Samples from Exploring History Through Primary Sources: Pioneers

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1 Samples from Exploring History Through Primary Sources: Pioneers Table of Contents Sample Lessons Sample Primary Sources #3942 Primary Source-Pioneers

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3 How to Use This Product Introduction to Primary Sources Activities Using Primary Sources Photographs Lewis and Clark The Corps of Discovery California Miner The Gold Rush Covered Wagons Inside Covered Wagons Bison Bones Piles of Bones Cowboys The Chisholm Trail Children in the West Pioneer Children Log Cabins Making a Home in the West American Indians Broken Promises Using Primary Sources Peace and Friendship Medal Lewis and Clark Encounter the American Indian New Peace Medals Jefferson Peace Medal Clark s Map Recording the Trip Journals for Jefferson Lewis and Clark Trail Map Sarah Horn s Book Santa Fe Trail Sarah s Adventure Title Page of Sarah Horn s Book Johnnycakes Recipe Card Trail Mix Pioneer Chefs Johnnycakes Recipe Table of Contents Friendship Quilt Pioneer Quilts to Oregon Album Quilt Blocks Pioneer Friendship Quilt Patrick Breen s Diary The Donner Party Disaster Mrs. Murphy s Diary Text of Patrick Breen s Diary The Mormon Trail The Trail of Hope A Different Trail Map of the Mormon Trail Homestead Act Poster Free Land! Advertising Homesteads Text of the Homestead Act Document Based Assessments Going West American Indians on the Reservation Wagon Parts on the Navajo Reservation...65 The Sioux and the Cheyenne Marriage in the West Trails to the West Buildings in the West Stamps The Chuck Wagon Cheyenne, Wyoming, on the Oregon Trail..72 On the Way to School The Past and the Future Meet Appendix About Your CD-ROM Suggested Young-Adult Literature Suggested Websites Document-Based Assessment Rubric Example Answer Key #3942 Exploring History Pioneers 2 Teacher Created Materials, Inc.

4 Using Primary Sources Piles of Bones Bison Bones Standard/Objective Explain how information and experiences may be interpreted by people from diverse cultural perspectives and frames of reference. (NCSS) Students will play charades to show the reasons for killing bison from the perspectives of American Indians, pioneers, and bison runners. Materials Copies of both sides of the Bison Bones photo card; Copies of the historical background information (page 22) Discussion Questions Make a list of at least three words to describe this picture. Why would someone take a picture like this? Do you think the men in this picture are proud of where they are? Using the Primary Source Show the picture of the Bison Bones to the students. Ask the discussion questions above. Then read the historical background information (page 22) to the class. Write these words on the board: pioneers, American Indians, and bison runners. Tell students that these three groups of people hunted the bison. They each had reasons for hunting the bison. Some of their reasons were the same and some were different. Have students look back at the historical background information (page 22) and write down some of those reasons. Next, tell students that they will be playing charades. Each student can decide which character (either the pioneer, the American Indian, or the bison runner) they will act out. They should show how their chosen characters use the bison. Students are not allowed to use words. Their classmates will need to raise their hands to guess which character is being acted out. Assign the activities on the back of the photo card. When completed, have students share their work with the class. Extension Idea Have students find out where the bison are located today in the United States. Then, they can make maps showing where the bison live and plan pretend trips to see the bison. Teacher Created Materials, Inc. 21 #3942 Exploring History Pioneers

5 Using Primary Sources Bison Bones Piles of Bones (cont.) Historical Background Information The pioneers saw bison on the Plains as they traveled west. In fact, there were millions of the animals grazing along the trails. Pioneers killed bison for their meat. The meat was cut into strips and dried into jerky. The pioneers ate it while walking or riding on the trails. Soon there was a demand for bison products in the East. Hunters went to the Plains to make their fortunes. They saw the bison as walking gold pieces. They called themselves bison runners. A good hunter could kill 100 bison a day. Bison hides could be used for shoes, carriage tops, and belts. Each hide was worth $3.00. Bison horns were used for buttons, combs, and knife handles. Their hooves were made into glue. Bones were ground into fertilizer. These parts of the bison were loaded on trains and sent back East. Bison runners stood upwind from the herd to keep the animals from smelling the humans scent. A hunter would aim his gun at the lead bison and shoot from a distance. As the other bison gathered around the dying animal, they were shot, too. The hunters only stopped shooting bison when their guns overheated. At times the bison runners killed too many bison. Those who skinned the animals could not get to all of the dead bison before the meat went bad. In three years, 32 million pounds (14.5 million kg) of bison bones were shipped east. Some people spoke out against these killings. Many bills were sent to Congress, but no laws were passed to stop the hunting. Others believed that killing bison was a way to control the American Indians. Tribes relied on every part of the bison for their survival. If the bison were gone, the tribes would have to rely on the United States for food. It took just a few years for the bison to disappear in the South. As railroads were built across the North, the bison disappeared there as well. It is believed that 30 million bison once roamed the Plains. By 1900, there were less than 100. #3942 Exploring History Pioneers 22 Teacher Created Materials, Inc.

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7 Background Information Bison Bones As the pioneers went west, they saw herds of bison on the plains. Soon there was a demand for bison hides, bones, hooves, and horns in the East. As the railroad was built in the West, more bison were killed. Their meat, bones, and hides were shipped back to factories in the East. This killing upset the American Indian tribes. They survived on the bison using each part. They made tepees, moccasins, and clothes from the hides. Tools were made from the bones. It took just a few years before the bison were gone from the plains. Analyzing the Picture What Do You See? How many bison skulls do you think are in this photo? Why are the men standing with this pile of bones? These bones are stacked near a factory in the East. Why do you think these bones were taken to a factory? Yesterday and Today Before pioneers went west, there were 30 million bison on the plains. There are 200,000 bison in the United States today. They live on farms, on ranches, and in the National Parks. Draw a time line that shows how life changed for the bison. Use these three dates: 1800, 1890, and Writing Focus Fiction What do you think these men would say to each other? Draw speech bubbles on the picture and fill in the bubbles with their conversation. Nonfiction Write two questions that you would like to ask a bison runner. How do you think they would answer your questions? Challenge The American Indians used each part of the bison. What did they make with the tendons? Teacher Created Materials, Inc. #3942 Exploring History Through Primary Sources Pioneers

8 Using Primary Sources Pioneer Quilts to Oregon Friendship Quilt Standard/Objective Explain and give examples of how the arts contribute to the development and transmission of culture. (NCSS) Students will identify various quilt blocks from pioneer times and then create their own pioneer stories using quilt blocks. Materials Copy of the facsimile Friendship Quilt; Copies of the historical background information (page 48); Copies of the student activity sheet, Album Quilt Blocks (page 49); For optional use: Pioneer Friendship Quilt (page 50); Magnifying glasses Discussion Questions Describe the pattern on this quilt. Can you see any signatures on the quilt? If so, can you read the names? Why would people sign a quilt? Using the Primary Source Ask students if they have any quilts at home. Let them describe what the quilts look like: patterns, colors, and who made them. Show the picture of the Friendship Quilt to the students. Tell students that this quilt was made in 1850 during the time the pioneers were going west to Oregon. Let students use magnifying glasses to look closely at the quilt. Ask the discussion questions above. Then read the historical background information (page 48) to the class. Give students additional time to look for signatures on the quilt. (The signatures are in the middle of each quilt block.) Have students brainstorm a list of possible names for pioneer quilt block designs. List their ideas on the board. Pass out the student activity sheet, Quilt Blocks (page 49), and let students match up the quilt blocks with their proper names. Answers from left to right, top to bottom: Sugar Cone, Rail Fence, Little Red School House, Baby Blocks, Log Cabin, Wedding Rings, Simple Four-Patch, Star of the West, and Patience Nine Patch. Then have students work in groups of four to design their own pioneer quilts. First, have them draw their designs on paper. By putting together four of the album quilt blocks, students can make up stories. Each group should decide what story they want their quilt to tell. Using construction paper and the nine patterns on page 49, students should then actually create their quilts. Each student is in charge of making one quilt block for his or her group quilt. Original ideas for new quilt block designs should be encouraged. You can then put all the groups quilts together to create one large album quilt. Extension Idea Have the students use fabric to create album quilts for their own families. Teacher Created Materials, Inc. 47 #3942 Exploring History Pioneers

9 Using Primary Sources Friendship Quilt Pioneer Quilts to Oregon (cont.) Historical Background Information When the first colonists came from England, they brought quilts with them to keep themselves warm. Cloth was expensive in the New World. As their quilts wore out, they began saving scraps of cloth from old clothes. These scraps were cut into triangles, squares, and rectangles. When the scrapes were pieced together, the women noticed that they began to form designs. They called these designs quilt blocks. Many quilt blocks were sewed together to make a quilt. The quilts were then stuffed with leaves, fleece, and rags for padding. As more people came to the New World, the East Coast became crowded. People wanted their own land and farms. They decided to follow the paths discovered by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark. So, they headed west. All the land west of the Rocky Mountains was called Oregon territory. At first, the only ones to go west were explorers, traders, and fur trappers. Some of these men wrote booklets on how to travel west. They even drew rough maps of the region. Pioneers were told that the West was very cold during the winter. As pioneers packed for Oregon, they took their quilts with them to keep themselves warm. While on the trail, they wrapped their valuables in quilts to keep them from breaking. Quilts cushioned the ride in the wagons, too. Quilts were very handy! The pioneers began naming quilt blocks after special events. In a way, these quilts told the stories of the pioneer families. Before a family moved out West, friends gathered together for a party. The family was given a special quilt called an album quilt or a friendship quilt. Each woman sewed and signed her own block on the quilt. These quilts were proudly displayed in the pioneer homes. The quilts reminded them that they were loved and missed back East. #3942 Exploring History Pioneers 48 Teacher Created Materials, Inc.

10 Using Primary Sources Friendship Quilt Name Album Quilt Blocks Background Information Pioneers created quilt blocks that told of their lives in the West. Some made log cabin blocks, windmill blocks, and even broken dishes blocks. In special times, quilts were made for weddings and babies. Each pattern had a meaning and the quilts were sometimes put on display. Activity Directions: Match the quilt blocks below with their correct names. You can choose from the following names: Rail Fence, Baby Blocks, Simple Four-Patch, Patience Nine Patch, Wedding Rings, Sugar Cone, Star of the West, Log Cabin, and Little Red Schoolhouse. Challenge Find a quilt in a book, at your home, or on the Internet. See if you can identify the names of any of the quilt blocks. Teacher Created Materials, Inc. 49 #3942 Exploring History Pioneers

11 Using Primary Sources Pioneer Friendship Quilt Friendship Quilt Courtesy of Michigan State University Museum #3942 Exploring History Pioneers 50 Teacher Created Materials, Inc.

12 Name Marriage in the West Document Based Assessments Courtesy of Sharon Coan Directions: Study the marriage certificate and answer the questions below. 1. When was this couple married? 2. Where was this couple married? 3. Why would this certificate be an important document for this family? Teacher Created Materials, Inc. 67 #3942 Exploring History Pioneers

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