1 A R C H I V E S O F M E T A L L U R G Y A N D M A T E R I A L S Volume Issue 2 A. ŠTRKALJ, A. RADENOVIĆ,J.MALINA THE USE OF METALLURGICAL WASTE MATERIAL FROM ALUMINIUM PRODUCTION FOR THE REMOVAL OF CHROMIUM (VI) IONS FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION WYKORZYSTANIE METALURGICZNEGO ODPADU MATERIAŁU Z PRODUKCJI ALUMINIUM DO USUWANIA JONÓW CHROMU (VI) Z ROZTWORU WODNEGO Carbon anode dust originates from the baking and transport process of anodes for aluminium production and is not recycled. This is non-toxic waste material and can be used as valuable secondary raw material in many processes. In this paper, removal of chromium (VI) ions from aqueous solution by adsorption on carbon anode dust was investigated. The diffusion of chromium ions were tested for film diffusion model, intraparticle diffusion model and heterogeneous diffusion model. It was found that the adsorption process is controlled by intraparticle diffusion. The obtained adsorption capacity for Cr (VI) ions is a good indicator of carbon anode dust potential for use in aqueous sorption system. Keywords: adsorption, carbon anode dust, chromium (VI) ions, diffusion Pył z and węglowych pochodzi z procesu wypalania i transportu anod do produkcji aluminium i nie jest poddawany procesowi recyklingu. Jest to nietoksyczny odpad materiału i może być wykorzystywany jako cenny surowy materiał wtórny w wielu procesach. W niniejszej pracy badano proces usuwania jonów chromu (VI) z roztworu wodnego przez adsorbcję na pyle z anod węglowych. Przeprowadzono dyfuzję jonów chromu przy użyciu warstwowego, wewnątrz-cząsteczkowgo i heterogernicznego modelu procesu dyfuzji. Stwierdzono, że proces adsorbcji (pochłaniania powierzchniowego) jonów chromu jest kontrolowany przez dyfuzję wewnątrz-cząsteczkową. Uzyskana wydajność (pojemność) adsorbcji dla jonów chromu (VI) jest dobrym wskaźnikiem potencjalnego wykorzystania pyłu and weglowych w systemie wodnej sorpcji. 1. Introduction In the Hall-Heroult process aluminium is produced by the electrolytic reduction of alumina dissolved in an electrolyte containing cryolite. For the reduction process, carbon anode has been used. The remaining parts of spent anodes from the aluminium production are called anode butts. There are two anode butts, the raw anode butts and the pre-baked anode butts. The cleaned anode butts are crushed and reused in the production of new anodes (about 20% of the anode is recycled). The carbon anode dust originates from the baking and transport process of anodes and is not recycled [1, 2]. This is non-toxic waste material that has to be disposed on the specially arranged depots. This process is rarely applied; it is expensive and requires a lot of space. Therefore, it is necessary to find its use as a secondary raw material. Many toxic heavy metals have been discharged to the environment as industrial wastes, causing serious soil and water pollution. Heavy metals are not biodegradable and tend to accumulate as metalloorganic complexes in living organisms, which increase their concentrations in biological cycles. One of the most dangerous types of contamination is the continuous, primarily of Cr, Pb, Ni, Zn, Cu and Cd ions. Many of these metals are essential for life in trace concentrations, but higher concentrations have various toxic effects . Chromium is a toxic metal and widely used in the industry. Of its two oxidation states, Cr (III) and Cr (VI), the hexavalent form is considered to be a group A human carcinogen because of its mutagenic and carcinogenic properties . Extensive use of chromium, e.g., in electroplating, tanning, textile dyeing and as biocide in cooling water of power plants invariably results in discharge of chromium containing effluents. The convectional physical-chemical methods for removal of dissolved chromium ions from effluents include reverse osmosis, ion exchange, reduction precipitation and lime coagulation [5-7], which are very expensive. Among the treatment processes which were UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB, FACULTY OF METALLURGY, ALEJA NARODNIH HEROJA 3, SISAK, CROATIA
2 450 available, adsorption on low cost solid waste materials has been widely used [8, 9]. The adsorption phenomenon has still been found economically appealing for the removal of toxic metals from waste water. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the kinetic model that can be used to describe the chromium ions uptake within heterogeneous and porous particles of carbon anode dust. 2. Materials and methods 2.1. Characterization of sample Carbon anode dust (CAD), which is solid residue from aluminium production, was used as adsorbent. The chemical composition of carbon anode dust was determined by standard chemical analysis and results in wt. % are: C, 94.49; Si, 1.73; Al, 1.69; S, 1.50; Fe, 0.34; Na, 0.089; V, 0.072; Ca, 0.044; and Ni, %. The X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD) of the sample was obtained using a power X-ray diffractometer (CuK α radiation, 2θ =2-60 ). Fig. 1 shows the result of the diffraction analysis. Fig. 1. XRD pattern of the CAD sample The FTIR spectrum was obtained on spectrometer. The sample CAD (10 mg) was ground with 200 mg of KBr in a mortar pressed into 10 mm diameter disk. The FTIR spectrum was measured between 450 and 4000 cm 1. Fig. 2 shows the result of this analysis. The FTIR spectrum CAD showed peaks at 3800, 3600, 2400, 1500, 1000 and 660 cm 1 which may be assigned to CH, OH, phenolic units, unsaturated groups like alkene, amide and aromaticly group, respectively. All experiments have been made with a fraction of particle size of to 0.2 mm.
3 %T cm Fig. 2. FTIR spectrum of the CAD sample 2.2. Batch kinetic studies The removal of chromium (VI) ions was studied by batch tests. A stock solution of Cr (VI) was prepared by dissolving the appropriate amount K 2 Cr 2 O 7 salt in 1000 ml deionized water. This solution was diluted as required to obtain the standard solutions. The initial concentrations of the solutions contained 50, 200 and 350 mgl 1 of Cr (VI) ions. The mixtures of g CAD sample and 25 ml of prepared chromium solutions of different initial concentrations were shaken 120 min at a temperature of 20 C in the closed vessels. Following filtration of the suspensions, the concentration chromium ions in the filtrate was measured with a UV/VIS spectrophotometer by developing reddish-violet color with 1,5-diphenylcarbazide as a complexing agent . 3. Results of kinetics studies and discussion Fig. 3 shows the results of Cr (VI) uptake per unit mass of the CAD with time. During the substitution process, exchangeable acid functional groups of CAD are replaced by chromium ions, resulting in a decrease of chromium concentration in solution vs. time. Functional groups, such as carboxylic, hydroxyl, lactones etc. (Fig. 2) were present in the CAD. These functional groups have a high affinity for Cr (VI) ions and are the main sites for chromium ions adsorption. The acid groups reacted with H + ions from water solution formed positive hidronium ions such -COOH + 2,-OH+ 2,=C=H+. Based on the equilibrium constants for Cr(VI) hydrolysis, HCrO 4 and CrO 2 4 are the two major species in the solution . and CrO2 4 on CAD were as fol- Adsorption of HCrO 4 lows : CAD-COOH + 2 +HCrO 4 CAD-COOH 2 CrO 4 +H+ CAD-COOH + 2 +CrO2 4 CAD-COOH CrO 4 +H+ CAD-OH + 2 +HCrO 4 CAD-OH 2 CrO 4 +H+ CAD-OH 2 ++CrO 2 4 CAD-OH CrO 4 +H+ Equilibration in examined system was achieved in approximately 60 min. The optimum adsorption capacity of CAD was compared with adsorption capacity of other adsorbent reported in literature and given in Table 1. The obtained adsorption capacity for Cr (VI) ions is a good indicator of carbon anode dust potential for use in aqueous adsorption system .
4 452 2, 2 0 ppm 200 ppm 3 0 ppm Cr (mg/g) 1, 1 0, Time (min) Fig. 3. The amount of chromium ions bounded versus time TABLE 1 Comparation of adsorption capacity of different adsorbents for removal Cr (VI) ions from aqueous solutions Adsorbents Adsorption capacity (mg/g) References Commercial pure carbon 7.61  Commercial pure carbon  Soya cake 0.29  Sawdust 3.30  Coconut shell 2.00  Rise husk 45.6  Carbon anode dust 2.00 This paper The adsorbate transport from the solution phase to the surface of the adsorbent particles occurs in several steps. The overall adsorption process may be controlled either by one or more steps, e.g. film or external diffusion, intraparticle diffusion, surface diffusion and adsorption on the pore surface, or a combination of more than one step. In a rapidly stirred batch adsorption, the diffusive mass transfer can be related by an apparent diffusion coefficient which will fit the experimental adsorption rate data. Generally, a process is diffusion controlled if its rate is dependent upon the rate at which components diffuse towards one another . For interpretation of experimental data it is necessary to identify the steps in the adsorption process which determine the overall removal rate. The ingenious mathematical treatment of Boyd et al  and Reichenberg  to distinguish among all diffusion models laid the foundation of significant advancement in the field of adsorption and ion exchange. The relative film diffusion rate is the slope of the linear part of curves expressed by Eq. 1 : ln (1 F) = 3Dc t, (1) rδc a where is: F fraction on chromium ions bonded at time, (t), dimensionless, D diffusion coefficient, mg/l, c concentration of chromium ions in the solution, mg/l, c a concentration of exchangeable chromium ions on the CAD, mg/l, t time, min, r particle radius, cm, δ thickness of the film, cm. The value F is calculated from the experimental results : F = c 0 c t, (2) c 0 c e where is: c 0 initial concentration of chromium ions in the solution, mg/l, c t concentration of chromium ions in the solution at time t, mg/l, c e equilibrium concentration of chromium ions in the solution, mg/l. The rate laws for the film diffusion controlled exchange have been derived using the following assumptions: a) diffusion across the film is fast in comparation with concentration changes at film boundaries; b) the film is treated as a planar layer and its thickness is much smaller than the particle radius . The heterogenous diffusion model assumes variations of the diffusion rate and can be expressed by Eq. (3) : F = 1 ln t + C, (3) δ
5 453 where is: δ ln(τ m /τ i ), dimensionless, τ -s 2 /D, min, τ m maximum value of τ, min, τ i minimum value of τ, min, s maximum length of the diffusion path, m, t- time, min, C integration constant. The diffusion through the particle surface can be expressed by the relation : ( ) 1/2 D F = a + t 1/2, (4) r 2 where a is the dimensionless constant. Fig. 4 shows plot of F versus t 1/2. F 1,2 1 0,8 0, y = 0,1 24x - 0,2108 R 2 = 0,9947 y = 0,14 8x - 0,0783 R 2 =0,9938 y = 0,1208x + 0,11 R 2 = 0,98 0,4 0,2 0 mg/l 200 mg/l 3 0 mg/l t 1/2 Fig. 4. The linear dependences of fraction of chromium ions bonded vs t 1/2 for the intraparticle diffusion model The values of correlation coefficient (R 2 ), ranging from to The intraparticle diffusion could involve the simultaneous adsorption in surface layers, macroporous and microporous diffusion. In adsorption process this diffusion can be accepted as a rate determining step when if the plots of F versus t 1/2 show linearity . As can be seen from Fig. 4, because of the linear distribution of the plots of the curves from the origin, intraparticle diffusion can be accepted as the rate determining step for the adsorption of the chromium ions on CAD. The pore diffusion coefficient, D, was calculated using Eq. 4 and is given in Table 2. TABLE 2 Pore diffusion coefficient for intraparcticle diffusion model c 0 (mg/l) D(cm 2 /min) 50 6, , , If the values of intraparticle diffusion rate constants were found to be in the range of to cm 2 /s pore diffusion is not significant [27, 28]. However, since diffusion coefficient for adsorption chromium ions on CAD is out of this range, intraparticle diffusion is significant. 4. Conclusion The obtained adsorption capacity for Cr (VI) ions is a good indicator of carbon anode dust potential for use in aqueous adsorption system. Diffusion depends on mobility and concentration chromium ions and increases with a decrease in initial concentration. Equilibration in examined system is achieved in approximately 60 min. The diffusion chromium ions were tested for film diffusion model, intraparticle diffusion model and heterogeneous diffusion model. It was found that the adsorption process controlled by intraparticle diffusion. Because of the linear distribution of the plots of the curves from the origin, intraparticle diffusion can be accepted as the rate determining step for the adsorption of the chromium ions studied on CAD.
6 454 Diffusion coefficient for adsorption chromium ions on CAD is not in the range between of to cm 2 /s and intraparticle diffusion is significant. REFERENCES  K. G r j o t h e i m, H. K v a n d e, Introduction to Aluminium Electrolysis, Understanding the Hall-Heroult Process, Aluminium-Verlag, D usseldorf (1993).  J. Thonstad, P. Fellner, G. M. Haarberg, J. H i v e š, H. K v a n d e, A. S t e r t e n, Aluminium Electrolysis Fundamentals of the Hall-Heroult Process, Aluminium-Verlag Marketing Kommunikation GmbH, Düsseldorf (2001).  E. P e h l i v a n, G. A r s l a n, Fuel Process. Technol. 88, (2007).  G.F. Nordberg,B.A. Fowler,M. Nordberg, L. F r i b e r g, Handbook of Toxicology of Metals, European Environment Agency, Copenhagen (2005).  E. D e m i r b a s, M. K o b y a, S. Öncel,S. Senc a n, Bioresour. Technol. 84, (2002).  H. Parab,S. Joshi,N. Shenoy,A. Lali,U.S. S a r m a, M. S u d e r s a n a n, Process Biochem. 41, (2006).  V.K. Gupta,C.K. Jain,I. Ali,M. Sharma, V. K. S a i n i, Water Res. 37, (2003).  Z. Zeledon-Toruno, C. Lao-Luque, M. S o l e - S a r d a n s, J. Chem. Technol. and Biotechnol. 80, (2005).  V. G o p a l, K. P. E l a n g o, J. Hazard. Mater. 141, (2007).  J. F r i e s, H. G e t r o s, Organic Reagents for Trace Analysis. E. Merck Darmstadt (1977).  S. X. L i u, X. C h e n, X. Y. C h e n, Z. F. L i u, H. L. W a n g, J. Hazard. Mater. 141, (2007).  A. Š t r k a l j, Sorption of Cr(VI) and Ni(II) ions from aqueous solution on the carbon anode dust, Dissertation, Faculty of Metallurgy, Sisak (2009).  D. C. S ha r ma, C. F. Fo rst er, Water SA 22, (1996).  N. D e n e s h v a r, D. S a l v a r i, A. A b e r, J. Hazard. Mater. B94, (2002).  H. C. P. S r i v a s t a v a, R. P. M a t h u r, I. M e h r o - t r a, Environ. Technol. Lett. 7, (1986).  G. J. Alaerts, V. Jitjaturunt, P. Kelderm a n, Water Sci. Technol. 21, (1989).  K. Srinivasan, N. Balasubramanian, T. V. R a m a k h r i s n a, J. Environ. Health 30, (1988).  I. D. M a l l, V. C. S r i v a s t a v a, N. K. A g a r w a l, J. Hazard. Mater. 143, (2007).  G.E. Boyd,A.W. Adamson,L.S. Mayers,J. Am. Chem. Soc. 69, (1947).  D. Reichenberg,J.Am.Chem.Soc.75, (1953).  D. C. K. K o, J. F. P o r t e r, G. M c K a y, Water Res. 35, (2001).  L. Ć u r k o v i ć, M. T r g o, A. R a s - tovčan-mioč, N. Vukojević Medvid o v i ć, Indian J. Chem. Technol. 16, (2009).  D. D o. D u o n d, Adsorption Analysis: Equilibria and Kinetics, Imperial College Press, London (1998).  C. A h a r o n i, D. L. S p a r k s, S. L e v i n s o n, I. Ravina,SoilSci.Soc.Am.J.55, (1991).  I. A. W. T a n, A. L. A h m a d, B. H. H a m e e d, J. Hazard. Mater. 154, (2008).  N. Ü n l u, M. E r s o z, Sep. Purif. Technol. 52, (2007).  M. Ahmaruzzaman,D.K. Sharma,J.Colloid Interface Sci. 287, (2005).  B. N o r o o z i, G. A. S o r i a l, H. B a h r a m i, M. A r a m i, J. Hazard. Mater. B139, (2007). Received: 20 December 2009.
i Acid-base Chemistry of Aquatic Systems An introduction to the chemistry of acid-base equilibria with emphasis on the carbon dioxide system in natural waters eith A. Hunter Professor in Chemistry Department
GE Healthcare High-throughput Process Development with PreDictor Plates Principles and Methods imagination at work Handbooks from GE Healthcare GST Gene Fusion System Handbook 18-1157-58 Affinity Chromatography
AS/A Level GCE GCE Chemistry A OCR Advanced Subsidiary GCE in Chemistry A H034 OCR Advanced GCE in Chemistry A H434 version 4 September 2013 QAN 500/2425/5 QAN 500/2347/0 Contents 1 About these Qualifications
Process monitoring in biogas plants Bernhard Drosg Technical Brochure written by: Bernhard Drosg Copyright 2013 IEA Bioenergy. All rights reserved. First electronic edition produced in 2013 A catalogue
Methods to Develop Inhalation Cancer Risk Estimates for Chromium and Nickel Compounds EPA-452/R-11-012 October 2011 Methods to Develop Inhalation Cancer Risk Estimates for Chromium and Nickel Compounds
DRINKING WATER THROUGH RECYCLING The benefits and costs of SUPPLying direct to the distribution system A REPORT OF A STUdy BY THE AUSTRALIAN ACADEMY OF TEChnOLOGICAL SCIENCES And ENGINEERING (ATSE) DRINKING
Unit 8 Chemical Equilibrium Focusing on Acid-Base Systems unit 8Chemical Equilibrium Chemical Equilibrium Focusing on Acid Base Systems Equilibrium describes any condition or situation of balance. We recognize
Sample Holding Time Reevaluation R E S E A R C H A N D D E V E L O P M E N T EPA/600/R-05/124 October 2005 www.epa.gov Sample Holding Time Reevaluation Contract No. 68-D-99-011 Task Order No. 18 (ORD-01-005)
All Biochars are Not Created Equal, and How to Tell Them Apart Version 2 (October 2009), which supercedes the digital reprint issued at the North American Biochar Conference, Boulder, CO August 2009 Hugh
RISK ASSESSMENT REPORT ZINC OXIDE CAS-No.: 1314-13-2 EINECS-No.: 215-222-5 GENERAL NOTE This document contains: - part I Environment (pages 74) - part II Human Health (pages 162) R073_0805_env RISK ASSESSMENT
Reaction of Aluminum with Water to Produce Hydrogen A Study of Issues Related to the Use of Aluminum for On-Board Vehicular Hydrogen Storage U.S. Department of Energy Page 1 of 26 CONTENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY..
The Other CO 2 -Problem Eight Experiments for Students and Teachers introduction Ocean Acidification - The Other CO 2 Problem The oceans cover more than two-thirds of the planet earth. This vast body of
Wang et al. Nanoscale Research Letters (2015) 10:280 DOI 10.1186/s11671-015-0983-3 NANO EXPRESS Facile Synthesis of Mn-Doped ZnO Porous Nanosheets as Anode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries with a Better
Field Estimation of Soil Water Content A Practical Guide to Methods, Instrumentation and Sensor Technology VIENNA, 2008 TRAINING COURSE SERIES30 TRAINING COURSE SERIES No. 30 Field Estimation of Soil Water
Was t e an d Cli m at e Ch a n g e Global Trends and Strategy Framework U n i t e d Na t i o n s En v i r o n m e n t Pr o g r a m m e Copyright United Nations Environment Programme, 2010 This publication
Acid-base Equilibria and Calculations A Chem1 Reference Text Stephen K. Lower Simon Fraser University Contents 1 Proton donor-acceptor equilibria 4 1.1 The ion product of water... 4 1.2 Acid and base strengths...
J. Phys. Chem. B 1998, 102, 10347-10358 10347 Precision Relative Aggregation Number Determinations of SDS Micelles Using a Spin Probe. A Model of Micelle Surface Hydration Barney L. Bales,* Luis Messina,
INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON HARMONISATION OF TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS FOR REGISTRATION OF PHARMACEUTICALS FOR HUMAN USE ICH HARMONISED TRIPARTITE GUIDELINE VIRAL SAFETY EVALUATION OF BIOTECHNOLOGY PRODUCTS
INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON HARMONISATION OF TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS FOR REGISTRATION OF PHARMACEUTICALS FOR HUMAN USE ICH HARMONISED GUIDELINE GUIDELINE FOR ELEMENTAL IMPURITIES Q3D Current Step 4 version
SRAC Publication No. 4604 July 2008 PR VI Managing High ph in Freshwater Ponds Craig S.Tucker and Louis R. D Abramo 1 The term ph is a mathematical transformation of the hydrogen ion (H + ) concentration;
Chapter 3 - Radioactive Decay Kinetics The number of nuclei in a radioactive sample that disintegrate during a given time interval decreases exponentially with time. Because the nucleus is insulated by
Office of Underground Storage Tanks, Washington, D.C. 20460 March 2012 www.epa.gov/oust Petroleum Hydrocarbons And Chlorinated Solvents Differ In Their Potential For Vapor Intrusion Contents Page Background
When Poor Solubility Becomes an Issue: From Early Stage to Proof of Concept S. Stegemann a, F. Leveiller b, D. Franchi c, H. de Jong d, H. Lindén e,* a Capsugel, Rijksweg 11, 2880 Bornem, Belgium b AstraZeneca,
Quality by Design for ANDAs: An Example for Modified Release Dosage Forms Introduction to the Example This is an example pharmaceutical development report illustrating how ANDA applicants can move toward
Chem. Rev. 1990, 90. 33-72 93 The Sol-Gel Process LARRY L. HENCH' and JON K. WEST Dq"nt of Materials Sc*mce and Enghwrhg, Advanced Materials Research Center, UnimrMy of Floryle. oakresville. Fknm 326 11
GUIDANCE ON EVALUATION OF DEVELOPMENT PROPOSALS ON SITES WHERE METHANE AND CARBON DIOXIDE ARE PRESENT REPORT EDITION NO.: 04 MARCH 2007 TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS ABOUT THE AUTHORS I A 1. INTRODUCTION
Everything You Need to Know About Marine Fuels Everything You Need to Know About Marine Fuels Prepared by Monique B. Vermeire Ghent, Belgium This publication was prepared for Chevron Global Marine Products
Chem. Rev. 2005, 105, 1103 1169 1103 Self-Assembled Monolayers of Thiolates on Metals as a Form of Nanotechnology J. Christopher Love, Lara A. Estroff, Jennah K. Kriebel, Ralph G. Nuzzo,*, and George M.
GUIDANCE DOCUMENT DEVELOPMENT OF SITE-SPECIFIC IMPACT TO GROUND WATER SOIL REMEDIATION STANDARDS USING THE SYNTHETIC PRECIPITATION LEACHING PROCEDURE Version 3.0 - November 2013 New Jersey Department of