currently. A convenience benefit derived from having to devote less time to crop walking and/or applying insecticides (Graham and Barefoot). Using a modified crop is far more convenient to grow and produce. The entire process is faster and requires less work. The growing season is shorter, so the harvest comes sooner and they can go to market faster. GMOs require less manual labor. Walking crops to spray or pick weeds is not necessary when the plant is already bred with weed resistant genes. The time usually spent on spraying for insects and weeds can now be spent doing something else. Money usually spent on insecticides and herbicides can now be spent on other things. Farmers also save money when using GMOs because they do not need to buy the expensive equipment used to apply these herbicides and pesticides. Rohwer, a small town farmer in Iowa began using genetically modified crops, and the difference is drastic. Looking around at other farms, organic ones, he noticed the weather had definitely taken its toll. Despite what would have typically equaled a terrible growing season, late winter and then a drought, this year has been one with an incredible harvest, harvesting a bigger crop than many years before. As he said before, I drive by the organic farms and can barely see a crop there (Rohwer). Possibilities like this previous one exist that never existed before Genetic engineering, however, overcomes the barriers that have existed for three billion years of evolution and now transfers genes between unrelated species, genera or kingdoms (Bruges, 155). The transferring of genes between unrelated species is key to genetically modifying organisms. We are able to, for example, take a gene from a carrot and put it into a rice plant so that rice plant has more 4

5 vitamin A. This specific example, called Golden Rice, has been very helpful in creating healthier food choices. Many countries around the world have taken advantage of this option. Some people do not take advantages of these healthier options because it is unnatural. People tend to think that crops that are not GMOs are totally natural. No commercially available crops in the US were created by nature alone. Humans, over our history, have altered all of our crops, often for taste or yield or disease resistance (exploredirectory). Crops that are totally natural don t exist on a commercial level anymore, they are not available for farmers to buy and sell. The definition of natural is existing in nature and not made or caused by people: coming from nature (Merriam-Webster). Since man has learned how, they have been altering the way our crops grow, simply through selective breeding. Selective breeding is also a way to genetically modify and play with crops. When farmers breed selectively, they look at their crop and choose which will be best for reproduction, depending on what s needed. Some farmers breed for produce, some for disease resistance; there are many things to look for. After they choose what they want, they only allow those specific plants to reproduce. Is this then an unnatural way to produce crops? Some purists think so, it has been established practice since the 11 th century. GMOs are not only used in the U.S, but they are used and benefited from around the world. Borlaug, who received a Nobel Peace in 1970 for his efforts to feed a hungry world, said genetic engineering (a term he prefers to GMOs) was the only technology that must be embraced by countries whose food supply is threatened by the inequalities of the world (Tervil). Borlaug is right. For countries to overcome their disadvantages, such as geography or weather, the modification of crops may be necessary to produce enough food. 5

6 Borlaug is a man who was incredibly anti GMO, but he was also searching for a way to help feed the world. After really looking into the facts and science of genetic modification, he had a drastic change of heart. He was one of the biggest campaigners for GMOs and, as said before, won a Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts in helping to feed a hungry world. "Dosage makes the poison. But vitamins, which are vital, are taken in smaller quantities. If we could get a gene from rice - because rice does not suffer from rust - and then use it to protect other crops that suffer from rust like wheat, that would be a big revolution, and that will not be dangerous to human health in any way" (Borlaug). The current concerns over GMOs There are many possible reasons to be concerned about GMOs at first. Without much studying, or research, they can be scary. Even after some researching, not everything about GMOs is perfect. There are flaws and unfounded concerns. Much of the doubt of GMOs sprang up about 15 years ago. There was a failure by a company trying to produce the first genetically modified tomato for the grocery stores. (Schonwald) An article was written in the New York Times titled, You Call That a Tomato? The article talked about how people cannot buy tomatoes that taste like tomatoes anymore and how the promises of a longer shelf-life did not come through. (Winerip) This was the start of many skeptics of GMOs. One major concern is that GMOs might wreak havoc on the human body, or the possible links to diseases. There are concerns that a proper amount of research has not been conducted on GMOs to be sure that they are safe. The first major research project on GMOs was done in Britain in This research project was handled incredibly poorly, so it ruined the confidence of many. (Bruges, 154) Since then, the concern that GMOs are not tested enough still exists, but they are in fact tested much more than many realize. Today s GM products are the most 6

7 researched and tested agricultural products in history (Exploredirectory). Yet, this can still be argued with, as many say that GMOs are only tested by the companies trying to make a profit off of them. Jon Entine is contributor to Forbes magazine. He wrote an article sharing his strong opinion about GMOs. Anti-GMO campaigners, including many organic supporters, assert time and again that genetically modified crops have not been safety tested or that the research done to date on the health or environmental impact of GMOs has all been done by the companies that produce the seeds. Therefore, they claim, consumers are taking a leap of faith in concluding that they face no harm from consuming foods made with genetically modified ingredients. That is false. Every major international science body in the world has reviewed multiple independent studies in some cases numbering in the hundreds in coming to the consensus conclusion that GMO crops are as safe or safer than conventional or organic foods (Entine). GMOs have in fact been studied a significant amount and even though they have not been around for much longer than a decade, we still have reasons to be confident that they are completely safe for human consumption and our environment. No evidence exists to show genetically modified crops are dangerous. In the years that farmers have grown crops from GM seeds (since around 1994), there has not been a single documented instance of harm to human health resulting from genetic modifications, including new allergic reactions (Exploredirectory). So where are these worries coming from? Anecdotal evidence has linked GMOs to autism, but no such scientific correlation has corroborated these concerns. In the last four years the cases of autism in California have doubled. While this is a reason for concern it is doubtful that this is related to GMOs. The benefits of GMOs have been taken advantage of for about ten years. So, a change in the last four years may not be at all related. There is also no proof relating these occurrences, but the worry is still there as there is no proof to say that they are in no way related. 7

8 The future Many of the benefits are already being reaped, but with the future many more will become apparent. A lot of scientific research still needs to take place in order for us to take full advantage of GMOs. Once more of the world gets on board, and more focus is put into perfecting these modifications, we will receive even more benefits. The majority of agricultural scientists, including myself, anticipate great benefits from biotechnology in the coming decades to help meet our future needs for food and fiber (Borlaug). As more scientific research is done, GMOs will become a safer product to use. Although hundreds of studies have already been done on them, the more time scientists have to observe them, the more they will know about them and how useful they can be. The technology and information that has been gained while doing research for GMOs extends far beyond just agriculture. So much has been learned about many different scientific fields. So far, biotechnology has had the greatest impact in medicine and public health. However, there are a number of fascinating developments that are approaching commercial applications in agriculture (Borlaug). The information being gained, regardless of whether or not it goes towards the production and use of GMOs, will prove to be incredibly helpful and a great guiding hand in science. Some ideas for GMOs are not very developed yet, but there are many hopeful signs that point in the direction that they will be very helpful later on after more research has been done. An example of this is the production of transgenic plants that will be able to control diseases from viruses and fungi. Although this isn t yet developed to its full potential, scientists have seen genes in certain transgenic varieties of potatoes and rice that show promising potential for protection of these diseases. Once things like this are further developed, we will actually be able 8

9 to save crops from sweeping diseases that could take out entire fields of crops. This is a major concern of any genetic modification. It is a common worry that the modification will result in a lack of genetic diversity. Without genetic diversity, one fungal disease could wipe out dozens of acres of a crop. With the ability to breed a plant with genes protecting these crops from this; the problem could be eliminated. Of course this wouldn t be a perfect solution. It would work sort of like a vaccination. Scientists would have to try to decide the disease with the most potential damage and then create something to work against that. Concerns for the future of GMOs are similar to the concerns people currently have. People are scared that continued use will present some sort of danger that currently has not been seen. GMOs have not been used for very long, so with further use it is possible some sort of detrimental effects towards our environment or our bodies from consuming them, would be noticed. Not everyone is sold on the method used to genetically modify organisms. Depending on which method is used, there are certain risks. People are also worried that planting these modified crops next to an organic field could create contamination. It is possible for seeds to blow over into a neighboring field. There are many aspects of genetically modified organisms not discussed in this paper, specifically, how GMOs would affect the economy nationally and internationally. Diving into this would open up a lot more to look at when deciding whether or not GMOs are overall beneficial for the world. GMOs are an important thing for all of us to think about. They could change so much about how our world operates agriculturally, and the percentage of the population that is 9

10 starving. They could also change how people organize their diets. Imagine if it were possible to get all the vitamin A needed in a day from one serving of rice. Through genetic modification, this could happen. The possibilities of GMOs are endless. This is why more research is necessary. With more research we could do so much. We would also have more substantial data to prove that GMOs are not unhealthy or damaging to our environment. With more progression where could we be? We have a long way to go with GMOs, but we will get there and it will be well worth it. 10

11 Works Cited "AgBiosafety at UNL - Biotech Basic The Preocess of Plant Genetic Engineering."AgBiosafety at UNL - Biotech Basic The Preocess of Plant Genetic Engineering. University of Nebraska, Web. 06 Dec < Borlaug, Norman E. "Ending World Hunger. The Promise of Biotechnology and the Threat of Antiscience Zealotry." Ending World Hunger. The Promise of Biotechnology and the Threat of Antiscience Zealotry. American Society of Plant Physiologists, Oct Web. 11 Oct Brookes, Graham, and Peter Barefoot. PG Economics Ltd, UK. Dorchester, UK: n.p., Print. Biotech Crop Impact. Bruges, James. "Making New Plants." The Little Earth Book. New York, NY: Disinformation, Print. Entine, Jon. "2000 Reasons Why GMOs Are Safe To Eat And Environmentally Sustainable."Forbes. Forbes Magazine, 14 Oct Web. 17 Oct < Keefer, Jared. "Science Behind Genetically Engineered Stuff." Science Behind Genetically Engineered Stuff. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Oct < "Natural." Merriam-Webster.com. Merriam-Webster, n.d. Web. 9 Dec < 11

12 Okoko, Tervil. "Norman Borlaug Blasts GMO Doomsayers." Norman Borlaug Blasts GMO Doomsayers. African News Service, 7 June Web. 05 Oct Schonwald, Josh. "Engineering The Future Of Food." Futurist 46.3 (2012): 24. MasterFILE Premier. Web. 15 Sept What Is a GMO? An Introduction."Exploredirectory." N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Sept Winerip, Michael. You Call That a Tomato? New York Times, 24 June Web. 10 Dec < Woosley, G. L. "GMO Timeline: A History of Genetically Modified Foods." GMO Inside. Rosebud, 13 Sept Web. 15 Oct < 12

Advantages and Disadvantages of Genetically Modified Organisms

Advantages and Disadvantages of Genetically Modified Organisms Advantages and Disadvantages of Genetically Modified Organisms Submitted to Carmen Derksen Business English 156 Submitted by Mike Prodan December 7, 2012 Advantages and Disadvantages of Genetically Modified

More information

What s wrong with GM?

What s wrong with GM? CIIR environmental action leaflet What s wrong with GM? Why genetically modified crops are bad for people and bad for the environment Why should we care? Genetic engineering of crops is a complex and controversial

More information

FACT SHEET. Production Risk

FACT SHEET. Production Risk ALABAMA AGRICULTURAL & MECHANICAL UNIVERSITY SMALL FARMERS RESEARCH CENTER FACT SHEET Production Risk Any production related activity or event that is uncertain is a production risk. Agricultural production

More information

What role can GM sugarcane play in sustainability

What role can GM sugarcane play in sustainability What role can GM sugarcane play in sustainability 30 April 2015 Contents Introduction Global uptake of GM technology Evolution of GM technologies Obstacles to realise GM opportunities in sugarcane Why

More information

Biotechnology and its Applications

Biotechnology and its Applications Chapter-12 Biotechnology and its Applications Very Short Answers Questions: 1. Give different types of cry genes and pests which are controlled by the proteins encoded by these genes? A: cryiac, cryiiab

More information

Biotech Foods Community Snapshot

Biotech Foods Community Snapshot Biotech Foods Community Snapshot Introduction Lesson Introduction Biotechnology is becoming a commonly used term in today s society. Recent surveys conducted on consumer attitudes toward biotech foods,

More information

GMO s, the moment of truth?

GMO s, the moment of truth? 1 10 00 15 11 Pay close attention to what you are about to see. These images will be seen around the world. These rats have been fed with transgenic corn during their entire life. The tumours they suffer

More information

Basic Farming Questions What did you grow on the farm when you first started? Are you a first generation farm owner or has your family been in

Basic Farming Questions What did you grow on the farm when you first started? Are you a first generation farm owner or has your family been in MASTER LIST OF POSSIBLE QUESTIONS FOR FARMER INTERVIEWS: Choose a subset of 15-20 of these questions and have them ready in case the conversation hits a slow spot. Personal History When did you start farming?

More information

Doroteya Raykova Grzegorz Dziurawiec Michaël da Veiga Mendes Sylwia Misiaszek Vasil Savov

Doroteya Raykova Grzegorz Dziurawiec Michaël da Veiga Mendes Sylwia Misiaszek Vasil Savov Doroteya Raykova Grzegorz Dziurawiec Michaël da Veiga Mendes Sylwia Misiaszek Vasil Savov Definition A genetically modified organism is altered by the means of genetic engineering so that it possesses

More information

Genetic Engineering of Plants

Genetic Engineering of Plants Genetic Engineering of Plants Chem 210 3/22/00 What we ve learned so far... Genes can be cloned into vectors (such as plasmids). These vectors can be introduced into bacteria (such as E. coli). The foreign

More information

DO WE HAVE TO PROHIBIT GMO IN ORGANIC FARMING?

DO WE HAVE TO PROHIBIT GMO IN ORGANIC FARMING? EU SOCRATES/ ERASMUS PROGRAM IP PROJECT: BIOETHICS IN LIFE AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES. 14-27 APRIL 2008, PERUGIA DO WE HAVE TO PROHIBIT GMO IN ORGANIC FARMING? Sofia Tsaknaki Madalina Ecaterina Cucu Elene-Irina

More information

Public Perceptions of Labeling Genetically Modified Foods

Public Perceptions of Labeling Genetically Modified Foods Public Perceptions of Labeling Genetically Modified Foods Working Paper 2013-01 William K. Hallman, Ph.D. Cara L. Cuite, Ph.D. Xenia K. Morin, Ph.D. Release date: November 1, 2013 For more information:

More information

Recombinant DNA and Biotechnology

Recombinant DNA and Biotechnology Recombinant DNA and Biotechnology Chapter 18 Lecture Objectives What Is Recombinant DNA? How Are New Genes Inserted into Cells? What Sources of DNA Are Used in Cloning? What Other Tools Are Used to Study

More information

Lesson 13 Genetic modification

Lesson 13 Genetic modification 77 Lesson 13 modification 78 modification Suitable for: 14 16 years Curriculum and learning links: modification Learning objectives: Describe the process of genetic modification. Explain some of the ethical

More information

Determining the Use of Technology in World Food and Fiber Production

Determining the Use of Technology in World Food and Fiber Production Lesson A8 1 Determining the Use of Technology in World Food and Fiber Production Unit A. Mechanical Systems and Technology Problem Area 8. Technology Systems Lesson 1. Determining the Use of Technology

More information

FAQs: Gene drives - - What is a gene drive?

FAQs: Gene drives - - What is a gene drive? FAQs: Gene drives - - What is a gene drive? During normal sexual reproduction, each of the two versions of a given gene has a 50 percent chance of being inherited by a particular offspring (Fig 1A). Gene

More information

Madolyn Drebenstedt Mediapolis High School Mediapolis, IA Philippines, Factor 4 Animal Health Philippines: Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus In the

Madolyn Drebenstedt Mediapolis High School Mediapolis, IA Philippines, Factor 4 Animal Health Philippines: Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus In the Madolyn Drebenstedt Mediapolis High School Mediapolis, IA Philippines, Factor 4 Animal Health Philippines: Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus In the modern world today technology is all around. Everyone from

More information

GENE CLONING AND RECOMBINANT DNA TECHNOLOGY

GENE CLONING AND RECOMBINANT DNA TECHNOLOGY GENE CLONING AND RECOMBINANT DNA TECHNOLOGY What is recombinant DNA? DNA from 2 different sources (often from 2 different species) are combined together in vitro. Recombinant DNA forms the basis of cloning.

More information

Life-Science Economics and Policy

Life-Science Economics and Policy Life-Science Economics and Policy Winter Term 2011/12 Dr. Maarten J. Punt Technische Universität München - Weihenstephan maarten.punt@tum.de http://www.wzw.tum.de/aew/ GMO adoption by countries What is

More information

The use of genetically modified crops in developing countries

The use of genetically modified crops in developing countries The use of genetically modified crops in developing countries a guide to the Discussion Paper Introduction The Nuffield Council on Bioethics provoked vigorous debate with the publication of its Report,

More information

Investigate How Food is Produced, Distributed, Exchanged, and Consumed

Investigate How Food is Produced, Distributed, Exchanged, and Consumed OUR GLOBAL KITCHEN Activities for Grades 6 8 Investigate How Food is Produced, Distributed, Exchanged, and Consumed OVERVIEW Students will investigate the way food is produced, distributed, exchanged,

More information

Encouraging children to taste fresh fruits and vegetables at an early age is the best way to develop healthy eating habits that will last a lifetime.

Encouraging children to taste fresh fruits and vegetables at an early age is the best way to develop healthy eating habits that will last a lifetime. Introduction Music. Encouraging children to taste fresh fruits and vegetables at an early age is the best way to develop healthy eating habits that will last a lifetime. What s this? A banana. It looks

More information

Today we will talk about the importance of our environment: what it is and how do we use it.

Today we will talk about the importance of our environment: what it is and how do we use it. In the previous presentation on Human Health and Pesticides, we discussed some of the negative consequences associated with pesticide use. In this presentation we will focus on environmental degradation

More information

Introduction to the Biotechnology Supplement

Introduction to the Biotechnology Supplement Introduction to the Biotechnology Supplement What is Biotechnology? Any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes

More information

THE EFFECT OF SCIENCE IN COCOA PRODUCTION FARMER S POINT OF VIEW

THE EFFECT OF SCIENCE IN COCOA PRODUCTION FARMER S POINT OF VIEW THE EFFECT OF SCIENCE IN COCOA PRODUCTION FARMER S POINT OF VIEW I can speak to you as a farmer that is producing sustainable cocoa and as a shipper that buys sustainable cocoa directly from the farms.

More information

Level D - Form 1 - Reading: Recall Information

Level D - Form 1 - Reading: Recall Information Level D - Form 1 - Reading: Recall Information Sample Question Read the paragraph. Then choose the best answer to the question. Audrey did her best to keep up with the aerobics tape, but her body just

More information

Educational Resources. Introduction Activity for Middle School Students

Educational Resources. Introduction Activity for Middle School Students SM Introduction Activity for Middle School Students 1 [Note to teacher: Use the following questions and comments to explain to your students how their involvement in the Helping Hands program will provide

More information

Projects 12448, Outlook On Biotechnology: Industry Leaders Convention Attendees General Public

Projects 12448, Outlook On Biotechnology: Industry Leaders Convention Attendees General Public Projects 12448, 12458 Outlook On Biotechnology: Industry Leaders Convention Attendees General Public Methodology On behalf of the Biotechnology Industry Organization (BIO), Public Opinion Strategies and

More information

3.7 Implied Labor Hours

3.7 Implied Labor Hours 3.7 Implied Labor Hours USDA data for the period 1990 through 2011 is presented to describe the implied amount of labor that is used to produce an acre and unit of output (e.g., labor hours per bushel

More information

APES ~ BIOENGINEERED FOODS and IRRADIATED FOODS

APES ~ BIOENGINEERED FOODS and IRRADIATED FOODS APES ~ BIOENGINEERED FOODS and IRRADIATED FOODS WHAT TO TURN IN (paper-clip them together): BIOENGINEERED FOOD BOOKLET IRRADIATED FOODS TRUE-FALSE QUIZ, GRADED IRRADIATED FOODS SIGN/MINI-POSTER PART 1:

More information

1. INTRODUCTION. Rice is the most cultivated major food crop in the world. It is the staple food for

1. INTRODUCTION. Rice is the most cultivated major food crop in the world. It is the staple food for INTRODUCTION 1. INTRODUCTION Rice is the most cultivated major food crop in the world. It is the staple food for seventeen countries in Asia and the Pacific, eight countries in Africa, seven countries

More information

Discover How To Swarm Your Website With 1,000-5,000-10,000+ Daily Visitors Using YouTube - for FREE!

Discover How To Swarm Your Website With 1,000-5,000-10,000+ Daily Visitors Using YouTube - for FREE! Attention: Internet Marketers Looking to Boost Their Website Traffic Discover How To Swarm Your Website With 1,000-5,000-10,000+ Daily Visitors Using YouTube - for FREE! This Online Workshop Reveals The

More information

GMOs in South Africa Series

GMOs in South Africa Series Labelling of genetically modified food in South Africa Food labelling your right to know It is a consumers right to know what is in their food and to make informed choices about what they eat. Yet, South

More information

BARRIERS TO WIDESPREAD CONVERSION FROM CHEMICAL PEST CONTROL TO NON-CHEMICAL METHODS IN U.S. AGRICULTURE

BARRIERS TO WIDESPREAD CONVERSION FROM CHEMICAL PEST CONTROL TO NON-CHEMICAL METHODS IN U.S. AGRICULTURE BARRIERS TO WIDESPREAD CONVERSION FROM CHEMICAL PEST CONTROL TO NON-CHEMICAL METHODS IN U.S. AGRICULTURE 1 Leonard Gianessi and 2 Nathan Reigner CropLife Foundation, Crop Protection Research Institute,

More information

What Is Holistic Planned Grazing?

What Is Holistic Planned Grazing? What Is Holistic Planned Grazing? Holistic Planned Grazing is a planning process for dealing simply with the great complexity livestock managers face daily in integrating livestock production with crop,

More information

OBJECTIVES: To understand decisions farmers must make in order to stay in business and how the government actions can impact these decisions.

OBJECTIVES: To understand decisions farmers must make in order to stay in business and how the government actions can impact these decisions. TITLE: Show Me the Money OBJECTIVES: To understand decisions farmers must make in order to stay in business and how the government actions can impact these decisions. TIME REQUIRED: 11/2 to 2 hours PREPARATION:

More information

Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology

Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology 1 So, what is biotechnology?? The use of living organisms to carry out defined chemical processes for industrial or commercial application. The office of Technology Assessment of the U.S. Congress defines

More information

SCOPE AND IMPORTANCE Pl. Path 604

SCOPE AND IMPORTANCE Pl. Path 604 BIOTECHNOLOGY IN PLANT PATHOLOGY SCOPE AND IMPORTANCE Pl. Path 604 What is biotechnology? Biology+ technology i.e. involves the exploitation of biological agents or their components for generating userful

More information

PRODUCTION. 1The Surplus

PRODUCTION. 1The Surplus 1The Surplus 2 The US economy produces an amazing number of different products: thousands of different foods, countless movies, dozens of different type cars, hundreds of entertainment products, dozens

More information

History of Agricultural Biotechnology: How Crop Development has Evolved

History of Agricultural Biotechnology: How Crop Development has Evolved 1 of 7 9/7/2012 4:45 PM History of Agricultural Biotechnology: How Crop Development has Evolved By: Wieczorek Ania (Dept of Tropical Plant and Soil Sciences, University of Hi at Manoa) & Wright Mark (Dept

More information

Contracting in Agriculture: Making the Right Decision

Contracting in Agriculture: Making the Right Decision Page 1 of 15 Contracting in Agriculture: Making the Right Decision Information for Farmers from USDA Introduction Production Contracts A Different Type of Business Decision for Farmers Why Do More Companies

More information

Organic Goods: Healthy Food or Expensive Fodder?

Organic Goods: Healthy Food or Expensive Fodder? Organic Goods: Healthy Food or Expensive Fodder? By: Bryan Naelitz, Patricia Betonio, Audrey Crawford, Eisik Fleischman, Victoria Grabinski, Laura McDiarmid, Summer Scott, Jordan Wade Healthcare Belief

More information

What is Organic Food? Organic Foods. The Purpose: Organic Farming

What is Organic Food? Organic Foods. The Purpose: Organic Farming Organic Foods By: Kaelen Shay Trinh Tran Caroline Mockridge What is Organic Food? No preservatives No added chemicals/pesticides/fertilizers No anti-biotics or growth hormones The Purpose: Organic Farming

More information

Page 1 Bayer CropScience Increase of productivity in Agriculture

Page 1 Bayer CropScience Increase of productivity in Agriculture Bayer CropScience Increase of productivity in Agriculture Dr. F. Zurmühlen Frankfurt 16.7.2014 Page 1 Bayer CropScience Increase of productivity in Agriculture 114,928 employees Full year sales: 40.2 billion

More information

PIONEER HI-BRED INTERNATIONAL, INC.

PIONEER HI-BRED INTERNATIONAL, INC. D E V E L O P I N G A S U P E R I O R M A I Z E H Y B R I D PIONEER HI-BRED INTERNATIONAL, INC. A HISTORY OF INNOVATION When commercial hybrid maize was first introduced, few people realized its potential

More information

CLUB of BOLOGNA. November 15-16, 2014 Bologna EIMA International 2014

CLUB of BOLOGNA. November 15-16, 2014 Bologna EIMA International 2014 CLUB of BOLOGNA 25 th Annual Meeting of the Club of Bologna November 15-16, 2014 Bologna EIMA International 2014 Intensive Farming Systems: Efficiency and Innovation for Sustainability The Case of North

More information

Are You Worried? Luke 12:22-34. Lesson 8

Are You Worried? Luke 12:22-34. Lesson 8 Exploring Faith Bible Study Series Are You Worried? Luke 12:22-34 Lesson 8 Lesson Purpose: The purpose of this lesson is to offer people an option in place of continual worrying. The world today has plenty

More information

A Few Video Tips for Shooting a Welcome Video

A Few Video Tips for Shooting a Welcome Video A Few Video Tips for Shooting a Welcome Video Script Tips: Your Welcome Video will be a reusable learning object. Therefore, your script should avoid mentioning "time-sensitive" information, such as the

More information

Why Your Business Needs a Website: Ten Reasons. Contact Us: 727.542.3592 Info@intensiveonlinemarketers.com

Why Your Business Needs a Website: Ten Reasons. Contact Us: 727.542.3592 Info@intensiveonlinemarketers.com Why Your Business Needs a Website: Ten Reasons Contact Us: 727.542.3592 Info@intensiveonlinemarketers.com Reason 1: Does Your Competition Have a Website? As the owner of a small business, you understand

More information

Caleb Small, Student Participant Chaminade College Preparatory St. Louis, Missouri. The Advantages of Biotechnology in East Africa

Caleb Small, Student Participant Chaminade College Preparatory St. Louis, Missouri. The Advantages of Biotechnology in East Africa Caleb Small, Student Participant Chaminade College Preparatory St. Louis, Missouri The Advantages of Biotechnology in East Africa Approximately 14% percent of the entire world s population is undernourished.

More information

Farming. In the Standard Grade Geography exam there are three types of farming you need to know about arable, livestock and mixed.

Farming. In the Standard Grade Geography exam there are three types of farming you need to know about arable, livestock and mixed. Types of Farming In the Standard Grade Geography exam there are three types of farming you need to know about arable, livestock and mixed. Arable farms are ones where the main way of making money is by

More information

Can you beat the System? Simulation game

Can you beat the System? Simulation game Can you beat the System? Simulation game This is a simulation game to introduce pupils to the idea of a global food system, by putting pupils in the position of a small farmer producing food which goes

More information

Impacts of Genetically-Modified Crops and Seeds on Farmers

Impacts of Genetically-Modified Crops and Seeds on Farmers Impacts of Genetically-Modified Crops and Seeds on Farmers Prepared by David Kruft, Legal Research Assistant November 2001 I. Introduction The agriculture industry has traditionally been supportive of

More information

What is Biodiversity? Come with us on a journey

What is Biodiversity? Come with us on a journey What is Biodiversity? Come with us on a journey From the hot arid deserts of the Sahara, through the lush green rainforests of the Amazon, to the ocean depths and bright corals, our natural world is a

More information

#1: Threshold and Injury Calculations the Theory. #2: Putting Economic Injury Levels and Action Thresholds to Use. Related Topics

#1: Threshold and Injury Calculations the Theory. #2: Putting Economic Injury Levels and Action Thresholds to Use. Related Topics Module #4 What is a Threshold? p. 1 www.nysaes.cornell.edu/ipmnet/ne.ipm.region What is a Threshold? By James VanKirk Overview Concept Activity Handouts The Economic Injury Level and the Action Threshold

More information

Nutrition Education Competencies Aligned with the California Health Education Content Standards

Nutrition Education Competencies Aligned with the California Health Education Content Standards Nutrition Education Competencies Aligned with the California Health Education Content Standards Center for Nutrition in Schools Department of Nutrition University of California, Davis Project funded by

More information

BRIEF #1: What is Agricultural Biotechnology?

BRIEF #1: What is Agricultural Biotechnology? BRIEF #1 agricultural biotechnology What is Agricultural Biotechnology? For about 10,000 years, farmers have been improving wild plants and animals through the selection and breeding of desirable characteristics.

More information

Down-to-earth people

Down-to-earth people Down-to-earth people Why does a farmer farm? Planting a seed every spring takes a bit of optimism hoping the seed will grow and mature, that there will be enough rain but not a storm to wipe out the crop,

More information

DESCRIPTION LEARNING OUTCOMES

DESCRIPTION LEARNING OUTCOMES Science Grade 10-12 Classroom Individual Reading DESCRIPTION Pesticides are used extensively to control pests, which can harm crops and other plant species. There are many different types of pesticides.

More information

Adoption of GE Crops by U.S. Farmers Increases Steadily

Adoption of GE Crops by U.S. Farmers Increases Steadily Adoption of GE Crops by U.S. Farmers Increases Steadily Farmers are more likely to adopt new practices and technologies if they expect to benefit from them. Benefits are usually thought of in monetary

More information

Zakia Nasrin Metro Early College High School Columbus, Ohio. Biotechnology, the Solution to the Food Crisis in India

Zakia Nasrin Metro Early College High School Columbus, Ohio. Biotechnology, the Solution to the Food Crisis in India Zakia Nasrin Metro Early College High School Columbus, Ohio Biotechnology, the Solution to the Food Crisis in India Every country has experienced food insecurity, especially over the last few decades.

More information

Multiple Choice Questions

Multiple Choice Questions Chapter 15 IMPROVEMENT IN FOOD RESOURCES Multiple Choice Questions 1. Which one is an oil yielding plant among the following? (a) Lentil (b) Sunflower (c) Cauliflower (d) Hibiscus 2. Which one is not a

More information

Of Mice and Men. Quiz Answers

Of Mice and Men. Quiz Answers Of Mice and Men Quiz Answers 1. Explain the rela:onship between George and Lennie. Why is George traveling with Lennie? George loves Lennie although he knows Lennie holds him back. Lennie is traveling

More information

Introduction to Integrated Pest Management. John C. Wise, Ph.D. Michigan State University MSU Trevor Nichols Research Complex

Introduction to Integrated Pest Management. John C. Wise, Ph.D. Michigan State University MSU Trevor Nichols Research Complex Introduction to Integrated Pest Management John C. Wise, Ph.D. Michigan State University MSU Trevor Nichols Research Complex What is Integrated Pest Management? Integrated Pest Management (IPM) New concept;

More information

How to Simplify Your Life

How to Simplify Your Life Life Reference: Matthew 6:24-34 Focus Verse: But seek ye first the kingdom of God, and his righteousness: and all these things shall be added unto you (Matthew 6:33). Stuff! Wonderful stuff everywhere!

More information

AP Stats- Mrs. Daniel Chapter 4 MC Practice

AP Stats- Mrs. Daniel Chapter 4 MC Practice AP Stats- Mrs. Daniel Chapter 4 MC Practice Name: 1. Archaeologists plan to examine a sample of 2-meter-square plots near an ancient Greek city for artifacts visible in the ground. They choose separate

More information

Pest Management - Holistic Pest Control?

Pest Management - Holistic Pest Control? Pest Management - Holistic Pest Control? 2. Modern control tactics and the birth of IPM The action of parasites, predators, and pathogens in maintaining another organism s density at a lower average than

More information

You re One in Seven Billion!

You re One in Seven Billion! You re One in Seven Billion! We ve all heard the expression, You re one in a million!. With the ever-growing number of people on the planet, it might be more accurate to say, You re one in seven billion!

More information

GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISMS: THE FACTS

GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISMS: THE FACTS GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISMS: THE FACTS Sydney Hayter February 28, 2015 What is today about? Clearly define genetic modification Public perception State facts on genetically modified organisms Unbiased

More information

Brought to you by. Technology changes fast. From new apps to digital marketing, it can feel impossible to keep up.

Brought to you by. Technology changes fast. From new apps to digital marketing, it can feel impossible to keep up. 1 Brought to you by Technology changes fast. From new apps to digital marketing, it can feel impossible to keep up. At The Paperless Agent, our mission is to help real estate professionals from all experience

More information

Kenya Horticulture Competitiveness Project

Kenya Horticulture Competitiveness Project Kenya Horticulture Competitiveness Project Case Study: Soil Analysis Soil testing and SMS-based fertilizer recommendations for smallholder farmers Meet Mary, a smallholder vegetable farmer in Western region,

More information

ARSENIC IN FOOD AND AGRICULTURE

ARSENIC IN FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ARSENIC IN FOOD AND AGRICULTURE An Assessment by the 11. Executive summary 12. Situation statement 13. Human health impact 14. Arsenic levels Rice and other Food 15. Rice Production 16. Understanding organic

More information

What are you. worried about? Looking Deeper

What are you. worried about? Looking Deeper What are you worried about? Looking Deeper Looking Deeper What are you worried about? Some of us lie awake at night worrying about family members, health, finances or a thousand other things. Worry can

More information

Technological Advances in the Medical Field, Human Health and Aging

Technological Advances in the Medical Field, Human Health and Aging 1 EGN 1033 Technology Humans and Society Technological Advances in the Medical Field, Human Health and Aging Tatiana Fuentes Daniel Garcia Beatriz Varela Florida International University 10555 West Flagler

More information

2012 Executive Summary

2012 Executive Summary The International Food Information Council Foundation s 2012 Food & Health Survey takes an extensive look at what Americans are doing regarding their eating and health habits and food safety practices.

More information

Strawberry Lesson Goals Objectives Lesson Activities Other Strawberry Activities

Strawberry Lesson Goals Objectives Lesson Activities Other Strawberry Activities Strawberry Lesson Goals Students will... Increase their familiarity with strawberries. Eat strawberries when offered them. Increase their awareness of the environmental benefits of composting. Increase

More information

1. You feel like you don t have control over your mind or physical body.

1. You feel like you don t have control over your mind or physical body. 9 Signs Your Anxiety Is A Problem (And What You Can Do About It) Everyone experiences anxiety it s part of life. But when anxiety becomes extreme or excessive it can start to impact your life in negative

More information

DuPont Renewably Sourced Materials

DuPont Renewably Sourced Materials DuPont Renewably Sourced Materials The Renewably Sourced Process DuPont is bringing nature and science together to convert agricultural crop to high performance materials and fuels. Microbes transform

More information

The BioAg Alliance: Unleashing the Potential of Microbial Solutions in Agriculture

The BioAg Alliance: Unleashing the Potential of Microbial Solutions in Agriculture The BioAg Alliance: Unleashing the Potential of Microbial Solutions in Agriculture Novozymes & Monsanto JOINT MEDIA ANNOUNCEMENT DECEMBER 10, 2013 Forward-Looking Statements As It Pertains to Novozymes:

More information

Post-Freedom to Farm Shifts in Regional Production Patterns

Post-Freedom to Farm Shifts in Regional Production Patterns Post-Freedom to Farm Shifts in Regional Production Patterns AFPC Working Paper 01-6 David P. Anderson James W. Richardson Edward G. Smith Agricultural and Food Policy Center Department of Agricultural

More information

DROUGHT TOLERANT CORN STEVE PADGETTE JOHN GOETTE CHAN MAZOUR

DROUGHT TOLERANT CORN STEVE PADGETTE JOHN GOETTE CHAN MAZOUR DROUGHT TOLERANT CORN STEVE PADGETTE JOHN GOETTE CHAN MAZOUR Forward Looking Statements Certain statements contained in this presentation are "forward-looking statements," such as statements concerning

More information

CROP PRODUCTION SERVICES, INC. Implementation of Sustainable Agricultural Initiatives

CROP PRODUCTION SERVICES, INC. Implementation of Sustainable Agricultural Initiatives CROP PRODUCTION SERVICES, INC. Implementation of Sustainable Agricultural Initiatives TFI and FIRT Fertilizer Outlook and Technology Conference Presenter: Bill Grillo November 2010 TOPICS Crop Production

More information

The Agricultural Biotechnology Industry

The Agricultural Biotechnology Industry The Agricultural Biotechnology Industry Introduction Biotechnology is bringing about dramatic changes in the agriculture sector. It is presented as a means to feed the world, help the environment and much

More information

Scientific Misconceptions, Barriers, and Opportunities for Wider Acceptance of Agricultural Biotechnology

Scientific Misconceptions, Barriers, and Opportunities for Wider Acceptance of Agricultural Biotechnology Scientific Misconceptions, Barriers, and Opportunities for Wider Acceptance of Agricultural Biotechnology Dr. Alan McHughen, Professor, Department of Botany and Plant Sciences, University of California

More information

Table of Contents. Introduction Consumers Want Social Proof Before Making a Purchase... 5

Table of Contents. Introduction Consumers Want Social Proof Before Making a Purchase... 5 1 Table of Contents Introduction... 3 Consumers Want Social Proof Before Making a Purchase... 5 Increases Brand Awareness and Positive Online Visibility... 7 If You Don t Control Your Online Brand, Someone

More information

I. Features of Monopolistic Competition

I. Features of Monopolistic Competition University of Pacific-Economics 53 Lecture Notes #15 I. Features of Monopolistic Competition Like the name suggests, a monopolistically competitive industry has features from both a monopoly market structure

More information

Troubles with Thresholds Bill Leask Canadian Seed Trade Association November, 2000

Troubles with Thresholds Bill Leask Canadian Seed Trade Association November, 2000 Troubles with Thresholds Bill Leask Canadian Seed Trade Association November, 2000 Introduction For decades, national seed certification procedures have been largely harmonized to facilitate international

More information

Recombinant Paper Plasmids Cut-and-Paste Biotechnology

Recombinant Paper Plasmids Cut-and-Paste Biotechnology Recombinant Paper Plasmids Cut-and-Paste Biotechnology OBJECTIVE / RIONALE Bioengineers make news using recombinant DNA techniques in hopes of curing genetic diseases, better understanding cancer, and

More information

Another Helper (John 14:12-31)

Another Helper (John 14:12-31) 1 Another Helper (John 14:12-31) If you love me, you will keep my commands. And I will ask the father, and he will give you another helper, to be with you forever. This other helper is the spirit of truth.

More information

Lesson Overview. Biodiversity. Lesson Overview. 6.3 Biodiversity

Lesson Overview. Biodiversity. Lesson Overview. 6.3 Biodiversity Lesson Overview 6.3 6.3 Objectives Define biodiversity and explain its value. Identify current threats to biodiversity. Describe how biodiversity can be preserved. THINK ABOUT IT From multicolored coral

More information

Target Keyword: Page Title: API Integration

Target Keyword: Page Title: API Integration Target Keyword: Integrating Grain Accounting With Real-Time Ag Market Data Page Title: See How Easily You Can Integrate Grain Accounting With Real-Time Ag Market Data The price of grain is volatile, changing

More information

Humidtropics Kiboga/Kyankwanzi Soybean production training

Humidtropics Kiboga/Kyankwanzi Soybean production training Humidtropics Kiboga/Kyankwanzi Soybean production training Makerere University and Humidtropics collaboration Soybean Seed production Training of Kiboga-Kyankwanzi platform members in Soybean Seed Production

More information

Understanding the Non-GMO Ingredient Market

Understanding the Non-GMO Ingredient Market Understanding the Non-GMO Ingredient Market Who we are: Top Health Ingredients (THI) is a supplier and distributor of unique and novel ingredients to the food, beverage and supplement markets globally.

More information

How to Influence EU Public Opinion about Agricultural Biotechnology

How to Influence EU Public Opinion about Agricultural Biotechnology THIS REPORT CONTAINS ASSESSMENTS OF COMMODITY AND TRADE ISSUES MADE BY USDA STAFF AND NOT NECESSARILY STATEMENTS OF OFFICIAL U.S. GOVERNMENT POLICY Voluntary - Public Italy Post: Rome Date: 1/11/2010 GAIN

More information

S.W.O.T. Analysis Identifying Your Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats

S.W.O.T. Analysis Identifying Your Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats S.W.O.T. Analysis Identifying Your Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats A SWOT analysis is a term used to describe a tool that is effective in identifying your Strengths and Weaknesses, and

More information

A Brief Analysis of the Impact of NAFTA on the United States and Mexico. Animesh Singh Professor P. Dasgupta Saint Peter s College November 15, 2011.

A Brief Analysis of the Impact of NAFTA on the United States and Mexico. Animesh Singh Professor P. Dasgupta Saint Peter s College November 15, 2011. 1 A Brief Analysis of the Impact of NAFTA on the United States and Mexico. Animesh Singh Professor P. Dasgupta Saint Peter s College November 15, 2011. 2 1. Background NAFTA, the North American Free Trade

More information

Tackling Europe s bee decline The role veterinarians can play. Federation of Veterinarians of Europe

Tackling Europe s bee decline The role veterinarians can play. Federation of Veterinarians of Europe Tackling Europe s bee decline The role veterinarians can play Federation of Veterinarians of Europe Bees : minute animals, massive importance Bees have a lot of responsibility on their tiny striped backs.

More information

Integrated Pest Management

Integrated Pest Management Chapter 2 Integrated Pest Management In This Chapter Keywords After learning the information in this chapter, you will be able to: 1. Define Integrated Pest Management (IPM). 2. List and describe the 5

More information

OBJECTIVES: LESSON 5. Lungs of the Earth. Page 1. Overview: Suggested Time: Resources/Materials: Activities/Procedures:

OBJECTIVES: LESSON 5. Lungs of the Earth. Page 1. Overview: Suggested Time: Resources/Materials: Activities/Procedures: 0 LESSON 5 Lungs of the Subjects: Social Studies/Civics, Science, Communication Arts Overview: In this lesson, students learn about the little publicized connection between tobacco production and deforestation,

More information

Child labor in the Ivory Coast

Child labor in the Ivory Coast Child labor in the Ivory Coast Child labor is... work that deprives children of their childhood, their potential and their dignity, in addition to being harmful to physical and mental development. Made

More information