Kon Production Technology Special Topics (2016): 3D-Printing Design for AM and Digital Manufacturing Prof. Jouni Partanen Aalto University

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1 : Design for AM and Digital Manufacturing Prof. Jouni Partanen Aalto University

2 Ko Prod Tech Special Topics (2016): Lectures on Thursdays , Lecture hall K1-213 Jan 7 Feb 11 Feb 25 Mar 31 Course assignment: Hands-on-Training Groups of 4 students? Exercises will be done in ADDLAB 3D-design and 3D-printing 3D object and final report Course Assistant: Meng Wang Jan 23 Mar 15 Final Exam on Thursday April 7 at , Lecture hall K1-216

3 Ko Prod Tech Special Topics (2016): Tentative Schedule for Lectures Jan 7: Course Introduction Jan 14: History and AM Process Chain Jan 21: Powder Bed Fusion Jan 28: Design for AM and Digital Manufacturing Feb 4: Inigo Flores Ituarte: Software for Feb 11: Material Extrusion and Directed Energy Deposition Feb 18: no lecture Feb 25: Pekka Lehtinen: Vat Photopolymerization Mar 3: Printing Processes and Sheet Lamination Mar 10: Mika Salmi: Medical Applications of AM Mar 17: Business Aspects Mar 24: Ashish Mohite: in Architectural and Industrial Design Mar 31: Post Processing and Secondary Processes Apr 7: Final Exam

4 DFx - Design for manufacture - Design for assembly - Design for manufacture and assembly, DFM - Communication among the team - Information about manufacturing processes - Factory floor capabilities - Customer requirements - Design for additive manufacturing, DFAM - Customized design based upon personspecific geometric data - Low volume manufacturing - Easy integration of design changes - Simplyfied product assembly

5 Case Injection Molding - Undercuts - Geometric details - Tight tolerances - Draft angles...

6 Design for function

7 Weight Optimization Lattice structures In, complex objects can be made as easily as simple ones complexity comes for free

8 Cooling Channels Close to Surface Conformal cooling rticle.aspx?id=19126&taxid=1426

9 Airplane door hinge weight optimization

10 DFAM - Manufacturing constraints - Features regardless of their position in the part - Minimization of number of parts - consolidation - Elimination of fasteners - Maximization of product performance - Complex geometries - Customized geometry - To ignore all of the constraints imposed by conventional manufacturing processes

11 AM Features Overhangs Conformal cooling and functionality Lattice structures Assemblies Wall thickness Weight optimizaton for function

12 Dentistry Applications Invisible teeth aligners

13 Dentistry Applications Imprint taken at the dentist office Conversion to digital form Transferred to Pakistan for treatment steps

14 Dentistry Applications Treatment steps transferred to Mexico for manufacturing More than 20 large frame SLA systems in one place Optimized process specifically to teeth archs Process data collection for quality control Automatic pallet handling

15 Dentistry Applications Invisible aligners are made by thermal forming Patient receives typically 2 times 15 sets New set changed every 2 weeks

16 Dentistry Applications Customized drilling guides

17 Hearing Aids In-air hearing aids Siemens and Phonak were the 2 large companies involved in the initial development Better fit using 3D-printing: - originally high return rates Laser sintering was original 3D-printing technology developed for hearing aids Photos courtesy Materialise, Belgium

18 Hearing Aids Incorporating the electronics inside the hearing aid important consideration Different air channels different electronic boards 3D-printing => better fit for patient and electronics

19 Hearing Aids Stereolithography is replacing laser sintering in hearing aids Better feature definition SL materials match earlier developed materials

20 Aerospace: Boeing

21 Fuel Injection Nozzles for Future GE Jet Engines About 15 individual pieces combined into one 30 % lighter structure Better performance 6/features/additive-manufacturing-at-ge-aviation.html

22 Camera Gimball Mounts for Helicopters DST Control Sweden uses FDM 50 units per year Parts consolidation No tooling available

23 Jewelry industry: Kalevala Koru Kalevala Koru uses 3D-printing in production

24 Football Nike: Vapor Laser Talon football shoe 3D-printed plate

25 Direct Digital Manufacturing Drivers Unique Shapes: parts with customized shapes. Complex Shapes: improved performance. Lot Size of One: economical to fabricate customized parts. Fast Turnaround: save time and costs; increase customer satisfaction. Digital Manufacturing: precisely duplicate CAD model. Digital Record: have reusable dataset. Electronic Spare Parts : fabricate spare parts on demand, rather than holding inventory. No Hard Tooling: no need to design, fabricate, and inventory tools; economical low-volume production.

26 Unique Shapes

27 Complex Shapes Better fuel injection nozzles:

28 Lot Size of One Customized lamps generated parametrically from an automatic desing rule - ADDLAB

29 Fast Turnaround Universal Robots Early production no delay to wait for tooling

30 Precisely dublicate CAD model used by Formula 1 car teams

31 Digital Record You can easily regenerate a replacement custom hearing aid in the case the original is lost

32 Electronic Spare Parts You do not need to keep tools or huge inventories for product that have expected life times for tens of years

33 No Hard Tooling Relatively low volume

34 Time evaluation Preparation time T P Warm-up time T W Build time T B Cool-down time T C Part removal time T R Total Production time T T

35 Time evaluation Build time can be calculated by summing over all layers Layer time T L For example 10 cm high part with layer thickness of 0,2 mm has N L = 500 layers Layer time T L can be divided into 2 components: Solid forming (Application time) time T A Scanning time (laser processes) or exposure time Extrusion time Printing time Other layer time T O Platform movement Recoating time Waiting for getting strength to the material

36 Time evaluation Solid forming (Application time) time T A Proportional to the area of cross section A CS currently processed can be evaluted as follows (Example - Material extrusion): w E T A = A CS s E w E s E Example: A CS = 1 cm 2, w E = 0,5 mm, s E = 5 cm/s => T A = 4 s

37 Time evaluation Total production time comparison between 1 part and 20 parts Example: T P = 0,2 h, T W = 0,5 h, T C = 0,5 h, T R = 0,2 h, T A = 2 s Case 1 part T L = 6 s => T B = 500 x 6 s = 0,8 h => T T = 2,2 h Case 20 parts T L = 82 s => T B = 500 x 82 s = 11,4 h => T T = 12,8 h

38 Cost evaluation Total production cost comparison between 1 part and 20 parts Weight of each part about 10 g and material cost 200 /kg => Material cost per part 2 Amortization cost for equipment in 5 years Expected usage 4000 in a year => Equipment usage cost 5 /h Case 1 part Equipment cost 11 => Total cost 13 Case 20 parts Equipment cost 64 => Total cost 104 => Total cost per part 4,6

39 Number of parts per build For cost reasons you want to build as many parts as you can

40 Breakeven Quantity Simple comparison between cost of injection molding and 3D-printing Injection molding of plastics: The most important factor is the cost of the injection moldiing tool C CT (mold, cavity and core) In this simple analysis the cost of tool is independent of number of parts it used to make The second cost factor is all other costs related to production of each parts (proportional to the number of parts, N) C CP The cost per part C IMP = C CP + C CT /N Additive Manufacturing We assume that the cost per part for AM C AMP is independent of number of parts

41 Breakeven Quantity Example: C CT = 10 k, C CP = 0,2, C AMP = 4,2, Injection molding Cost per part, AM Breakeven Point Number of parts

42 Breakeven quantity N B = N B = 2300 C CT C AMP - C CP N B = Breakeven quantity C AMP = Cost of part, Additive Manufacturing C CP = Cost of part, conventional manufacturing C CT = Cost of tooling

43 Thank you! Jouni Partanen Aalto University Department of Mechanical Engineering

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