Hydrogen activities in the Arnhem Nijmegen City Region. Dr. P.A. Veenhuizen HAN University Arnhem

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1 Hydrogen activities in the Arnhem Nijmegen City Region Dr. P.A. Veenhuizen HAN University Arnhem

2 Key players in the Arnhem Nijmegen Area Nedstack Hygear Silent Motor Company HyET Foundation Hydrogen Enterprise Gelderland Municipality of Arnhem Arnhem-Nijmegen City region HAN University

3 Fuel Cell Technology

4 Nedstack PEM Power plant 120 kw peak power

5 Nedstack & Hytruck

6 Nedstack & Hytruck Fuel cell systeem for citytruck Net Rated Power: 16 kw Build: 2008 TÜV approved Currently integration and field tests running.

7 Hygear; steamreforming

8 Silent Motor Company

9 HyET HyET = Hydrogen Efficiency Technologies Break-through technology for efficient hydrogen compression and compression energy harvesting to/from 700 Bar ch2 Compression losses reduced >50% compared to piston compressor Hydrogen fuel consumption >15% lower because compression energy is regained Working principle is proven (lab-scale) and patented

10 Foundation Hydrogen Enterprise Gelderland Development and usage of an electrical powered auto bus. For at least two years three passenger cars and a rally-car, modified by the HAN, will drive on hydrogen. Realisation and exploiting an public hydrogen gas station in Arnhem for at least two years.

11 Arnhem Municipality Arnhem Hydrogen city Arnhem Nijmegen City Region Hydrogen: no time to waste

12 HAN University? HAN is University of Applied Sciences in Arnhem and Nijmegen Automotive Lab is located in Arnhem students, bachelor and master Automotive department (with history of 65 years) of 800 students

13 HAN University Vehicle mechatronics: Electric, hybrid and fuel cell technology Alternative fuels Mobility technology Vehicle dynamics HMI

14 HAN Automotive Master education Research groups Bacheloreducation Knowledge transfer Students + Companies and civil society knowledge transfer Post Bachelor education Contract education Applied Research Laboratoria

15

16 Hydrogen in internal combustion engine Subaru Impreza Turbo in Honda

17 Fork lift truck Modify electric fork lift truck into fuel cell fork lift truck

18 Introduction Why a fork lift truck? Relatively low average power Mobile but with a small range (easy fueling) Battery operated trucks available Partners available (stack supplier, system integrator, truck supplier, end user) Why at all? Educate young engineers on technologies to come Educate ourselves Design, realize and test a FC fork lift truck

19 Lab power demand measurements Power [kw] time [sec] Function Peak power 1 Lifting without weight 19.1 kw 2 Lifting of 2000 kg 20.8 kw 3 Acceleration (driving) with 2000 kg 26.4 kw 4 Driving at constant speed 17.5 kw 5 Deceleration with 2000 kg kw 6 Acceleration with lifting with 2000 kg 34.8 kw 7 Standby power usage 0.55 kw

20 Field tests by regular operators 30 Typical acceleration Power [kw] time [minutes] Power [kw] Brake energy recuperation Time [sec]

21 Conclusions from field and lab tests Power demand strongly fluctuating Braking power can partially be recovered energy buffer Power rating of Fuel Cell stack may be much lower than maximum power demand

22 Power train layout proposal Supercap Fuel cell stack Inverter Elektromotor H 2 Traction Air/O 2 Production Storage Delivery

23 Component sizing by simulation Duty Cycle 1 P I U E Battery load profile Scope 1 P_EM U_SC PI control FC + SC parallel U_SC P_in_FC P_in_SC P_SC Supercapacitor P_in P_out Electrical power link P_in Fuel Cell P_FC P_fuel kg H 2 Energy Energy Consumption Detailed loss modeling Resistive losses in the supercapacitor modules Compressor losses Hydrogen pump losses Water circulation pump losses Cooling fan losses kg H e+007 Energy [J]

24 Simulation results Power [kw] Power Demand Fuel Cell Power Supercap Power Time [sec]

25 Simulation results Comparing with a system w/o supercap as energy buffer: Stack size can be reduced to ~8 kwe Fuel consumption is however increased considerably due to higher average stack load Stack is loaded at a more constant level; depending on supercap size and energy management strategy

26 Next steps Complete design specifications Noise Water (vapor) management Fueling Fail safe/limp home Standards and regulations Power up/power down procedures DC-DC converter technology Energy management strategy Design, procure, assemble, test, modify, test,

27 H 2 Laboratory of HAN University Component testing Research facility Energymanagement of fuel cell stacks (Ph-D, TU/e)

28 Now implemented in Fuel cell luggage tractor on Schiphol

29 Electric drive train retrofit for Burton 2CV platform kit car Retrofit into electric vehicle 120 kmh top speed, >100 km range Safety!

30 Fuel cell vehicle realization Fiat Doblo, pre production vehicle Now in system design phase Still funding needed for hardware

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