1 Opera, a European worth Félix Losada October, Deloitte S.L.
2 Contents Our ambition 3 Scope and methodology of the study 4 The Economic Impact of Opera 5 Opera as spending engine 10 The importance of the audience spending 16 Recommendations Deloitte S.L.
3 Our ambition To analyse the economic scope of opera by considering all agents involved in order to increase the knowledge about its value, and to provide theatres and festivals with new strategies and tools that will enhance their wider benefits, so we can move to actions based on scientific findings rather than anecdotes. To know the audience profile and their spending profile linked to the tickets. To determine and measure the scale of economic value contribution and positive impact of opera theatres and festivals into society To make society aware of the benefits of opera institutions, by making it feel a crucial and integrated element of these institutions and filling citizens with pride. To approach new strategies of collaboration which promote and encourage higher joint expenditure of the audience to create complementary revenue streams Deloitte S.L.
4 Scope and methodology of the study The representative sample of 12 participating theatres of diverse cultures, sizes and from different cities of the old continent, ensures the validity of the study. In Europe Austria, Volksoper Wien Belgium, La Monnaie Finland, Finnish National Opera France, Opéra de Rouen Haute Normandie Germany, Badisches Staatstheater Karlsruhe Ireland, Wexford Opera Festival Italy, Teatro Comunale of Bologna Netherlands, Amsterdam Music Theatre Russia, Perm Opera and Ballet Theatre Spain, Festival Castell de Peralada Spain, Teatro Real Sweden, Royal Swedish Opera A total of 3,873 European spectators surveyed During the events hosted in season by theatres in order to obtain their spending profile and considering the audience and with 95% confidence level. The study also includes the spending made by the foreign artists in accommodation, transportation and food and beverages due to their participation in the programme of the season Deloitte S.L.
5 The economic impact of Opera 2012 Deloitte S.L.
6 The average economic impact of opera theatres and festivals is: An average of 918 jobs is maintained An average of 40.4 mill. of GDP contribution is generated An average of 5.7 mill. of tax return is generated Theatres Festivals 72% comes from the own activity of the theatres 30% comes from the own activity of the festivals 27% of the impact is due to the theatres audience 67% of the impact is due to the festivals audience 1 % of the impact is generated by the spending of the foreign artists 3 % of the impact is generated by the spending of the foreign artists Deloitte S.L.
7 // // Contribution to European GDP An average contribution to GDP of 40.4 mill. is generated by opera theatres. Average mill. of GPD generated Theatres that spend the most are not the ones that generate the greatest GDP contribution, but are those whose spectator spends the most in joint expenses % 18% 1 % % 2.6 are generated in GDP for each euro spent by festivals in opera activities % 81% 1 % % 68% 3 % 29% By the audience By foreign singers & staff By Opera theatres or festivals Practice that generates the highest GDP contribution Theatres that generate a highmedium GDP contribution Theatres that generate a mediumlow GDP contribution GDP contribution generated by festivals Deloitte S.L.
8 // // Generation of tax return An average of 5.7 mill. of tax return is generated by opera theatres. Average tax return generated ,2mill. The spending made by the spectator in the hospitality industry generates an average tax return of 620,000 per opera season to each theatre % % 1 % 2.1 Festivals generate an average of 1.2 mill. of tax return. It means almost ¼ of the amount generated by the theatres per season 14% % 1 54% 81% 67% 85% 3 % By the audience Practice that generates the highest tax return Theatres that generate a highmedium tax return Theatres that generate a mediumlow tax return 30% Tax return generated by festivals By foreign singers & staff By Opera theatres or festivals Deloitte S.L.
9 // // Contribution to the maintenance of the employment in Europe An average of 918 jobs is maintained by opera theatres. Average jobs maintained 2,199 2,000 1, % % 1 % % Festivals maintain 263 jobs of average in Europe. And 6.9 jobs are maintained for each full time employee. With a very concrete activity gathered in only 2 months, festivals get to generate 1/3 of the employment that a theatre creates with an annual season. 1 % % 78% 65% 3 % 82% 100 By the audience 32% By foreign singers & staff Practice that creates the highest number of jobs Theatres that create a highmedium number of jobs Theatres that create a mediumlow number of jobs Number of jobs created by festivals By Opera theatres or festivals Deloitte S.L.
10 Opera as spending engine 2012 Deloitte S.L.
11 About the theatres The average expenditure of opera theatres is 25.9 mill. The average expenditure of opera festivals is 3.5 mill. Expenditure in opera theatres (in million of ) Expenditure in opera festivals (in million of ) 2 mill. 2 mill. 8% 0.8 mill. 8% 3% 0.1 mill. 0.3 mill. 9% 3% 0.3 mill. 9% 2.4 mill. 2.7 mill. 9% 10% 62% 16.1 mill. 0.5 mill. 14% 14% 51% 1.8 mill. 0.5 mill. Salaries Theatre/ premises costs Production costs - labour Production costs - materials Other (including Marketing, publications, etc.) Technical costs Salaries Production costs - materials Theatre/ premises costs Other (including Marketing, publications, etc.) Production costs - labour Technical costs Deloitte S.L.
12 About the theatres Theatres whose activity is higher than 75% of their total opera productions generate a higher associated spending of the spectator, and therefore, a higher economic impact. 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Best Practice Higher-Medium Medium-Lower Total salaries Production costs - labour Production costs - materials Technical costs Theatre/premises costs Other Deloitte S.L.
13 // GDP contribution of the theatres by industry The theatres that generate the highest contribution to GDP are those which have an impact in accommodation and food services sector of more than 24% The theatres with an organizational model aimed to the international audience contribute with more than 30 mill. to the hospitality industry Deloitte S.L.
14 // Tax return Opera theatres activity generates nearly half a million in taxes in the transport industry as well as in health and social work Best Practice Average Highest impact Average Lowest impact Average Total Deloitte S.L.
15 // Creation of employment by industry Each opera theatre holds over 900 jobs annually, 200 belong to accommodation and 191 to retail trade Opera theatres activity generates nearly 100 jobs in Public Administration and business services Best Practice Average Highest impact Average Lowest impact Average Total Deloitte S.L.
16 The importance of the audience spending 2012 Deloitte S.L.
17 Audience profile Audience profile The Opera European spectator profile is a 54 year old woman with higher education residing in the same city of the theatre, and who attends the theatre by car and is usually accompanied by her partner (36%). The average audience expenditure per person is 159. BOX OFFICE Woman (60%) of 54 years old of average and with higher education (77%) Resides in the same city of the theatre (61%) Travels by car (37%) The average ticket cost is of average spent in associated expenses Deloitte S.L.
18 Audience spending profile by Accommodation and Transportation 13% of spectators require accommodation Tickets 37% of spectators use their own car to get to the theatre Grooming & appearance Accommodation 68% of international spectators stay in 3-5 star hotels Merchandising & gifts Opera Transportation 41% of spectators use more than one mean of public transportation 38 of average spent by person in accommodation, considering both requiring or not accommodation Food & Beverages inside the theatre Food & Beverages outside the theatre 11 of average spent by person in transportation Deloitte S.L.
19 Audience spending profile by food & drinks Outside the theatre Inside the theatre 48% of spectators spend in food and drinks outside the theatre Tickets 63% of spectators consume snacks and drinks inside the theatre Grooming & appearance Accommodation 23% of spectators spend more than 20 in food and drinks Merchandising & gifts Opera Transportation 12% of spectators spend more than 20 in snacks and drinks Food & Beverages inside the theatre Food & Beverages outside the theatre 17 of average spent in food and drinks by person 11 of average spent in snacks and drinks by person Deloitte S.L.
20 Audience spending profile by merchandising and grooming & appearance 21% of spectators buys merchandising and gifts Tickets 16% of spectators spend money in grooming and appearance Grooming & appearance Accommodation 8% of spectators spends more than 20 in merchandising and gifts Merchandising & gifts Opera Transportation 4% of spectators spend more than 100 in grooming and appearance Food & Beverages inside the theatre Food & Beverages outside the theatre 4 of average spent in merchandising and gifts by person 15 of average spent by person in grooming and appearance Deloitte S.L.
21 Audience profile Gender Although the majority of spectators are women, men spend an average of 26 more than women when attending to the opera. While women spend 147 in total, men spend 173. Regarding the expenditure in food and beverages, the differences are more significant: men spend 5 more than women Male spectators have an average spending of 17 as they use car, while female decrease the spending to 5 as they attend by subway Men spend an average of 39 in accommodation, opposite to 36 of women Although it may seem that women give more importance to grooming and appearance, men spend 1.1 more Men spend 1.7 more than women in merchandising & gifts The average of women (60%) attending opera is higher than the average of men (40%) Male spectators use car as the main mean of transportation, while females attend to the theatre by public transportation (40%) The average spent by men (70 ) in tickets is higher than by women (57 ) BOX OFFICE JOINT EXPENSES Male: a total of 103 Female: a total of Deloitte S.L.
22 Audience profile Age Spectators around 50 buy the most expensive season tickets (106 ) and spend more in snacks and drinks inside the theatre (12 ). Spectators between 51 and 65 years old spend over 18 in grooming and appearance, almost 3 above average Spectators older than 80 years old are who most buy merchandising and gifts, with an average cost of 4.5 The greatest spending in snacks and drinks is made by viewers between 36 and 50 years old outside the theatre (22 ) The average expenditure of the audience between 36 and 65 years old is 2 more because they move by taxi The average spending in accommodation of those spectators older than 80 years old is the highest one: 51 The main audience of opera theatres is between 51 and 65 years old (31%) Spectators between 51 and 65 years old are mainly local audience (29%) Spectators younger than 35 years old move mainly by subway (30%), while the oldest move by car (40%) The greatest spending in season tickets is made by spectators between 51 and 65 years old (106 ) BOX OFFICE Audience under 26 years old spend only 33 in tickets and 42 in joint expenses Deloitte S.L.
23 // // Audience profile Type of ticket Attending to the performance with a season ticket implies a higher cost (41 more) than buying an individual ticket Total expenses Ticket Price Best Practice High - Medium Medium - Low Festivals Average Who buys the season ticket? 30% of spectators attend to opera with season tickets, which is the most expensive. However, they spend less in joint expenses, mainly in accommodation as they are local audience (67%). Spectators buying a single ticket are who spend the most in joint expenses: an average of almost 100 BOX OFFICE Single ticket buyers spend an average of 11 more than the average, specially in snacks & drinks outside the theatre and in grooming and appearance Deloitte S.L.
24 Audience profile International audience The international spectator is the one who buys the most expensive tickets and therefore generates a higher joint expenditure in accommodation, being theatres and festivals with an international audience profile above 25% the ones that generate the greatest economic impact. The average spending in accommodation is highly different by origin of the spectator: 7.5 times more than the rest of the audience, being 302 for international spectators facing 40 of the rest of the audience Non-local spectators spend slightly more in transportation, 19 International spectators spend the most in drinks and beverages (44 ), being their spending double than local ones. While local spectators do not even spend 10 in grooming & appearance, regional, national and international spectators spend 23 of average International spectators spend the most in merchandising and gifts: 11, 5.6 more than the rest of spectators Foreign spectator spends an average of 478 during its stay 6 % of the audience of opera theatres and festivals is international, with an average stay of 5 days. International spectator buys the most expensive tickets (74 ) BOX OFFICE 404 of average in joint expenses during its stay International audience overcomes by 10 times more the average spending of the local audience Deloitte S.L.
25 Audience spending profile by concept In order to succeed, opera theatres should focus in their added value: the high purchasing power of their audience and guided within the theatre. International spectator generates more economic impact in GDP terms for its joint expenses, although national audience buys the most expensive tickets 4 Merchandising & gifts 11 Snacks & drinks 15 Grooming & appearance 17 Snacks & drinks 63 Tickets 63 Tickets 11 Transportation 38 Accommodation 96 Joint expenses 78 average expenses inside the theatre 81 average expenses outside the theatre 159 in total Deloitte S.L.
26 Programme season for weekends Weekend programming allows to offer more expensive tickets on Fridays and Saturdays and gets the greatest economic impact. Thursday is the day of the week which gathers the highest percentage of audience under 35 years old. Friday s joint spending is doubled and it is almost three times the ticket price On Mondays the average age is 72 years old. Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday 150,41 Tuesday is the only day in which season tickets purchase (45%) exceeds single tickets (43%). 86,22 48,61 79,82 91,72 113,96 47,22 63 Tickets Deloitte S.L.
27 Schedule of the performances The performance schedule that generates higher income from tickets and joint expenses is the time range starting at 20:00 hours and lasting around or less than 3 hours. 3 pm 6 pm 7 pm 8 pm Deloitte S.L. 45
28 Recommendations To communicate and share the economic impact of opera: the need for public support to realize public value. #1 #2 To take care of male spectator of 51 years old, who spends the most in joint expenses To design an international programme from the agreements of several opera theatres and festivals around the same city, region or country #3 To establish partnerships with local restaurants, bars, hotels, to foster the expenditure of the audience #4 To create alliances with leading opera theatres and festivals Deloitte S.L.
29 Appendix 1 Accommodation and food service activities Rest Retail trade except of motor vehicles and motorcycles; repair of personal and household goods Recreational cultural and sporting activities Post and telecommunications Electricity gas steam and hot water domply Real estate activities Financial intermediation except insurance and pension funding Land transport: transport via pipelines Publishing printing and reproduction of recorded media Health and social work Education Construction Computer and related activities Other business activities Warehousing and auxiliary transport activities; activities of travel agencies Public administration and defense; compulsory social security Manufacture of wearing apparel; dressing and dyeing of fur Insurance and pension funding except compulsory social security Deloitte S.L.
30 Deloitte refers to one or more of Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu Limited, a UK private company limited by guarantee, and its network of member firms, each of which is a legally separate and independent entity. Please see for a detailed description of the legal structure of Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu Limited and its member firms. Deloitte provides audit, tax, consulting, and financial advisory services to public and private clients spanning multiple industries. With a globally connected network of member firms in more than 150 countries, Deloitte brings world-class capabilities and deep local expertise to help clients succeed wherever they operate. Deloitte's approximately 170,000 professionals are committed to becoming the standard of excellence. This publication contains general information only, and none of Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu Limited, its member firms, or their related entities (collectively, the Deloitte Network ) is, by means of this publication, rendering professional advice or services. Before making any decision or taking any action that may affect your finances or your business, you should consult a qualified professional adviser. No entity in the Deloitte Network shall be responsible for any loss whatsoever sustained by any person who relies on this publication.
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