How Matter Emits Light: 1. the Blackbody Radiation

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1 How Matter Emits Light: 1. the Blackbody Radiation

2 Announcements n Quiz # 3 will take place on Thursday, October 20 th ; more infos in the link `quizzes of the website: Please, remember to bring a pencil. n Solutions for Exam # 1 are available from the website, under `Exam n Looking ahead: Homework # 3 is due on Thursday, Oct. 20 th Homework # 4 starts on Thursday, Oct 20 th. It is due on Thursday, Oct. 27 th

3 Assigned Reading n Complete Unit 22; n Unit 23

4 Dimming with distance n As you move away from a light source (a light bulb, a street light, etc.) it becomes dimmer. Why? The energy emitted by the source is constant, but get spread over a larger surface at larger distance

5 Dimming with Distance n As distance R increases, the area over which the total light output L is distributed increases as 4πR 2 n Thus: Brightness = L 4πR 2

6 How Matter and Light Interact

7 Matter interacts with light in four different ways: n Absorption the energy in the photon is absorbed by the matter and turned into thermal energy n E.g., Your hand feels warm in front of a fire. n Reflection no energy is transferred and the photon bounces off in a new (and predictable) direction n E.g., Your bathroom mirror n Transmission no energy is transferred and the photon passes through the matter unchanged. n Emission matter gives off light. Can be done in two different ways, as we will see.

8 Absorption Photon deposits energy into material. Thermal energy is increased and the material gets warmer.

9 Transmission Photon passes through material without depositing energy. Everything remains unchanged.

10 Reflection Photon reflects off of material. No energy is lost but outgoing photon has a new direction.

11 These processes depend on both the material and the wavelength of the photon

12 Survey Question Our eyes work via the process of: 1) absorption 2) reflection 3) transmission 4) emission 5) none of the above

13 Survey Question Leaves are green because: 1) they only emit frequencies corresponding to green 2) they only reflect frequencies corresponding to green 3) they only transmit frequencies corresponding to green 4) they only absorb frequencies corresponding to green

14 The Difference Between Black and White n White light contains all the frequencies of the visible part of the spectrum. n White paint reflects all frequencies of the visible part of the spectrum equally. n Black paint absorbs all frequencies of the visible part of the spectrum equally.

15 Discussion Question Why does NASA paint spacecraft white? 80% Absorption Spectrum of Black Paint Absorption 40% 0% Infrared Visible Absorption Spectrum of White Paint Frequency

16 Emission: How do objects make light in the first place? n There are two principal mechanisms for producing electromagnetic radiation Blackbody radiation Spectral line emission of atoms and molecules Both of these mechanisms result from accelerating/decelerating electrons! I.e., you accelerate or decelerate an electric charge to create EM radiation

17 Light from Objects n We perceive this `acceleration or `deceleration of electrons as `light from objects n Imagine to heat up a piece of metal in a furnace: It will first turn red (temperature raising) then orange then yellow then whitish-blue (highest temperature) The higher the temperature, the bluer the object will appear [you are linking temperature to color!]

18 What happens? n The higher the temperature, the faster the atoms/ molecules in the object are (T ~ v 2 ), thus more energetic collisions n More energetic collisions cause more sudden accelerations/decelerations of the electrons in the matter, thus light with shorter wavelength (higher energy)

19 What does it mean? n Higher Temperature = faster atoms n Faster atoms = more frequent and energetic collisions n more frequent and energetic collisions = more sudden electron accelerations/decel n more sudden electron accelerations/decel = higher photon energy n Higher photon energy = bluer light (E=hc/λ)

20 The color of light emitted is connected to the Temperature

21 How to Measure Temperature n n n

22 Do not confuse Heat and Temperature! n n Temperature refers to the degree of motion of the particles in a material, i.e. the speed with which the particles move (T~kinetic energy~v 2 ). Heat refers to the amount of energy stored in a body as motion among its particles and depends on density as well as temperature.

23 Survey Question: n You heat an oven to 450 F, and you also, separately, boil some water in a pot (boiling point is 212 F). What happens if you stick your hand first in the oven and then in the boiling water [don t do that!]? Why? I get burned in both I only get burned in the oven, because of the higher temperature I only get burned in the water, because of the higher heat

24 Survey Question: n You heat an oven to 450 F, and you also, separately, boil some water in a pot (boiling point is 212 F). What happens if you stick your hand first in the oven and then in the boiling water [don t do that!]? Why? I get burned in both I only get burned in the oven, because of the higher temperature I only get burned in the water, because of the higher heat

25 What is a Blackbody? n An object that can absorb all the radiation falling on it (light at all wavelengths), so it appears black when cold n When it gets heated up, it can also emit radiation at all wavelengths (think of the heated piece of metal). n A stove burner (conducting material), a furnace, planets (radiating solids), and stars (dense gas) are excellent examples of close-to-blackbodies n Materials that are insulating, non-burning, or liquid are usually not good blackbodies

26 Blackbody Radiation n n n n n Take a blackbody (e.g., a piece of metal) and heat it up. After it becomes hot, keep the temperature constant (this is called thermal equilibrium) Then plot, on a graph, the intensity of the radiation (light) emitted as a function of wavelength: this is called a spectrum The shape of the spectrum and the maximum intensity of a Blackbody will only depend on the Temperature Think of Temperature as motion of the atoms/molecules in the blackbody; if T=constant, the motion does not change, and the acceleration/deceleration of the electrons also does not change. The `color of the B.B. will not change. Black Body radiation is the e.m. emission of matter at thermal equilibrium (constant T)

27 One Temperature=one spectrum Blackbodies are excellent thermometers

28 Wien s Law n Hotter objects emit photons with a higher average energy = shorter wavelength. The peak of the blackbody emission spectrum is given by " max = 2.9 #106 T(Kelvin) nm

29 Stefan-Boltzmann Law: n Hotter objects emit more total radiation per unit surface area. n The luminosity of a hot body rises rapidly with Temperature: L=A σt 4

30 Survey Question The graph below shows the blackbody spectra of three different otherwise identical stars. Which of the stars is at the highest temperature? 1) Star A 2) Star B 3) Star C A Relative Intensity B C Wavelength

31 Survey Question: Emitted power = σ A T 4 You are gradually heating two rocks (one larger than the other) in an oven to an extremely high temperature. As they heat up, the rocks emits nearly perfect theoretical blackbody radiation meaning that 1) the larger rock is bluer and brighter. 2) the larger rock is redder and brighter. 3) the larger rock is bluer but the same brightness. 4) the larger rock is the same color but brighter. 5) the larger rock is the same color and brightness.

32 Survey Question: Emitted power = σ A T 4 You are gradually heating two rocks (one larger than the other) in an oven to an extremely high temperature. As they heat up, the rocks emits nearly perfect theoretical blackbody radiation meaning that 1) the larger rock is bluer and brighter. 2) the larger rock is redder and brighter. 3) the larger rock is bluer but the same brightness. 4) the larger rock is the same color but brighter. 5) the larger rock is the same color and brightness.

33 Survey Question The graph below shows the blackbody spectra of two totally different stars. What can you conclude from the plot about the two stars? 1) Star A is hotter but smaller than Star B 2) Star A is hotter and larger than Star B 3) Star A is cooler and larger than Star B 4) Star A is cooler and smaller than Star B Relative Intensity A B Wavelength

34 Summary n Blackbody Radiation (a.k.a. Thermal Radiation) Many objects with a temperature greater than absolute zero (0 K) emit blackbody radiation. Hotter objects emit more total radiation per unit surface area. Hotter objects emit photons with a higher average energy.

35 Survey Question n You emit radiation: True False

36 Survey Question n You emit radiation: True False Your skin feels warm, you emit infrared radiation

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