Plastic Bonded Magnets

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1 30 Plastic Bonded Magnets History Development of plastic bonded, injection moulded hard ferrite magnets: End of the 1950s Use: Beginning of the 1960s Development of plastic bonded, injection moulded NdFeB magnets Middle of the 1980s Use: End of the 1980s Production begins at Magnetfabrik Schramberg 1985 Compound preparation Plastic bonded, injected magnets consist of two components: magnet powder (see Hard Ferrite/Rare Earth Magnets) and thermoplastic matrix material (PA 6, PA 11, PA 12, PPS). The plastic granulate and the magnet powder are compounded in a hot kneader or twin screw extruder and then granulated. Type of material Composite material Manufacturing process Injection moulding process Application areas and particular properties Plastic bonded, injection moulded magnets can be shaped in much the same way as technical plastic components. Further mechanical processing of the injection moulded magnets is usually unnecessary.

2 31

3 32 Plastic Bonded Magnets The Path from Raw Material to Magnet Magnet powder Plastic Outgoing goods inspection Plastic bonded magnets are being used in an increasing variety of products. They are produced by embedding hard ferrite or rare earth magnet powder in plastic. First, the magnet powder and the plastic are mixed in special equipment. Then the mixture is pressed or processed in modified injection moulding machines. This process achieves very narrow tolerances, so that postprocessing is normally unnecessary. Magnetising, marking, coating to customer specifications

4 Plastic Bonded Magnets 33 Inspection of incoming raw material Mixing Compounding Injection moulding without magnetic field Injection moulding with magnetic field Pressing with magnetic field

5 34 Plastic Bonded Magnets Magnetic Ratings Compared NdFeB 72/70 pw NdFeB 65/64 pw 600 NdFeB 55/100 pw Remanence B r [] (mean values) HF 16/19 p HF 14/19 p HF 14/23 p HF 12/22 p NdFeB 42/60 p NdFeB 37/60 p NdFeB 40/100 p NdFeB 35/100 p Sm2Co17 45/100 p Sm2Co17 18/100 p 200 HF 9/19 p HF 3/18 p Coercivity H cj [] (mean values) There are two main types of plastic bonded magnets, differentiated by their manufacturing process. Pressed Magnets (pw): Isotropic NdFeB magnets Injection Moulded Magnets (p): Isotropic hard ferrite magnets Anisotropic hard ferrite magnets Isotropic NdFeB magnets Isotropic SmCo magnets Anisotropic SmCo magnets

6 Plastic Bonded Magnets 35 Background Information Manufacture of plastic bonded, pressed NdFeB magnets Plastic bonded NdFeB magnets are axially die pressed. Epoxy resin is used as the plastic. The very high filling ratio (97 % NdFeB powder) produces considerably higher magnetic values than for plastic bonded, injection moulded magnets. The dies are simpler and more economical than dies for injection moulded magnets. Shaping possibilities for plastic bonded, pressed NdFeB magnets Plastic bonded, die pressed magnets can be produced in much more filigreed geometries than sintered magnets. For example, thin-walled rings can be produced with dimensions Ø 20 x Ø 17 x 5 mm and diameter tolerances as narrow as about ± 0.1 mm. Normally, no further mechanical processing is required. However, for especially exacting requirements, the magnets can be ground to even closer tolerances.

7 36 Plastic Bonded Magnets Background Information Manufacture of plastic bonded, injection moulded magnets Injection moulded magnets are typical composite materials, with hard ferrite or rare earth magnet powder embedded in a thermoplastic matrix material (PA 6, PA 11, PA 12, PPS). The concentration of magnetic powder determines the magnetic and mechanical properties. In the manufacturing process, first the magnet compound is produced. Then the plastic granulate and the magnet powder are mixed in a hot kneader or twin screw extruder and then extruded and granulated. The next step is the processing of the compound in modified injection moulding machines. When an anisotropic magnet is injection moulded, during the injection, a magnetic field is applied in axial, radial, diametrical, or multipolar direction. This sets a preferred direction parallel to the field orientation for the magnetic material. Normally, no further mechanical processing is necessary for finished plastic bonded injected magnets. Shaping possibilities for plastic bonded, injection moulded magnets An important advantage of plastic bonded, injection moulded magnets is the enormous range of shapes compatible with this moulding process. In principle, geometries like those achieved for technical plastic components may be implemented. In addition, the high filling ratio (50 % - 70 % by volume) and the associated minimal shrinkage allow for very close tolerances in comparison to normal plastic parts.

8 Plastic Bonded Magnets 37 Background Information Hybrid materials The remanence of injection moulded NdFeB magnets is between 470 and 550 ; for injection moulded hard ferrite magnets, it is between 140 and 295. The range between 295 and 470 can be covered by mixing neodymium and hard ferrite powder. The savings in NdFeB powder use make this an economical variant for high magnet volumes and large quantities. Matrix material The most used plastic matrix in injection moulded magnets are polyamides (PA 6, PA 11, PA 12). Maximum continuous service s lie between about 120 C for PA 11, PA 12 and about 130 C for PA 6. For higher continuous service s up to 200 C, polyphenylene sulphide (PPS) is a high resistant carrier material. For die pressed NdFeB magnets, epoxy resins are used. Mechanical properties Plastic bonded magnets are much more elastic than sintered magnets, but because of the high filling ratio, they do not reach the mechanical properties of technical plastics. For example, it is possible to produce injection mould toothed parts directly with plastic bonded magnetic material. However, they can stand only slight loads, since the friction properties are less favourable than for unfilled plastics. Magnetic ratings Following the standard DIN IEC , the magnetic ratings are summarised in graphs and tables on pages Depending on the magnet and matrix materials, the possible maximum operating s of plastic bonded magnets vary between +120 C and +200 C. All values indicated were determined on standard samples following IEC For unfavourable geometries, especially for thin magnets or tight pole pitches, the excessively fast solidification process or insufficient orienting field strength can cause the material data to be less than optimal. Temperature behaviour Depending on the magnet material, s can influence the magnetic behaviour of even plastic bonded magnets (see behaviour of hard ferrite and rare earth magnets). Chemical properties/corrosion resistance The chemical resistance of plastic bonded magnets, as usual for composite materials, depends on both the plastic matrix and the magnetic filler. The high proportion of plastic surrounding the magnetic material (about 30 %-50 % by volume) gives extra protection to the magnetic particles of injection moulded magnets. Any surface corrosion will only slightly penetrate into the magnetic piece. Pressed magnets have about 10 %-20 % plastic by volume, and in contrast to bonded injection moulded magnets, cannot be produced as sealed pieces. The epoxy resin does cover the magnetic particles, but under corrosive conditions, the pressed magnets show more susceptible surface than injection moulded magnets. For injection moulded hard ferrite and samarium cobalt magnets, the same starting material is used as for the sintered magnets. The corrosion resistance is not very different. However, one should keep in mind that if the environment is very aggressive, even the matrix material can corrode. For plastic bonded NdFeB magnets a special magnetic powder is used, which has a very low ratio of corrosion-sensitive free neodymium. For these magnets, the metallic part is thus definitely more corrosion resistant than in the sintered version. Whether they are plastic bonded and pressed or injection moulded, in the large majority of cases, the magnets can be used without further protection. For critical applications, the chemical properties such as corrosion resistance can be further improved by a plastic coating. >> Note: All material data refer to magnets of about 20 mm diameter and 8 mm height and assume a sufficiently strong orienting magnetic field. For varying geometries, especially for thin walls and lower orienting magnetic field, the magnetic properties will be reduced.

9 38 Plastic Bonded Magnets Material data NdFeB 55/100 pw NdFeB 55/100 pw isotropic, pressed 65/64 pw isotropic, pressed 72/70 pw isotropic, pressed Magnetic values as in DIN IEC Energy product (B H) max. kj/m 3 kj/m Remanence B r C 20 C 100 C coeff. of B r 1) H cb Coercivity H c H cb H cj NdFeB 65/64 pw H cj coeff. of H cj relative permanent permeability µ rec Curie max. operating C C C 20 C 100 C Magnetising field strength >3200 >2800 >2800 Density g/cm NdFeB 72/70 pw -40 C 20 C 100 C 1) In the range from 20 C to 100 C.

10 Plastic Bonded Magnets 39 Material data Sm2Co17 18/100 p 18/100 p isotropic, injection moulded 45/100 p anisotropic, injection moulded Sm2Co17 Magnetic values as in DIN IEC kj/m 3 Energy product kj/m 3 (B H) max Remanence B r -40 C 20 C 100 C 150 C coeff. of B r H cb Sm2Co17 45/100 p H cb Coercivity H cj H c H cj coeff. of H cj relative permanent permeability µ rec C C Curie max. operating -40 C 20 C 100 C 150 C >4500 >4500 Magnetising field strength 6 6 g/cm 3 Density Download >>

11 40 Plastic Bonded Magnets Material data Hard ferrite HF 3/18 p isotropic, injection moulded HF 9/19 p anisotropic, injection moulded HF 12/22 p anisotropic, injection moulded HF 3/18 p Magnetic values as in DIN IEC Energy product (B H) max. kj/m 3 kj/m C -40 C Remanence B r C coeff. of B r H cb HF 9/19 p Coercivity H c H cb H cj H cj coeff. of H cj relative permanent permeability µ rec C 20 C -40 C Curie max. operating C C ) 130 1) 130 1) Density g/cm HF 12/22 p -40 C 20 C 100 C 1) On request also up to 200 C.

12 Plastic Bonded Magnets 41 Material data HF 14/19 p 20 C -40 C HF 14/19 p anisotropic, injection moulded HF 14/23 p anisotropic, injection moulded HF 16/19 p anisotropic, injection moulded Hard ferrite Magnetic values as in DIN IEC C kj/m 3 Energy product kj/m 3 (B H) max Remanence B r coeff. of B r HF 14/23 p H cb H cb Coercivity H cj H c -40 C H cj 20 C coeff. of H cj 100 C relative permanent permeability µ rec C Curie C max. operating g/cm 3 Density HF 16/19 p -40 C 20 C 100 C Download >>

13 42 Plastic Bonded Magnets Material data NdFeB 35/100 p NdFeB 35/100 p isotropic, injection moulded 40/100 p isotropic, injection moulded Magnetic values as in DIN IEC Energy product (B H) max. kj/m 3 kj/m C 20 C 100 C Remanence B r coeff. of B r H cb Coercivity H c H cb H cj NdFeB 40/100 p H cj coeff. of H cj relative permanent permeability µ rec Curie max. operating C C C 20 C 100 C Magnetising field strength >3200 >3200 Density g/cm 3 4,8 5

14 Plastic Bonded Magnets 43 Material data NdFeB 37/60 p 37/60 p isotropic, injection moulded 42/60 p isotropic, injection moulded NdFeB Magnetic values as in DIN IEC kj/m 3 Energy product -40 C 20 C 100 C kj/m 3 (B H) max Remanence B r coeff. of B r H cb NdFeB 42/60 p H cb Coercivity H cj H c H cj coeff. of H cj relative permanent permeability µ rec. -40 C 20 C 100 C C Curie C max. operating >2800 >2800 Magnetising field strength 5 5 g/cm 3 Density Download >>

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