Engineering Fundamentals of the Internal Combustion Engine

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1 Engineering Fundamentals of the Internal Combustion Engine SECOND EDITION Willard W. Pulkrabek University of Wisconsin Plattevilie PEARSON Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458

2 Preface Acknowledgments Notation Xlll xvii xix CHAPTER 1 Introduction Introduction Early History Engine Classifications Terminology and Abbreviations Engine Components Basic Engine Cycles Hybrid Vehicles Fuel Cell Vehicles Engine Emissions and Air Pollution CHAPTER 2 Operating Characteristics 2.1 Engine Parameters 2.2 Work 2.3 Mean Effective Pressure 2.4 Torque and Power 2.5 Dynamometers 2.6 Air-Fuel Ratio and Fuel-Air Ratio 2.7 Specific Fuel Consumption 2.8 Engine Efficiencies 2.9 Volumetric Efficiency 2.10 Emissions 2.11 Noise Abatement VII

3 viii Contents CHAPTER 3 Engine Cycles Volt Electrical Systems 2.13 Variable Displacement Cylinder Cutout 2.14 Conclusions Working Equations 3.1 Air-Standard Cycles 3.2 Otto Cycle 3.3 Real Air-Fuel Engine Cycles 3.4 SI Engine Cycle at Part Throttle 3.5 Exhaust Process 3.6 Diesel Cycle 3.7 Dual Cycle 3.8 Comparison of Otto, Diesel, and Dual Cycles 3.9 Miller Cycle 3.10 Comparison of Miller Cycle and Otto Cycle 3.11 Two-Stroke Cycles 3.12 Stirling Cycle 3.13 Lenoir Cycle 3.14 Summary CHAPTER 4 CHAPTERS Thermochemistry and Fuels 4.1 Thermochemistry 4.2 Hydrocarbon Fuels Gasoline 4.3 Some Common Hydrocarbon Components 4.4 Self-Ignition and Octane Number 4.5 Diesel Fuel 4.6 Alternate Fuels 4.7 Conclusions Air and Fuel Induction Intake Manifold Volumetric Efficiency of SI Engines Intake Valves Variable Value Control Fuel Injection

4 ix 5.6 Carburetors 5.7 Supercharging and Turbocharging 5.8 Dual-Fuel Engines 5.9 Intake for Two-Stroke Cycle Engines 5.10 Intake for CI Engines 5.11 Nitrous Oxide 5.12 Conclusions CHAPTER 6 Fluid Motion within Combustion Chamber CHAPTER 7 Combustion CHAPTER 8 Exhaust Flow 6.1 Turbulence 6.2 Swirl 6.3 Squish and Tumble 6.4 Divided Combustion Chambers 6.5 Crevice Flow and Blowby 6.6 Mathematical Models and Computer Simulation 6.7 Internal Combustion Engine Simulation Program 6.8 Conclusions 7.1 Combustion in SI Engines with Homogeneous Air-Fuel Mixtures 7.2 Combustion in Divided Chamber Engines and Stratified Charge Lean-Burn Engines 7.3 Engine Operating Characteristics 7.4 Modern Fast Burn Combustion Chambers 7.5 Combustion in CI Engines 7.6 Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition HCCI 7.7 Variable Compression Ratio 7.8 Summary Blowdown Exhaust Stroke Exhaust Valves Exhaust Temperature Exhaust Manifold

5 8.6 Turbochargers 8.7 Exhaust Gas Recycle EGR 8.8 Tailpipe and Muffler 8.9 Two-Stroke Cycle Engines 8.10 Summary and Conclusions CHAPTER 9 Emissions and Air Pollution 9.1 Air Pollution 9.2 Hydrocarbons (HC) 9.3 Carbon Monoxide (CO) 9.4 Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) 9.5 Particulates 9.6 Other Emissions 9.7 Aftertreatment 9.8 Catalytic Converters 9.9 CI Engines 9.10 Chemical Methods to Reduce Emissions 9.11 Exhaust Gas Recycle EGR 9.12 Nonexhaust Emissions 9.13 Noise Pollution CHAPTER 10 Heat Transfer in Engines 10.1 Energy Distribution 10.2 Engine Temperatures 10.3 Heat Transfer in Intake System 10.4 Heat Transfer in Combustion Chambers 10.5 Heat Transfer in Exhaust System 10.6 Effect of Engine Operating Variables on Heat Transfer 10.7 Air Cooled Engines 10.8 Liquid Cooled Engines 10.9 Oil as a Coolant Adiabatic Engines Some Modern Trends in Engine Cooling Thermal Storage Summary

6 xi CHAPTER 11 Friction and Lubrication Appendix References Mechanical Friction and Lubrication Engine Friction Forces on Piston Engine Lubrication Systems Two-Stroke Cycle Engines Lubricating Oil Oil Filters Crankcase Explosions Summary and Conclusions Answers to Selected Review Index

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